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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

182.0000 Family Ranunculaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 231 (1789), nom. cons.
52 genera, ca. 3700 spp.
Species listed in database: 3818; hybrids: 90
= Aconitaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 216 (1820)
= Actaeaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin 1(16-53): 2, 140 (1823)
= Anemonaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 264, 275 (1818)
= Aquilegiaceae Lilja; Skånes Fl., ed. 2: 375, 861, 979 (1870)
= Calthaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 92 (1820)
= Cimicifugaceae Bromhead; Mag. Nat. Hist., n. s. 4: 336, 338 (1840)
= Clematidaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 134 (1820)
= Delphiniaceae Brenner; Florist. Handb.: 52 (1886)
= Glaucidiaceae M.Tamura; Bot. Mag (Tokyo) 85: 40 (1972)
= Helleboraceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 264, 274 (1818)
= Hydrastidaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 318 (1820)
= Nigellaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 76 (1858)
= Thalictraceae Raf.; Anal. Nat.: 176 (1815)
= Xanthorhizaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin 1(16-53): 2, 145 (1823)
182.5502 Genus Adonis L.; Sp. Pl. 547 (1753)
Distribution: Temperate Eurasia, esp. (17) European part of Russia, Northern Caucasus, W- and E-Siberia
Species listed in database: 35; hybrids: 2
= Adonanthe Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 7: 227 (1838)
= Adoniastrum Schur; Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 15(2): 27 (1877)
= Chrysocyathus Falc.; Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 17 (1839)
= Cosmarium Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 215 (1867)
species :
Adonis aestivalis L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2. 771 (1762)
subspecies :
subsp. aestivalis
Name: Sommer-Adonisröschen (DE), Summer pheasant´s eye (EN)
Distribution: Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin [I], Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hessen [I], +Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Spain; France; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; E-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, W-Iraq: Desert); Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Ghorat, Kabul, Kandahar, Paktia / Khost, Takhar); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, Judean Desert); Jordania (W-Jordania); China (Xinjiang); Tibet; Pakistan (Quetta, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Kurram, Peshawar, Swat, Chitral, Hazara, Pakistani Punjab, Azad Kashmir); Nepal; NW-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand); USA [I] (California [I], Idaho [I], Missouri [I], Montana [I], New York [I], Oregon [I], Utah [I], Washington State [I])
11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LUX POL SLO SWI 12 FRA SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB TUE 14 KRY MLD RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP PAK 73 usa 75 usa 76 usa
Remarks: annua agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis aestivalis f. citrina (Hoffm.) Zapal.; 256 (1909)
= Adonis aestivalis f. cuprea F.Herm.; 46 (1922)
= Adonis aestivalis f. micropetala Zapal.; 256 (1909)
= Adonis aestivalis f. miniata (Jacq.) Zapal.; 256 (1909)
= Adonis aestivalis f. robusta Zapal.; 256 (1909)
= Adonis aestivalis subsp. citrina (Hoffm.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 365 (1834)
= Adonis aestivalis subsp. marginata C.H.Steinb. ex W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 119 (1994)
= Adonis aestivalis subsp. miniata (Jacq.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 365 (1834)
= Adonis aestivalis subvar. flava (Vill.) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France [Rouy & Foucaud] 1: 52 (1893)
= Adonis aestivalis var. citrina (Hoffm.) J.F.Lehm.; 36 (1809)
= Adonis aestivalis var. flava (Vill.) Gren.; 16 (1847)
= Adonis aestivalis var. grandiflora Bogenh.; Wirtg., 5 (1842), nom. inval.
= Adonis aestivalis var. miniata (Jacq.) J.F.Lehm.; 36 (1809)
= Adonis aestivalis var. ochroleuca (Wallr.) Klett & Richt.; 483 (1830)
= Adonis aestivalis var. pallida W.D.J.Koch; 10 (1836)
= Adonis ambigua Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 3: 518 (1828)
= Adonis annua subsp. aestivalis (L.) Ces.; Car. Catt., 285 (1844)
= Adonis annua var. phoenicea L.; Sp. Pl.: 547 (1753)
= Adonis autumnalis M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2: 23 (1808)
= Adonis autumnalis var. citrina Roth; 242 (1788), nom. inval., et 623 (1789)
= Adonis autumnalis var. miniata Londes; 52 (1805), nom. inval.
