Species Count in
WorldPlants (might be incomplete)
Country or RegionCodeSurface Area (km²)Status ChecklistAll Species Indigenous Species Endemics
EUROPE (1)
NORTHERN EUROPE (10)
more country list Iceland ICE 103.000 ++796735255
796All Species
735Indigenous Species
433Indigenous Species except Microspecies
255Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
134 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
556 Dicotyledons (of them 253 endemic)
302 Microspecies (of them 249 endemic)
61 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

A guide to the flowering plants and ferns of Iceland (Kristinsson 1998); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Jan Mayen Isl. JMY 380 ++57563
57All Species
56Indigenous Species
51Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
41 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

The flora of Jan Mayen (Lid 1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Svalbard (incl. Bjornoya) SVA 62.160 ++1971891
197All Species
189Indigenous Species
183Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
54 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
129 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
8 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Svalbards flora (Roenning 1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Faeroe Isl. FOR 1.399 ++3843639
384All Species
363Indigenous Species
331Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
235 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
32 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
21 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Isle of Man, Orkney Isl., Shetland Isl., but excl. Channel Isl. and Northern Ireland) GRB 244.110 ++34662621690
3466All Species
2621Indigenous Species
1508Indigenous Species except Microspecies
690Endemic Species
66Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
80 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
361 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2124 Dicotyledons (of them 685 endemic)
1113 Microspecies (of them 624 endemic)
845 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

Flora of the British Isles (Clapham et al. 1962); New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002); Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Sell & Murrell 1997); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The illustrated field guide to ferns and allied plants of the British Iles (Jermy 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Wild Orchids of Scotland (Allan, Woods & Clarks 1993); Orchidaceae. In: Flora of Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Vol. 5 (Sell & Murrell 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Ireland (incl. Northern Ireland) IRE 70.000 ++1517121724
1517All Species
1217Indigenous Species
972Indigenous Species except Microspecies
24Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
228 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
29 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
897 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
245 Microspecies (of them 18 endemic)
300 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

An Irish Flora (Webb et al. 1996); Flora of the British Isles (Clapham et al. 1962); New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 200); Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Sell & Murrell 1997); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The illustrated field guide to ferns and allied plants of the British Iles (Jermy 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

British & Irish Orchids: a field guide (Ettlinger 1976); A Guide to the Wild Orchids of Great Britain and Ireland (Lang 1989); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Denmark DEN 43.094 +1953166863
1953All Species
1668Indigenous Species
1178Indigenous Species except Microspecies
63Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
46 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
281 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1296 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
490 Microspecies (of them 61 endemic)
285 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Dansk Flora (Frederiksen et al. 2006); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Dansk feltflora (Hansen 1981); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Norway NOR 385.639 ++421538912000
4215All Species
3891Indigenous Species
1316Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2000Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
73 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
332 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3439 Dicotyledons (of them 2000 endemic)
2575 Microspecies (of them 2000 endemic)
324 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Den Nya Nordiska Floran (Mossberg & Stenberg 2003); Norsk Flora (Lid et al. 2005); Norsk og svensk flora (Lid 1963); Flora Nordica, Vol. 1 (Jonsell, ed., 2000); Nordisk fjaellflora (Nilsson 1991); Flora över Dal (Andersson 1981); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed. von Gjaerevoll 1985); Orkideer i Norden (Nylen 1984); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sweden SWE 449.964 ++387735431235
3877All Species
3543Indigenous Species
1493Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1235Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
64 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
373 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3053 Dicotyledons (of them 1234 endemic)
2050 Microspecies (of them 1227 endemic)
334 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Mossberg & Stenberg (2003); Norsk Flora (Lid et al. 2005); Norsk og svensk flora (Lid 1963); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed. von Gjaerevoll 1985); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Orkideer i Norden (Nylen 1984); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Finland FIN 338.144 ++27892566763
2789All Species
2566Indigenous Species
1141Indigenous Species except Microspecies
763Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
307 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2161 Dicotyledons (of them 763 endemic)
1425 Microspecies (of them 760 endemic)
223 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland (Kurtto et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora Fennica, vol. 1-3 (Lönnrotin 2002); Field Flora of Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed., Gjaerevoll 1985); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kaemmekaet - Suomen orkideat (Korhonen & Vuokko 1987); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
MIDDLE EUROPE (11)
more country list Netherlands NET 33.920 ++2032168748
2032All Species
1687Indigenous Species
1247Indigenous Species except Microspecies
48Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
294 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1298 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
440 Microspecies (of them 48 endemic)
345 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Heukels Flora van Nederland (23. Aufl., Mejden et al. 2005); De Nederlandse Oecologische Flora (5 vols., Weeda 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora van Nederland (21. ed.) (Heuckels & van der Meijden 1990); De orchideen van Nederland - ecologie - verspreiding - bedreiging - beheer (Kreutz & Dekker 2000); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Belgium BGM 30.688 ++2071167015
2071All Species
1670Indigenous Species
1383Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
313 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
51 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1245 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
287 Microspecies (of them 15 endemic)
401 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora (van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1972)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed.) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Orchidaceae Belgicae (Klopfenstein & Toussaint 1983-87); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Luxembourg LUX 2.586 ++129911624
1299All Species
1162Indigenous Species
1057Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
46 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
204 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
869 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
105 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
137 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora (van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1972); Red List of the Vascular Plants of Luxembourg (Colling 2005)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed., Lambinon & Verloove 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Online Atlas of the Pteridophytes of Luxembourg (www.pteridophytes.lu)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Luxemburgs (Mangen et al. 1993); Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Germany GER 356.970 ++43853677295
4385All Species
3677Indigenous Species
2468Indigenous Species except Microspecies
295Endemic Species
27Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
81 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
511 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
71 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2998 Dicotyledons (of them 287 endemic)
1209 Microspecies (of them 268 endemic)
708 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Florenliste von Deutschland - Gefäßpflanzen. Version 11 (Hand et al. 2020, www.kp-buttler.de)