= Adonis autumnalis var. phoenicea Roth; 242 (1788), nom. inval., et 623 (1789)
= Adonis bienertii Butkov; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Akad. Nauk SSSR 6: 3 (1941) ex Riedl, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 66: 68 (1963)
= Adonis bienertii Nevski; Siskin, Fl. Turkm. 3: 132 (1948)
= Adonis citrina Hoffm.; Fl. Germ. 1: 251 (1800), nom. inval.
= Adonis cristata Stapf; Sitzb. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 39: 74 (1889)
= Adonis dentata Duby ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 4 (1878)
= Adonis flammea Schleich. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 28 (1840)
= Adonis flava var. miniata Schltdl.; 302 (1823)
= Adonis flava var. pallida Schltdl.; 302 (1823)
= Adonis flava Vill.; Cat. Jard. Pl. Strasbourg 247 (1807)
= Adonis inglisii Royle; Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.: 53 (1834)
= Adonis linnaei Sennen; Bol. Soc. Iber. 25: 54 (1926)
= Adonis maculata var. miniata (Jacq.) Wallr.; 270 (1822)
= Adonis maculata var. ochroleuca Wallr.; 271 (1822)
= Adonis maculata var. pallens Wallr.; 271 (1822)
= Adonis maculata Wallr.; Sched. Crit.: 270 (1822), nom. illeg.
= Adonis micrantha DC.; Syst. Nat. [DC.] 1: 222 (1817)
= Adonis miniata Jacq.; Fl. Austriac. 4: 28 (1776)
= Adonis polymorpha Zumagl.; Fl. Pedem. 2: 362 (1864)
= Cosmarium aestivale (L.) Dulac; Fl. Hautes. Pyr. 215 (1867) (non Corda)
subspecies :
subsp. parviflora (DC.) N.Busch; Kusn. & al., Fl. Caucas. Crit. 3(3): 201 (1903)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Turkey; China (N-Xinjiang); SW-Tibet
32 KAZ KGZ TKM UZB 33 ARM GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis aestivalis var. parviflora M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 378 (1819)
= Adonis parviflora (M.Bieb.) Fisch. ex DC.; Prodr. 1: 24 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. squarrosa (Steven) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 4. (1878)
Name: Südliches Sommer-Adonisröschen (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Spain; Baleares; France; Sardinia; Italy; Malta; Croatia; Bulgaria; Greece; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Turkey; Iran; Afghanistan (Kabul, Kunar / Nuristan); Lebanon; Syria; Pakistan (Baluchistan); NW-India (Jammu & Kashmir)
11 ger 12 BAL FRA SAR SPA 13 BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT 14 KRY 20 ALG MOR TUN 34 AFG IRN LEB SYR TUR 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis aestivalis subsp. provincialis (DC.) C.Steinb.; Webbia 25: 315 (1971)
= Adonis aestivalis var. provincialis (DC.) Hochr.; Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve 7-8: 145 (1904)
= Adonis aestivalis var. provincialis (DC.) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 117 (1994)
= Adonis aestivalis var. squarrosa (Steven) Boiss.
= Adonis dentata var. provincialis DC.; Syst. Nat. [DC.] 1: 224 (1817)
= Adonis squarrosa Steven; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(2): 272 (1848)
species :
Adonis aleppica Boiss.; Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, 16: 350 (1841)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze); Israel (Rift Valley); Jordania (W-Jordania)
34 IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: annua agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis fulgens Hochst.; A. J. Lorent, Wanderungen: 338 (1845)
species :
Adonis amurensis Regel & Radde; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 33(1): 35, t. 2, f. 1, 2a-b (1861)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Primorye, Sakhalin); China (E-Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning); North Korea; South Korea (incl. Cheju Isl.); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe amurensis (Regel & Radde) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Adonis amurensis f. nana (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl.: 292 (2004)
= Adonis amurensis subsp. nanus Y.N.Lee; Fl. Korea: 1157 (1996)
= Adonis amurensis var. angustiloba A.I.Baranov & Skvortsov; Zap. Kharbin. Obshch. Estestvoisp. Etnogr. 12: 35 (1954)
= Adonis amurensis var. pilosissima D.C.Son & Jungsim Lee; J. Asia-Pacific Biodivers. 11(1): 51 (2017)
= Adonis amurensis var. puberula Honda; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 52: 49 (1939)
= Adonis amurensis var. uniflora Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 8: 97 (1894)
= Adonis barthei Franch.; Bull. Annuel Soc. Philom. Paris, sér. 8, 6: 89 (1894)
= Adonis multiflora f. argentatus (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 292 (2004)
= Adonis vernalis var. amurensis (Regel & Radde) Finet & Gagnep.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 51: 132 (1904)
= Chrysocyathus amurensis (Regel & Radde) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
species :
Adonis annua L.; Sp. Pl. 547 (1753), nom. cons.
Name: Herbst-Adonisröschen (DE); Annual Pheasant´s Eye, Blooddrops (EN)
Distribution: England [I]; Denmark [I]; Belgium [I]; Luxembourg [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland; Austria [I]; Poland [I]; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Portugal; Spain; France; Channel Isl. [I]; Sardinia; Italy; ?Sicily; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania [I]; Ukraine [I]; Crimea [I]; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Taiwan [I]; Canada [I] (Manitoba [I], Ontario [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arkansas [I], Idaho [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Missouri [I], Montana [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Washington State [I])
10 den grb 11 aut bgm CZE ger lux pol SLO SWI 12 cis FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH CRO ITA KOS MNT NMA rom SLV SMA SRB 14 kry ukr 20 ALG MOR TUN 38 tai 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 75 usa 77 usa 78 usa
Remarks: annua agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis abortiva Hausskn.; Mitt. Geogr. Ges. (Thüringen) Jena 5: 60 (1887)
= Adonis aestivalis M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 378 (1819)
= Adonis aestivalis var. micrantha (DC.) Hampe; 35 (1836)
= Adonis annua subsp. autumnalis (L.) Ces.; Car. Catt., 285 (1844)
= Adonis annua subsp. autumnalis (L.) Maire & Weiller; Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 11: 213 (1964) (nom. inval.)
= Adonis annua subsp. baetica (Coss.) Maire & Weiller; Maire, Fl. Afrique N. 11: 213 (1964)
= Adonis annua subsp. carinata Vierh.
= Adonis annua subsp. castellana (Pau) C.Steinb.; Webbia 25: 332 (1971)
= Adonis annua var. atrorubens L.; Sp. Pl. 1: 547 (1753)
= Adonis annua var. baetica (Coss.) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 21: 53 (1930)
= Adonis annua var. castellana (Pau) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 113 (1994)
= Adonis annua var. coccinea Maire & Wilczek; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 25: 287 (1934)
= Adonis atrorubens (L.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Fl. Tirol 6: II. 304 (1909)
= Adonis autumnalis L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 771 (1762) (nom. illeg.)
= Adonis autumnalis var. atropurpurea Merrem; 256 (1809)
= Adonis baetica Coss.; Notes Pl. Crit.: 25 (1849)
= Adonis baetica subsp. carinata (Vierh.) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 114 (1994)
= Adonis castellana Pau; Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 3: 289 (1904)
= Adonis erosipetala Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 3: 255 (1812)
= Adonis maculata Roth; Enum. Pl. Phaen. Germ. 1(2): 602 (1827)
= Adonis perramosa Schur; Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 6 (1866)
= Adonis phoenicea (L.) Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin Aneb. Rostl. 1(Ranunc.): 42 (1823)
= Adonis preslii Tod. ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 4 (1878)
= Cosmarium autumnale Dulac; Fl. Hautes. Pyr. 215 (1867) (non Corda, quod Algar. Gen.)