Most recent flora

Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed., many volumes); Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder (Schmeil/Fitschen) (92. Auflage 2003, ed. Senghas & Seybold); Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora, ed. 8 (Oberdorfer, Begr., 2001); Exkursionsflora von Deutschland (Rothmaler, Begr., 21. Aufl. 2017, ed. Jäger); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder (Schmeil/Fitschen), (89. Auflage 1993, ed. Senghas & Seybold); Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1995); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Switzerland SWI 41.285 ++3404300299
3404All Species
3002Indigenous Species
2466Indigenous Species except Microspecies
99Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
82 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
477 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
65 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2360 Dicotyledons (of them 97 endemic)
536 Microspecies (of them 92 endemic)
402 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora Helvetica Checklist 2017 (Juillerat et al. 2017)

Most recent flora

Flora Helvetica (5. Aufl., Lauber et al. 2012); Flora der Schweiz (3 vols., Hess et al. 1976-1980); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004); Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed., multiple volumes); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1994); Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Reinhard et al. 1991); Die Orchideen der Schweiz (Danesch 1984); Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Hess, Landolt & Hirzel 1967-1970); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Liechtenstein LIE 161 ++140412890
1404All Species
1289Indigenous Species
1257Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
238 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
957 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
32 Microspecies (of them endemic)
115 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora von Liechtenstein (Waldburger et al. 2003); Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1994); Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Reinhard et al. 1991); Die Orchideen der Schweiz (Danesch 1984); Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Hess, Landolt & Hirzel 1967-1970); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Austria AUT 83.858 ++35753182101
3575All Species
3182Indigenous Species
2692Indigenous Species except Microspecies
101Endemic Species
34Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
74 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
520 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
2501 Dicotyledons (of them 94 endemic)
490 Microspecies (of them 67 endemic)
393 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Exkursionsflora von Österreich (Fischer, ed., 1994); Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1995); Wildwachsende Orchideen in Österreich (Redl 1996); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Poland POL 312.684 ++2956264243
2956All Species
2642Indigenous Species
2005Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
66 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
417 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
46 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2099 Dicotyledons (of them 42 endemic)
637 Microspecies (of them 33 endemic)
314 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flowering Plants and Pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist (Mirez et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

Flora polska (Szafera, ed., 1919 - 1980, 14 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Poland (Szlachetko & Skakuj 1996); Storczyki Zachodniej Czesci Polskich Beskidow (Bernacki 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Atlas Flory Polskiej i Ziem Osciennych, Vol. 5, pt. 1 (Madalski 1971); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Czech Republic CZE 78.866 ++2668239646
2668All Species
2396Indigenous Species
1935Indigenous Species except Microspecies
46Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
69 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
409 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
55 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1848 Dicotyledons (of them 44 endemic)
461 Microspecies (of them 38 endemic)
272 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic (Danihelka et al. 2012)

Most recent flora

Klič ke Květeně České republiky (Kubát, ed., 2002); Květena České (Socialistické) republiky (Slavík & Hejný, ed., 1988-2005, 7 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideje nasi prirody (Prochazka & Velisek 1983); Orchid distribution and protection in Moravia and Silesia (Husak 1996); Verbreitung und Schutz der Orchideen in Mähren und Schlesien (Jatiova & Smitak 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Slovakia SLO 49.034 ++32672742107
3267All Species
2742Indigenous Species
2403Indigenous Species except Microspecies
107Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
463 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
57 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2138 Dicotyledons (of them 105 endemic)
339 Microspecies (of them 98 endemic)
525 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

http://ibot.sav.sk/checklist/index.php (Marhold & Hindak)

Most recent flora

Klič ke Květeně České republiky (Kubát, ed., 2002); Květena České (Socialistické) republiky (Slavík & Hejný, ed., 1988-2005, 7 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideje nasi prirody (Prochazka & Velisek 1983); Orchid distribution and protection in Moravia and Silesia (Husak 1996); Verbreitung und Schutz der Orchideen in Mähren und Schlesien (Jatiova & Smitak 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Hungary HUN 93.030 ++2429216474
2429All Species
2164Indigenous Species
2000Indigenous Species except Microspecies
74Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
413 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
57 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1628 Dicotyledons (of them 70 endemic)
164 Microspecies (of them 55 endemic)
265 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Vadon elo orchideak (Molnar, Sulyok & Videki 1995); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
SOUTH WESTERN EUROPE (12)
more country list Portugal (excl. Azores, Madeira) POR 89.357 ++2931251279
2931All Species
2512Indigenous Species
2462Indigenous Species except Microspecies
79Endemic Species
77Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
61 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
494 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1899 Dicotyledons (of them 67 endemic)
50 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
419 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011)

Most recent flora

Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); The Orchid Flora of Portugal (Tyteca 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Spain (mainland, excl. Baleares, Canary Isl. and African exclaves) SPA 501.453 ++638957991220
6389All Species
5799Indigenous Species
5216Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1220Endemic Species
881Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
106 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
898 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
82 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4685 Dicotyledons (of them 1117 endemic)
583 Microspecies (of them 339 endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Andorra ADO 468 ++9659324
965All Species
932Indigenous Species
876Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
82 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
827 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
56 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
33 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flowers of Andorra (Crozier & Matschke 1993); Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Gibraltar GIB 7 ++6605611
660All Species
561Indigenous Species
560Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
96 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
440 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
99 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