variant :
var. cupaniana (Guss.) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 112 (1994)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Spain; Baleares; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Slovenia; Croatia; Montenegro; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Crete; Morocco; Algeria; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Cyprus (C-Mountains, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel)
11 ger 12 BAL COR SAR SPA 13 BUL CRO GRC ITA KRI MNT SIC SLV TUE 20 ALG MOR 34 CYP EAI IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis annua subsp. cupaniana (Guss.) C.Steinb.; Webbia 25: 324 (1971)
= Adonis annua var. preslii (Tod. ex Nyman) Fiori; Fl. anal. Ital.: 499 (1899)
= Adonis cupaniana Guss.; Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 37 (1844)
= Adonis preslii Tod.; Fl. Sicul. Exicc.: n 1001 (1871), et ex Lojac., Malpighia 20: 42 (1906), et ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 4 (1878)
species :
Adonis apennina L.; Sp. Pl.: 548 (1753)
Name: Pyrenäen-Adonisröschen (DE)
Distribution: N-Spain; S-France (Pyrenees, Alpes Maritimes)
12 FRA SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe apennina (L.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 83 (1998)
= Adonanthe pyrenaica (DC.) Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 7: 230 (1838)
= Adonis alpina Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. de Fr. 2: 319 in add. (1895)
= Adonis apennina Schouw ex DC.; Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 25 (1824)
= Adonis distortoides Bonnier; Fl. Ill. France 1: 19 (1912)
= Adonis pyrenaica DC.; Lam. & DC., Fl. Franc. ed. 39, 5: 635 (1815)
= Chrysocyathus pyrenaicus (DC.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50: 25 (1978)
= Cosmarium pyrenaicum Dulac; Fl. Hautes. Pyr. 215 (1867) (non Corda, quod Algar. gen.)
species :
Adonis bobroviana Simonov.; Novosti Sist. Vyss. Rast. 1968: 127 (1968)
Distribution: China (C-Gansu, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, N-Qinghai)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe bobroviana (Simonov.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus bobrovianus (Simonov.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
species :
Adonis chrysocyatha Hook.f. & Thomson; Fl. Brit. India 1(1): 15 (1872)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; China (W-Xinjiang); W-Tibet; Pakistan (Deosai); W-Nepal; NW-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe chrysocyatha (Hook.f. & Thomson) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 84 (1998)
= Adonis margaritae Butkov; Bull. As. Centr. 19: 117 (1934)
= Adonis pyrenaica Hook.f. & Thomson; Fl. Ind. (Hook.f. & Thomson) 26 (1855) (et auct. non DC.)
= Chrysocyathus falconeri Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978) (nom. nov. superfl.)
species :
Adonis coerulea Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 23(2): 306 (1877)
Distribution: China (Gansu, C-Qinghai, W-Sichuan); NE-Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe coerulea (Maxim.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 83 (1998)
= Adonis caerulea f. integra W.T.Wang; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6(4): 371 (1957)
= Adonis caerulea var. puberula (W.T.Wang) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 105 (1994)
= Adonis coerulea f. albiflora S.H.Yang; Acta Bot. Boreal.-Occid. Sin. 29(5): 1053 (2009)
= Adonis coerulea f. puberula W.T.Wang; Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 352 (1980)
= Adonis coerulea var. puberula (W.T.Wang) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 14: 105 (1995)
= Adonis integra (W.T.Wang) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(1): 30 (1994)
species :
Adonis cretica (Huth) Imam, Chrtek & Slaviková; Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 78: 265 (1977)
Name: Kretisches Adonisröschen (DE); Cretan Pheasant´s Eye (EN)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Remarks: annua agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis microcarpa subsp. cretica (Huth) Vierh.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 84: 127 (1935)
= Adonis aestivalis subsp. cretica (Huth) C.Steinberg; Webbia. 25(2): 318 (1971)
= Adonis annua subsp. carinata Rech.f.; Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturw. Kl., Denkschr. 105(I): 195 (1943)
= Adonis cretica (Huth) Runemark; Fl. Hellenica 2: 37 (2002), isonym
= Adonis dentata subsp. cretica (Huth) Riedl; Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 66: 76 (1963)
= Adonis microcarpa var. cretica Huth; Samml. Naturwiss. Vorträge 3: 64 (1890)
species :
Adonis cyllenea Boiss. & al.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 5: 5. (1856)
Distribution: S-Greece (Killini)
13 GRC
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysocyathus cylleneus (Boiss., Heldr. & Orph.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Adonanthe cyllenea (Boiss., Heldr. & Orph.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 84 (1998)
variant :
var. paryadrica Boiss.; Fl. Orient. [Boissier] 1: 16 (1867)
Distribution: Turkey (NE-Anatolia)
34 TUR
species :
Adonis davidii Franch.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, 8: 180, t. 3 (1885)
Distribution: China (S-Gansu, S-Guizhou, W-Hubei, S-Shaanxi, S-Shanxi, N-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); SE-Tibet; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh)
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe brevistyla (Franch.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 83 (1998)
= Adonanthe davidii (Franch.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vy ssh. Rast. 31: 83 (1998)
= Adonis brevistyla Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 372 (1886)
= Adonis delavayi Franch.; Bull. Annuel Soc. Philom. Paris, sér. 8, 6: 91 (1894)
= Chrysocyathus brevistylus (Franch.) Chrtek & Slavíková; Preslia 50: 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus davidi (Franch.) Holub; Preslia 70: 102 (1998)
species :
Adonis dentata Delile; Descr. Egypte, Hist. Nat.: 287 (1813)
subspecies :
subsp. dentata
Distribution: Libya; Egypt (Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, NW-coastal Egypt); ?Sinai peninsula
20 EGY LBY
Remarks: annua agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis microcarpa var. dentata (Delile) Coss. & Kralik; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 4: 55 (1857)
= Adonis dentata var. orientalis DC.; Syst. Nat. [DC.] 1: 224 (1817)
= Adonis vernalis Asso; Syn. Stirp. Aragon.: 70 (1779)
subspecies :
subsp. persica (Boiss.) Riedl; Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 66: 76 (1963)
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Turkey (S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia, S-Iraq, W-Iraq: Desert); Iran (N-Iran, W-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Judean Desert, Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (N-Saudi Arabia); Kuwait; Yemen; ?Pakistan (?Pakistani Punjab)
32 TKM 34 CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 KUW SAU YEM
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis persica Boiss.; Diagn. PI. Orient. 6: 4 (1846)
= Adonis dentata subsp. inermis (Boiss.) C.Steinb.
= Adonis inermis Stapf; Sitzb. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 39: 74 (1889)
species :
Adonis distorta Ten.; Corso Bot. Lez. 4(I): 448 (1823)
Name: Apenninen-Adonisröschen
Distribution: Italy (C-Apennines)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysocyathus distortus (Ten.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50: 24 (1978)
= Adonanthe distorta (Ten.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 84 (1998)
species :
Adonis eriocalycina Boiss.; Fl. 1: 17 (1867)
Distribution: Turkey (E-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze)
34 IRQ SYR TUR
Remarks: annua agg.
species :
Adonis flammea Jacq.; Fl. Austriac. 4: 29 (1776)
Name: Flammen-Adonisröschen (DE)
Distribution: Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg [I], Berlin [I], Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, +Hessen, +Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], +Saarland, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Slovakia; Hungary; Spain; France; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Libya; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze)
11 AUT GER HUN LUX POL SLO SWI 12 FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB TUE 14 KRY MLD UKR 20 ALG LBY MOR 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: annua agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis anomala Wallr.; Sched. Crit. 273 (1822)
= Adonis autumnalis var. flammea (Jacq.) Merrem; 256 (1809)
= Adonis caudata Steven; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(2): 273 (1848)
= Adonis citrina DC.; Syst. Nat. [DC.] 1: 223 (1817)
= Adonis flammea f. straminea (Beck) Riedl; Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 66: 81 (1963)
= Adonis flammea subsp. polypetala (Lange) C.H.Steinb.; Hegi,tr. Fl. Mitteleur., 3 (3: Lief. 45): 338 (1974)
= Adonis flammea subsp. polypetala (Lange) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Fl. Paisos Catalans 1: 233 (1984) (comb. inval.)