The flowers of Gibraltar (Linares et al. 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Baleares BAL 4.992 ++16151442120
1615All Species
1442Indigenous Species
1428Indigenous Species except Microspecies
120Endemic Species
118Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
251 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
36 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1113 Dicotyledons (of them 111 endemic)
14 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
173 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora de Mallorca (Vols. I-IV, Bonafe 1977-1980); Illustrated Flora of Mallorca (Beckett 1993); Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Orquidacies. - In: Flora de Mallorca, Vol. 2 (Barcelo 1978); Petita guia de las Orquidies de les Balears (Alomar 1994); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list France (mainland, excl. Corsica) FRA 535.285 ++59745189300
5974All Species
5189Indigenous Species
4369Indigenous Species except Microspecies
300Endemic Species
142Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
115 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
18 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
817 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
97 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4130 Dicotyledons (of them 268 endemic)
820 Microspecies (of them 158 endemic)
785 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index synonymique de la flore de France (Kerguélen 1993)

Most recent flora

Les quatres flores de France (4. ed., Fournier 1977); Flora Gallica (Tison & de Foucault 2014); Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed.) (Lambinon et al. 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Monaco MCO 2 -48420
48All Species
42Indigenous Species
42Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
6 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
more country list British Channel Isl. CIS 198 +15049144
1504All Species
914Indigenous Species
812Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
31 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
184 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
682 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
102 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vice-County Census Catalogue (Botanicalkeys.co.uk)

Most recent flora

Wildflowers of Alderney (Bonnard 2008); A flora of the Island of Jersey (Lester-Garland 1903)
more country list Corsica COR 8.680 ++2239207480
2239All Species
2074Indigenous Species
2030Indigenous Species except Microspecies
80Endemic Species
65Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
410 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1532 Dicotyledons (of them 69 endemic)
44 Microspecies (of them 15 endemic)
165 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Corsica (Jeanmonod & Gamisans 2007); Les quatres flores de France (4. ed., Fournier 1977); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sardinia SAR 23.318 ++21171971139
2117All Species
1971Indigenous Species
1953Indigenous Species except Microspecies
139Endemic Species
131Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
376 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1484 Dicotyledons (of them 132 endemic)
18 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
146 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora dell' Isola di Sardegna, Vol. 1-4 (Arrigoni 2006-2013); Flora Sarda / Piante Endemiche (Marras 2000); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna (Giotta & Picitto 1990); Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna (Scrugli 1991); Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982) Orchidee. Specie spontanee (Liverani 1991); Orchidacee d’Italia (Grünanger 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE (13)
more country list Italy (mainland) (incl. Elba Isl., Capri Isl.) ITA 203.856 ++60425452574
6042All Species
5452Indigenous Species
4984Indigenous Species except Microspecies
574Endemic Species
422Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
118 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
897 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 48 endemic)
118 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
4290 Dicotyledons (of them 504 endemic)
468 Microspecies (of them 152 endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-3 (Pignatti 1982); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4; Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982); Orchidee d’Italia (Sguazzini & Glerean 1981); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sicily (incl. Isole Pelagie) SIC 25.426 ++25952364175
2595All Species
2364Indigenous Species
2342Indigenous Species except Microspecies
175Endemic Species
168Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
49 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
462 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1771 Dicotyledons (of them 151 endemic)
22 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
231 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily (Giardina et al. 2007); An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-3 (Pignatti 1982); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4; Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982); Orchidee d’Italia (Sguazzini & Glerean 1981); A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily (GIARDINA et al. 2007); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Malta MLT 316 ++87578612
875All Species
786Indigenous Species
786Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
114 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
616 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
89 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

A Flora of the Maltese Islands (Haslam, Sell & Wolseley 1977); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Le Orchidaceae dell'archipelago maltese (Bartolo et al. 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list San Marino SMA 61 -220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent flora

Flora della repubblica di San Marino (Pampanini 1930) [not seen and not yet included, few newer publications neither seen nor included]

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Slovenia SLV 20.273 +2974272039
2974All Species
2720Indigenous Species
2592Indigenous Species except Microspecies
39Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
512 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2060 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
128 Microspecies (of them 28 endemic)
254 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Register flore Slovenije (Trpin & Vres 1995)

Most recent flora

Flora of Slovenia (iFlora - Plant Guide Book 22) (Tackenberg); Mala flora Slovenije, kljuc za dolocanje praprotnic in semenk (Martinic et al. 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Croatia CRO 56.594 +4302380489
4302All Species
3804Indigenous Species
3685Indigenous Species except Microspecies
89Endemic Species
78Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
80 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
669 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
87 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2941 Dicotyledons (of them 77 endemic)
119 Microspecies (of them 11 endemic)
498 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Nikolić T. ed. (2015): Flora Croatica Database (http://hirc.botanic.hr/fcd)

Most recent flora

Flora Hrvatske (Domac 2002); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Bosnia & Hercegovina BIH 51.197 -2767259237
2767All Species
2592Indigenous Species
2524Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
458 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
55 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2004 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
68 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
175 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Bosne i Hercegovine (Beck 1903-1921, 1927, Beck & Maly 1950, Bjelčić 1967-1983, incomplete); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Montenegro MNT 13.812 o2534246022
2534All Species
2460Indigenous Species
2406Indigenous Species except Microspecies
22Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
62 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
431 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1897 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
54 Microspecies (of them 6 endemic)
74 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Katalog Vaskularne Flora Crne Gore, Tom. 1 (Stesevic & Cakovic 2013) [incomplete]

Most recent flora

Conspectus Florae Montenegrinae (Rohlena 1942); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideenflora Montenegros (Parolly 1991, in Mitt. Bl. AHO Bad.-Württ., Vol. 24); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Serbia SRB 77.474 o3081295132
3081All Species
2951Indigenous Species
2885Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
29Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
517 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
56 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2299 Dicotyledons (of them 28 endemic)
66 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
130 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An Annotated Checklist of Vascular Flora of Serbia, Vol. 1 (Niketic & Tomovic 2018) [incomplete]

Most recent flora

Flora SR Srbije (Josifović 1970-1976, 1977; Sarić & Diklić 1986); Flora Srbije (Saric et al., eds., 1992; Stevanovic et al., eds., 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Kosovo KOS 10.877 -1391346
139All Species
134Indigenous Species
129Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
124 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
5 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Northern Macedonia NMA 25.713 o2969287382
2969All Species
2873Indigenous Species
2797Indigenous Species except Microspecies
82Endemic Species
75Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
438 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2307 Dicotyledons (of them 78 endemic)
76 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org) [incomplete because many species are only listed for "former Yugoslavia"]

Most recent flora

Flora na Republika Makedonija (Micevski et al. 1983-2006, Matevski 2010; 7 vols. published, incomplete); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Albania ALB 28.748 +3337320059
3337All Species
3200Indigenous Species
3140Indigenous Species except Microspecies
59Endemic Species
46Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
569 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2490 Dicotyledons (of them 51 endemic)
60 Microspecies (of them 13 endemic)
137 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Albania (Barina et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Illustrated Flora of Albania (Pils 2016); Flore de l'Albanie (1992-2000, vols. 2, 3, 4); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Illustrated Flora of Albania (Pils 2016); Die Orchideenflora Albaniens (Gölz & Reinhard 1984); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Romania ROM 237.500 ++33993124102
3399All Species
3124Indigenous Species
2967Indigenous Species except Microspecies
102Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
62 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
590 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
58 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2400 Dicotyledons (of them 99 endemic)
157 Microspecies (of them 45 endemic)
275 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Republicii Socialiste România (1952-1976); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora Romaniei, Vol. II (Beldie 1979); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Bulgaria BUL 110.994 ++37853592171
3785All Species
3592Indigenous Species
3448Indigenous Species except Microspecies
171Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
606 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
52 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2854 Dicotyledons (of them 153 endemic)
144 Microspecies (of them 45 endemic)
193 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus of the Bulgarian vascular flora (Assyov et al., 4th ed. 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora na Narodna Republika Bălgarija (Jordanov et al., 1963-1995, 10 vols.); Flora bulgarica (CD-ROM, 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora von Bulgarien (Stojanow & Stafanov 1948); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list European Turkey TUE 23.764 ++2022196213
2022All Species
1962Indigenous Species
1949Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
25 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
440 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1456 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
13 Microspecies (of them endemic)
60 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000, 9 vols. + 2 supplement volumes, complete); Flowers of Turkey - A photo guide (Pils 2006)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen der Türkei (Kreutz 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Greece (incl. Kikladhes, excl. Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos and E-Aegaean) GRC 123.600 ++51654865733
5165All Species
4865Indigenous Species
4693Indigenous Species except Microspecies
733Endemic Species
655Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
12.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
881 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 108 endemic)
87 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
3798 Dicotyledons (of them 617 endemic)
172 Microspecies (of them 78 endemic)
300 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Greece. An Annotated Checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, with supplement 2015); Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016)

Most recent flora

Flora Hellenica (Strid & Kit Tan (eds., 1997 ff., 3 vols. published); Mountain Flora of Greece (Vol. 1/2, Strid, ed., 1989/1991); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Synopsis Flora Graecae: Orchidaceae (Diapulis 1995); The Orchids of Greece - Inventory and Review (Kalopissis 1988); Orchids of Greece (Lepper 1981); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Crete KRI 8.336 ++19671815166
1967All Species
1815Indigenous Species
1805Indigenous Species except Microspecies
166Endemic Species
165Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
35 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
367 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1359 Dicotyledons (of them 136 endemic)
10 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
152 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Greece. An Annotated Checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, with supplement 2015); Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016)