= Adonis flammea var. abortiva Gren.; 16 (1847)
= Adonis flammea var. anomala (Wallr.) Vollm.; 282 (1914), nom. illeg.
= Adonis flammea var. oligopetala Bogenh.; Wirtg., 5 (1842)
= Adonis flammea var. pallida W.D.J.Koch; 145 (1833)
= Adonis flammea var. speciosa Wirtg.; 4 (1841)
= Adonis flammea var. sulphurea Döll; 548 (1843)
= Adonis flammea var. variegata Wirtg.; 4 (1841)
= Adonis involucrata S.Pons; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. de Fr. 1: 53 (1893)
variant :
var. cortiana (C.H.Steinb.) W.T.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res. North-East. Forest. Univ. 14(2): 121 (1994)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey
11 ger 13 CRO ITA SLV 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis flammea subsp. cortiana C.Steinb.; Webbia 25: 338 (1971)
species :
Adonis fucensis F.Conti & Bartolucci; Biology (Basel) 12(1)-118: 11 (2023)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Adonis globosa Steinb. ex Rech.f.; Fl. Iranica 171: 212, t. 203 (1992)
Distribution: Iran (SW-Iran)
34 IRN
species :
Adonis leiosepala Butkov; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Akad. Nauk SSSR 3: 21 (1941)
Distribution: E-Uzbekistan
32 UZB
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe leiosepala (Butkov) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus leiosepalus (Butkov) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
species :
Adonis microcarpa DC.; Syst. Nat. [DC.] 1: 223 (1817)
Name: Kleinfrüchtiges Adonisröschen (DE); Ojo de perdiz (ES)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Madeira [I] (Porto Santo Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma Isl.); East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq); Iran (E-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, Judean Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Northern Territory [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I])
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MLT MNT NMA PEL SIC SRB 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY mdr 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 50 aus
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis aestivalis Link ex Webb & Berthel.; Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3(2
= Adonis dentata subsp. intermedia (Webb & Berthel.) Riedl; Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 66: 72 (1963)
= Adonis dentata subsp. microcarpa (DC.) Riedl; Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 66: 73 (1963)
= Adonis dentata var. intermedia (Webb & Berthel.) Maire; Fl. Afrique N. 11: 217 (1964)
= Adonis dentata var. microcarpa (DC.) Hochr.; Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve 7-8: 125 (1904)
= Adonis dentata var. pseudoflammea Maire & Sennen
= Adonis intermedia var. flaviflora Webb; Iles Canaries [Pit. & Proust]: 85 ´1908´ (1909)
= Adonis intermedia var. phoenicea Webb; [nom. nud.]
= Adonis intermedia Webb & Berthel.; Hist. Nat. Canaries 3(2, 1): 12 (1836)
= Adonis microcarpa subsp. intermedia (Webb & Berthel.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur 4. (1878)
species :
Adonis mongolica Simonov.; Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc., Acad. Sci. URSS, 125 (1968)
Distribution: Mongolia
37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe mongolica (Simonov.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus mongolicus (Simonov.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
species :
Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koji Ito; J. Jap. Bot. 64(2): 51 (1989)
Distribution: South Korea (Cheju Isl.); Japan
38 JAP KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysocyathus multiflorus (Nishikawa & Koji Ito) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
= Adonis amurensis f. argentatus Y.N.Lee; Fl. Korea: 1157, 182 (1996)
species :
Adonis nepalensis Simonov.; Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 7: 146 (1971)
Distribution: Nepal; Bhutan; N-India (Sikkim)
40 BHU IND NEP
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysocyathus nepalensis (Simonov.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50: 24 (1978)
species :
Adonis palaestina Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 1 (1849)
Distribution: Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, Judean Desert); Jordania (W-Jordania); ?Pakistan (?Quetta)
34 ISR JOR LEB SYR
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis aestivalis L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Zohary; Fl. Pal. 1: 212 (1966)
species :
Adonis pseudoamurensis W.T.Wang; Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 352-353, t. 83, f. 11-12 (1980)
Distribution: NE-China (Heilongjiang); North Korea; South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis amurensis f. viridescensicalyx Y.N.Lee; Fl. Korea: 1157 (1996)
= Adonis amurensis var. dissectipetalis Y.N.Lee; Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 4 (photo) (2005)
= Adonis pseudoamurensis f. dissectipetalis (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 515 (2017)
= Adonis pseudoamurensis f. viridescensicalyx (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 292 (2004)
= Chrysocyathus pseudoamurensis (W.T.Wang) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
species :
Adonis ramosa Franch.; Bull. Soc. Philom., Ser. 8(6): 91 (1894)
subspecies :
subsp. ramosa
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kuril Isl.); China (Jilin, Liaoning); Japan
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe ramosa (Franch.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus ramosus (Franch.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
subspecies :
subsp. fupingensis W.T.Wang; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 32(5): 472-473 (1994)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Beijing)
36 CHI
species :
Adonis sachalinensis Gorovoj & S.Volkova; Turczaninowia 24(3): 86 (2021)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Sakhalin)
31 RFE
species :
Adonis scrobiculata Boiss.; Diagn. Ser. II. 1: 6 (1854)
subspecies :
subsp. scrobiculata
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Badghys, Baghlan, Bamyan, Farah, Ghazni, Herat, Jawzjan / Sar-e-Pol, Kabul, Kandahar, Wardak, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost, Parwan, Samangan, Takhar, Zabul)
32 KGZ TKM UZB 34 AFG IRN IRQ
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonis marginata Bien. ex Hook.f.; Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 15 (1872)
subspecies :
subsp. velutina (Lipsky) C.H.Steinb. ex Rech.f.; Fl. Iran., 171: 211 (1992)
Distribution: Azerbaijan; NW-Iran
33 AZE 34 IRN
species :
Adonis shikokuensis Nishikawa & Koji Ito; Bull. Nation. Sci. Mus., B (Tokyo) 27(2-3): 79 (2001)
Distribution: Japan (Shikoku)
38 JAP
species :
Adonis sibirica Patrin ex Ledeb.; Ind. Hort. Dorp. Suppl. 1 (1824)
Distribution: C-European Russia; N-European Russia; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur); Kazakhstan; China (NE-Nei Mongol, N-Xinjiang)
14 RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe sibirica (Ledeb.) Spach; Hist. Nat. Veg. (Spach) 7: 229 (1838)
= Chrysocyathus sibiricus (Ledeb.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
= Adonis ircutiana Fisch. ex DC.; Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 25 (1824)
species :
Adonis sutchuenensis Franch.; Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris 6: 89 (1894)
Distribution: China (S-Shaanxi, N-Sichuan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe sutchuenensis (Franch.) Sennikov; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 83 (1998)
= Chrysocyathus sutchuensis (Franch.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 103 (1998)
species :
Adonis tianschanica (Adolf) Lipsch. ex Bobrov; Fl. URSS 7: 531 (1937)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; China (Xinjiang)