Most recent flora

Exkursionsflora für Kreta (Jahn & Schönfelder 1995); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen von Kreta und Karpathos (Alibertis 1997) (engl. ed. 1998); Orchidaceae (Scheurer & Jahn). In: Exkursionsflora für Kreta (Jahn & Schönfelder 1995); Orchideen auf Kreta, Karpathos & Kasos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
EASTERN EUROPE (14)
more country list Estonia EST 45.339 ++1925140440
1925All Species
1404Indigenous Species
1118Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
263 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1047 Dicotyledons (of them 39 endemic)
286 Microspecies (of them 37 endemic)
521 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Eesti NSV Floora (Flora of Estonian SSR, Vol. 1-11, 1953-1984); Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Vascular Plant Flora of Estonia (Kukk 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Native orchids in Estonia (Kuusk 1996); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Latvia LAT 64.589 ++162012974
1620All Species
1297Indigenous Species
1116Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
276 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
938 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
181 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
323 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Flora of Latvian vascular taxa (Gavrilova & Sulcs 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Diversity, state and protection of Orchidaceae species in Lithuania (Gudzinskas 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Lithuania LIT 65.300 ++151712262
1517All Species
1226Indigenous Species
1139Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
280 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
867 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
87 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
291 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Vascular plants of Lithuania (Gudzinskas 1999); Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Diversity, state and protection of Orchidaceae species in Lithuania (Gudzinskas 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Belarus BLR 207.595 +184414915
1844All Species
1491Indigenous Species
1393Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
304 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1099 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
98 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
353 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Fedorov, ed., 11 vols., 1988-2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list European Russia (excl. Caucasus, incl. Kaliningrad region, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya) RUS 4.300.000 ++46524180401
4652All Species
4180Indigenous Species
3490Indigenous Species except Microspecies
401Endemic Species
152Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
74 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
727 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 30 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3315 Dicotyledons (of them 371 endemic)
690 Microspecies (of them 249 endemic)
472 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Fedorov, ed., 11 vols., 1988-2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orkhidei nachei strany (Vakhrameeva et al. 1991)
more country list Moldova (incl. Transnistria) MLD 33.843 o6145432
614All Species
543Indigenous Species
505Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
15 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
512 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
38 Microspecies (of them endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Ukraine (excl. Crimea) UKR 577.720 ++31972952109
3197All Species
2952Indigenous Species
2757Indigenous Species except Microspecies
109Endemic Species
90Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
562 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2281 Dicotyledons (of them 94 endemic)
195 Microspecies (of them 19 endemic)
245 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of the Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist (Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk 1999); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Vasheka OV, Bezsmertna OO (2012). Ferns atlas of Ukrainian flora: monograf.

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Ukraine (Sobko 1989, in russian); Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Crimea KRY 26.080 ++2267209687
2267All Species
2096Indigenous Species
2023Indigenous Species except Microspecies
87Endemic Species
63Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
36 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
355 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1652 Dicotyledons (of them 76 endemic)
73 Microspecies (of them 24 endemic)
171 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of the Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist (Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk 1999); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Vasheka OV, Bezsmertna OO (2012). Ferns atlas of Ukrainian flora: monograf.

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of the Orchids of Crimea (Fateryga & Kreutz 2014); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
AFRICA (2)
NORTHERN AFRICA (20)
more country list Morocco MOR 453.730 ++43133896679
4313All Species
3896Indigenous Species
3868Indigenous Species except Microspecies
679Endemic Species
668Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
64 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
698 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 79 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3086 Dicotyledons (of them 596 endemic)
28 Microspecies (of them 11 endemic)
417 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore pratique du Maroc (Fennane et al. 1999-2015, 3 vols.); Fennane & Ibn Tattou (2005-2007): Flore vasculaire du Maroc, inventaire et chorologie

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flore pratique du Maroc, Vol. 1 (Salvo & Ouyahya 1999)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Les orchidées du Maroc (Raynaud 1985); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Western Sahara WSA 267.769 +2362341
236All Species
234Indigenous Species
234Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
39 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
191 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental (Lebrun 1998); CJB African Plant Database); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de Mauritanie, Vol. 2 (Barry & Celles 1991); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Algeria ALG 2.381.740 ++37193372188
3719All Species
3372Indigenous Species
3354Indigenous Species except Microspecies
188Endemic Species
185Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
608 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2644 Dicotyledons (of them 162 endemic)
18 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
347 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de l'Algerie (Quezel & Santa 1962, 2 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Tunisia TUN 164.418 ++2430223061
2430All Species
2230Indigenous Species
2222Indigenous Species except Microspecies
61Endemic Species
61Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
431 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1719 Dicotyledons (of them 56 endemic)
8 Microspecies (of them endemic)
200 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flore de Tunisie: Catalogue synonymique commente (Le Floc'h & Boulos 2008); Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de la Tunisie (Pottier-Alapetite, ed., 1979-1984, 3 vols. + Atlas, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidées de Tunisie (Valles & Valles-Lombard 1988)
more country list Libya LBY 1.757.000 ++1930174690
1930All Species
1746Indigenous Species
1743Indigenous Species except Microspecies
90Endemic Species
90Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
16 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
357 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1353 Dicotyledons (of them 75 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
184 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Libya (Ali & Jafri, eds., 1976-1990, 150 vols., almost complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Libya - Pteridophytes (1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidaceae (Flora Libia, Fasc. 119) (Hossain & El-Gadi 1985); Zur Kenntnis der Orchideenflora der Cyrenaika (Libyen) (Baumann & Baumann 2001)
more country list Egypt (excl. Sinai peninsula) EGY 878.000 ++1954181630
1954All Species
1816Indigenous Species
1809Indigenous Species except Microspecies
30Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
397 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
1402 Dicotyledons (of them 22 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Egypt (Boulos, ed., 1999-2005, 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Egypt, Vol. 1: Azollaceae - Oxalidaceae (Boulos 1999)
MACARONESIA (21)
more country list Azores AZO 2.247 ++94158756
941All Species
587Indigenous Species
582Indigenous Species except Microspecies
56Endemic Species
54Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
51 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
136 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
392 Dicotyledons (of them 36 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
354 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993); Catalogo das plantas vasculares dos Acores (Palhina 1966)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora Europaea, Vol. 5 (Soó 1980); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die Orchideen der Azoren (Frey 1977)
more country list Madeira MDR 741 ++1301766109
1301All Species
766Indigenous Species
759Indigenous Species except Microspecies
109Endemic Species
109Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
145 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
548 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them endemic)
535 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011); Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Madeira (Press et al. 1994) Die Farne und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras (Muer, Sauerbier & Calixto 2020)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Madeira (Press 1994); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Orchideen von Madeira (Rückbrodt & Rückbrodt 1990)
more country list Islas Selvagens (Salvajes Isl.) SEL 3 ++110973
110All Species
97Indigenous Species
97Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Menezes de Sequeira et al. (2011); CJB African Plant Database; Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Madeira (Press et al. 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Madeira (Press 1994); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Orchideen von Madeira (Rückbrodt & Rückbrodt 1990)
more country list Canary Isl. CNY 7.273 ++20861556545
2086All Species
1556Indigenous Species
1551Indigenous Species except Microspecies
545Endemic Species
544Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
246 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1240 Dicotyledons (of them 511 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
530 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database; Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen der Kanarischen Inseln (Muer, Sauerbier & Calixto 2016); Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln (Hohenester & Weiss 1993)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln (Hohenester & Weiss 1993); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986)
more country list Cape Verde Isl. CVI 4.033 ++762547100
762All Species
547Indigenous Species
547Indigenous Species except Microspecies
100Endemic Species
100Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
35 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
138 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
371 Dicotyledons (of them 86 endemic)
215 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora de Cabo Verde (Paiva et al., 1995-2002, 106 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Ferns and Fern-Allies (Pteridophyta) of the Cape Verde Islands (Lobin et al. 1998)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
WEST TROPICAL AFRICA (22)
more country list Mauritania MTN 1.030.700 +8387773
838All Species
777Indigenous Species
775Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
223 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
539 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
61 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental (Lebrun 1998); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore de Mauritanie (2 vols., Barry & Celles 1991); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Senegal SEN 196.722 +1845177116
1845All Species
1771Indigenous Species
1771Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
543 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1133 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
74 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Enumeration des plantes vasculaires du Senegal (Lebrun 1973); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore illustrée du Sénégal (Berhaut, ed., 1971-1988, incomplete); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Orchidaceae (van den Berghen). - In: Flore Illustree du Senegal, Vol. 9 (Berhault 1988)
more country list Gambia GAM 11.295 -6706462
670All Species
646Indigenous Species
646Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
180 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
436 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
24 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Gambian Biodiversity: A Provisional Checklist of all Species Recorded within the Gambia (Emms & Brummitt 2005) [not seen]; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of the Gambia (Jones 1994); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Guinea-Bissau GNB 36.125 ++140613355
1406All Species
1335Indigenous Species
1335Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
22 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
24 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
330 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
928 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) (Catarino et al. 2008); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora da Guiné-Bissau / Jardim e museu agrícola do Ultramar .. (7 vol., 1971-1983, incomplete); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Guinea [Conakry] GUI 245.857 ++3058275696
3058All Species
2756Indigenous Species
2756Indigenous Species except Microspecies
96Endemic Species
96Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
168 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
44 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
628 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
128 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1788 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
302 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore de la République de Guinée (Lisowski 2009); Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée (Lisowski 2011); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Sierra Leone SIE 71.740 o2683256357
2683All Species
2563Indigenous Species
2563Indigenous Species except Microspecies
57Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
138 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
59 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
576 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
158 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
1632 Dicotyledons (of them 39 endemic)
120 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Liberia LBR 99.067 o2217216277
2217All Species
2162Indigenous Species
2161Indigenous Species except Microspecies
77Endemic Species
77Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
192 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
61 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
376 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
147 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1386 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Über die Farne Liberias (Westafrika), ihr Vorkommen und ihre Verbreitung (Kunkel 1962)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Mali MLI 1.240.192 o164515746
1645All Species
1574Indigenous Species
1573Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
440 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1073 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali (Boudet et al. 1986); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)
more country list Burkina Faso BKN 274.200 +203018021
2030All Species
1802Indigenous Species
1802Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
15 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
550 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1188 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
228 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso (Lebrun et al. 1991); Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso (Thiombiano et al. 2012); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Diversity, distribution and preliminary conservation status of the flora of Burkina Faso (Schmidt et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931);
more country list Ivory Coast IVO 322.462 +3511340870
3511All Species
3408Indigenous Species
3408Indigenous Species except Microspecies
70Endemic Species
70Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
157 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
93 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
702 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
216 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2240 Dicotyledons (of them 57 endemic)
103 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flore de la Cote d'Ivoire: Catalogue systematique, biogeographie et ecologie (Ake-Assi 2001-2002); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Les Orchidees de Cote d’Ivoire (Perez-Vera 2003)
more country list Ghana GHA 238.500 o3164302632
3164All Species
3026Indigenous Species
3026Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
158 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
67 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
681 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
154 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1965 Dicotyledons (of them 26 endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A list of the Gold Coast Pteridophyta (Adams & Alston 1955); Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Togo TOG 56.785 ++2152198413
2152All Species
1984Indigenous Species
1983Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
26 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
525 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
77 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1297 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
168 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore analytique du Togo (Brunel, ed., 1984); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Flore analytique du Togo (Brunel & Butzin 1985)
more country list Benin BEN 112.622 ++2652226211
2652All Species
2262Indigenous Species
2262Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
50 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
38 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
543 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1583 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
390 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Souza (1987); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Bénin (3 vols., Souza, ed., 2006-2009); Flore analytique du Benin (Akoegninou et al., eds., 2006); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Flora of Benin, Vol. 1 (Souza 1987); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Niger NGR 1.267.000 o8097832
809All Species
783Indigenous Species
783Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
237 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
526 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
26 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger (Fabrègues & Lebrun 1976); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Nigeria NGA 923.768 o4676454884
4676All Species
4548Indigenous Species
4547Indigenous Species except Microspecies
84Endemic Species
84Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
191 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
113 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
913 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
283 Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
3045 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Orchids of Nigeria (Segerbäck et al. 1983)
WEST CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA (23)
more country list Cameroon CMN 475.442 +71676737793
7167All Species
6737Indigenous Species
6737Indigenous Species except Microspecies
793Endemic Species
793Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
275 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
235 Basal Angiosperms (of them 37 endemic)
1030 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 84 endemic)
406 Orchids (of them 45 endemic)
4785 Dicotyledons (of them 621 endemic)
430 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist (Onana 2011); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Cameroun (1963 - 2014, 79 families covered, still incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 3 (Tardieu-Blot 1964); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953); The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist (Onana 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 34-36: Orchidaceae 1-3 (Szlachetko & Olszewski 1998/2001)
more country list Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo) BIO 2.017 +1936174033
1936All Species
1740Indigenous Species
1740Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
212 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
59 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
261 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
134 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
1074 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
196 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Velayos, M. et al. (2013): Preliminary Checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Velayos, ed., 2008 ff., 5 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); The Pteridophyta of Bioko, Vol. 1-5 (Benl 1978-91)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Principe Isl. PRI 146 +52141219
521All Species
412Indigenous Species
412Indigenous Species except Microspecies
19Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
78 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
63 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
197 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
109 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated Catalogue of the flowering plants of Sao Tome and Principe (Figueiredo et al. 2011); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Catalogue of the vascular plants of S. Tome etc. (Exell 1944); Checklist of the ferns of Sao Tome and Principe (Internet)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Guide des Orchidees de Sao Tome et Principe (Stevart & de Oliveira (2000)
more country list Sao Tomé SAO 855 +111683279
1116All Species
832Indigenous Species
832Indigenous Species except Microspecies
79Endemic Species
79Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
146 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
107 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
98 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
462 Dicotyledons (of them 50 endemic)
284 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated Catalogue of the flowering plants of Sao Tome and Principe (Figueiredo et al. 2011); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Checklist of the ferns of Sao Tome and Principe (Internet)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Guide des Orchidees de Sao Tome et Principe (Stevart & de Oliveira (2000)
more country list Annobon Isl. ANN 17 +33727216
337All Species
272Indigenous Species
272Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
50 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
25 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
145 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
65 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Velayos, M. et al. (2016): Checklist of the Vascular plants of Annobon (Equatorial Guinea); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Velayos, M. et al. (2014): Checklist of the Vascular plants of Annobon (Equatorial Guinea); Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial, Vol. 1 (Velayos et al. 2008)
more country list Equatorial Guinea (mainland [Rio Muni], excluding islands) EQG 24.500 -1812176443
1812All Species
1764Indigenous Species
1764Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
43Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
136 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
68 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
297 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
160 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1101 Dicotyledons (of them 34 endemic)
48 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of Equatorial Guinean Flora (Royal Jardin Botanico Madrid, Internet); CJB African Plant Database; few checklists on family level