32 KAZ KGZ 36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe tianschanica (Adolf) Chrtek & Slavikova; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Adonis turkestanica var. tianschanica Adolf; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Selekts. 23: 328 (1930)
species :
Adonis turkestanica (Korsh.) Adolf; Bull. Applied Bot., Leningrad, 1929-30 23: No. 1, 326 (1930)
Distribution: Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan (Pamir-Alai); Tajikistan; ?Afghanistan; Mongolia
32 KGZ TZK UZB 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe turkestanica (Korsh.) Chrtek & Slavikova; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus turkestanicus (Korsh.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 103 (1998)
= Adonis apennina var. turkestanica Korsh.; (1898)
species :
Adonis vernalis L.; Sp. Pl. 547 (1753)
Name: Frühlings-Adonisröschen (DE), Spring pheasant´s eye (EN)
Distribution: Sweden (Gotland); Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin [I], Bayern, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Spain; France; Italy; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Siberia (Altai, Chita, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; USA [I] (New York [I])
10 SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN POL SLO SWI 12 FRA SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ 33 NCS 75 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe vernalis (L.) Spach; Hist. Nat. Vdg. 7: 228 (1838)
= Adoniastrum vernale (L.) Schur; Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 15(2): 27 (1877)
= Adonis helleborus Crantz; Stirp. Austr. ed. I. fasc. 2: 82, ed. II. 110 (1763)
= Adonis parviflora Janka ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 4 (1878)
= Adonis pratensis Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1(1): 24 (1841)
= Adonis vernalis f. stenopetala Zapal.; 255 (1909)
= Adonis vernalis var. acutiflora Wallr.; 278 (1822)
= Adonis vernalis var. anemoniflora Wallr.; 277 (1822)
= Adonis vernalis var. grandiflora Wallr.; 277 (1822)
= Adonis vernalis var. parviflora Wallr.; 277 (1822)
= Adonis vernalis var. praecox (Moris) Rchb.; LXIV (1833)
= Anemone consiligo Baill.; Iconogr. Fl. Franç. t. 327 (1827-1895)
= Chrysocyathus apenninus (L.) Sennikov; Fl. Vostochnoi Evropy 10: 179 (2001)
= Chrysocyathus vernalis (L.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 103 (1998)
species :
Adonis villosa Ledeb.; Ind. Hort. Dorp. Suppl. (1824) 1
Distribution: Siberia (Altai, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan
30 SIB 32 KAZ
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe villosa (Ledeb.) Chrtek & Slaviková; Preslia 50(1): 24 (1978)
= Chrysocyathus villosus (Ledeb.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 103 (1998)
species :
Adonis volgensis DC.; Syst. Nat. [DC.] 1: 545 (1817)
Name: Wolga-Adonisröschen
Distribution: Romania; Bulgaria; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Siberia (Altai, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (E-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan)
13 BUL ROM 14 KRY MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE NCS 34 IRN TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe volgensis (Steven ex DC.) Chrtek & Slavíková; Preslia 50: 24 (1978)
= Adonis apennina Pall.; Reise Russ. Reich. 2: 388 (1773)
= Adonis chaerophylla Fisch.; Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 25 (1824)
= Adonis marschalliana Andrz. ex Besser; Enum. Pl. (Besser) 47 (1822)
= Adonis ruthenica Stapf; Sitzb. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 39: 74 (1889)
= Chrysocyathus volgensis (Steven) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 103 (1998)
species :
Adonis ×cullelli Sennen & Gonzalo; Le Monde des Plantes 29: No. 172, 7 (1928)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
species :
Adonis ×hybrida C.F.Wolff ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 4 (1878), et ex A. T. Szabó, Rev. Roum. Biol. Veg. 23(1): 33 (1978)
Distribution: Hungary; Romania; etc.
11 HUN 13 ROM
Synonyms: hidden
= Adonanthe ×hybrida (C.F.Wolff ex Simonk.) Sennikov; Konspekt Fl. Vost. Evr. 1: 152 (2012)
= Adonis ×hybrida nothomorph. caludiopolitana A.T.Szabó; Rev. Roum. Biol. Veg. 23(1): 36 (1978)
= Adonis ×hybrida nothomorph. transsilvanica (Simonov.) A.T.Szabó; Rev. Roum. Biol. Veg. 23(1): 36 (1978)
= Adonis ×hybrida nothomorph. walziana (Simonk.) A.T.Szabó; Rev. Roum. Biol. Veg. 23(1): 33 (1978), without basionym page
= Adonis ×transsilvanica Simonov.; Dokl. Akad. Nauk BSSR 9: 396 (1965)
= Adonis ×walziana Simonk.; Magyar. Novenyt. Lapok 2: 151 (1878)
= Chrysocyathus ×hybridus (Simonk.) Holub; Preslia 70(2): 102 (1998)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

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With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

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