Most recent flora

Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Velayos, ed., 2008 ff., 5 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial, Vol. 1 (Velayos et al. 2008)
more country list Gabon GAB 267.667 +47164614504
4716All Species
4614Indigenous Species
4614Indigenous Species except Microspecies
504Endemic Species
504Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
173 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
199 Basal Angiosperms (of them 24 endemic)
595 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 47 endemic)
276 Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
3369 Dicotyledons (of them 411 endemic)
102 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Sosef et al. (2006): Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Gabon (Aubreville et al., eds., 1961 ff., 54 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore du Gabon, Vol. 8. Ptéridophytes (Tardieu-Blot 1964); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae 1 (Szlachetko & Olszewski 2000). In: Flore du Gabon (Morat, ed.)
more country list Congo [Brazzaville] CON 342.000 +4186404774
4186All Species
4047Indigenous Species
4047Indigenous Species except Microspecies
74Endemic Species
74Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
210 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
156 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
715 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
158 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2803 Dicotyledons (of them 51 endemic)
139 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo (Sita & Moutsambote 1988); Lachenaud (2009): La flore des plantes vascularies de la Republique du Congo: nouvelles donnees; CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Central African Republic CAF 622.436 +3528333889
3528All Species
3338Indigenous Species
3338Indigenous Species except Microspecies
89Endemic Species
89Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
115 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
583 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
154 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2387 Dicotyledons (of them 55 endemic)
190 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique (Boulevert 1977-1984, 3 vols.); CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique (Boulevert 1977); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Central African Republic (Cribb & Fay 1987)
more country list Cabinda CAB 7.823 o47847742
478All Species
477Indigenous Species
477Indigenous Species except Microspecies
42Endemic Species
42Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
36 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
43 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
397 Dicotyledons (of them 30 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plants of Angola (Figueiredo & Smith 2008) [Checklist]; CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Conspectus florae angolensis: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A provisional checklist of the Orchidaceae of Angola (Schelpe 1976)
more country list D.R. Congo (Zaire) ZAI 2.344.885 o881086061332
8810All Species
8606Indigenous Species
8606Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1332Endemic Species
1332Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
330 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
172 Basal Angiosperms (of them 20 endemic)
1294 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 177 endemic)
547 Orchids (of them 50 endemic)
6252 Dicotyledons (of them 1071 endemic)
204 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete); Flora of Tropical East Africa (various volumes) - covers mountains in eastern part of the country

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of the Upper Katanga (Kornas et al. 2000); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
more country list Rwanda RWA 26.338 o2140209857
2140All Species
2098Indigenous Species
2098Indigenous Species except Microspecies
57Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
174 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
24 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
391 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
202 Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
1307 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
42 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985); Flora of Tropical East Africa (various volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
more country list Burundi BUR 27.834 o2027199337
2027All Species
1993Indigenous Species
1993Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
180 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
359 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
180 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1256 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985))

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA (24)
more country list Chad CHA 1.284.000 ++1782162314
1782All Species
1623Indigenous Species
1623Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
14 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
361 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1183 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
159 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis (Brundu 2013); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad meridional (Lebrun et al. 1972, with supplements 1976, 1977, 1986)

Most recent flora

Flore illustrée du Chad (César & Chatelain 2019)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Sudan SUD 1.886.068 +2116198828
2116All Species
1988Indigenous Species
1988Indigenous Species except Microspecies
28Endemic Species
28Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
170 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
521 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1270 Dicotyledons (of them 18 endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Sudan and South Sudan (Darbyshire et al. 2015); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan (Andrews 1950-1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and the fern-allies of the Sudan (Macleay 1953); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list South Sudan SSU 619.745 +2781268540
2781All Species
2685Indigenous Species
2685Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
40Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
36 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
651 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1924 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Sudan and South Sudan (Darbyshire et al. 2015); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan (Andrews 1950-1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and the fern-allies of the Sudan (Macleay 1953); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Ethiopia ETH 1.133.380 ++50474840566
5047All Species
4840Indigenous Species
4840Indigenous Species except Microspecies
566Endemic Species
566Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
177 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1056 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 104 endemic)
164 Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
3422 Dicotyledons (of them 434 endemic)
207 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989 - 2006, 8 vols., complete except Ferns)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 6 (Cribb & Thomas 1997)
more country list Eritrea ERI 121.144 ++1548149925
1548All Species
1499Indigenous Species
1499Indigenous Species except Microspecies
25Endemic Species
25Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
28 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
410 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1029 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
49 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989 - 2006, 8 vols., complete except Ferns)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 6 (Cribb & Thomas 1997)
more country list Djibouti DJI 23.200 +62358910
623All Species
589Indigenous Species
589Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
13 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
129 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
441 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la République de Djibouti (Lebrun et al. 1990); CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)
more country list Somalia SOM 637.700 ++29662906716
2966All Species
2906Indigenous Species
2906Indigenous Species except Microspecies
716Endemic Species
716Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
24.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
15 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
557 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 102 endemic)
11 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2280 Dicotyledons (of them 613 endemic)
60 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The plants of Somalia: an overview and checklist (Kuchar 1986); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Somalia (Thulin, ed., 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1 (Thulin, ed., 1993)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Pettersson). - In: Flora of Somalia, Vol. 4 (Thulin 1995)
more country list Soqotra (incl. Abd-al-Kuri Isl., Samha Isl.) SOC 3.579 ++818782304
818All Species
782Indigenous Species
781Indigenous Species except Microspecies
304Endemic Species
303Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
37% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
162 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
586 Dicotyledons (of them 276 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
36 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Ethnoflora of Soqotra (Miller & Morris 2004)
EAST TROPICAL AFRICA (25)
more country list Uganda UGA 241.038 ++4511435169
4511All Species
4351Indigenous Species
4350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
69Endemic Species
69Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
269 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
51 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
937 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
291 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
2798 Dicotyledons (of them 38 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
160 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae: in Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989)
more country list Kenya KEN 582.646 ++62506010477
6250All Species
6010Indigenous Species
6010Indigenous Species except Microspecies
477Endemic Species
477Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
278 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
62 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
1251 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 87 endemic)
258 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
4155 Dicotyledons (of them 367 endemic)
240 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989); Orchids of Kenya (Stewart 1996)
more country list Tanzania (incl. Pemba Isl., Zanzibar) TAN 945.268 ++942691501567
9426All Species
9150Indigenous Species
9150Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1567Endemic Species
1567Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
401 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 24 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
125 Basal Angiosperms (of them 41 endemic)
1735 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 180 endemic)
550 Orchids (of them 91 endemic)
6331 Dicotyledons (of them 1228 endemic)
276 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989)
SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA (26)
more country list Angola (excl. Cabinda) ANG 1.238.877 +639361501160
6393All Species
6150Indigenous Species
6150Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1160Endemic Species
1160Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
202 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
73 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
1183 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 163 endemic)
216 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
4471 Dicotyledons (of them 971 endemic)
243 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plants of Angola (Figueiredo & Smith 2008) [Checklist]; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Conspectus florae Angolensis (Fernandes et al., eds., 1937-1993, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A provisional checklist of the Orchidaceae of Angola (Schelpe 1976)
more country list Zambia ZAM 752.614 ++59185710387
5918All Species
5710Indigenous Species
5710Indigenous Species except Microspecies
387Endemic Species
387Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
175 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
1073 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 116 endemic)
409 Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
3999 Dicotyledons (of them 245 endemic)
208 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of Zambian vascular plants (Phiri 2005); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970); Distribution and ecology of the Pteridophytes in Zambia (Kornas 1978)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora Zambesiaca (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98)
more country list Malawi MLW 118.484 ++41984102155
4198All Species
4102Indigenous Species
4102Indigenous Species except Microspecies
155Endemic Species
155Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
234 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
31 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
723 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 37 endemic)
405 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
2706 Dicotyledons (of them 100 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in Flora Zambesiaca (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98)
more country list Zimbabwe ZIM 390.759 ++54244981223
5424All Species
4981Indigenous Species
4980Indigenous Species except Microspecies
223Endemic Species
223Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
271 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
38 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
875 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 40 endemic)
349 Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
3441 Dicotyledons (of them 164 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
443 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants (Mapaura 2004); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Zambesiaca: Orchidaceae (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98); A list of orchids indigenous in Rhodesia (Grosvenor 1976)
more country list Mozambique MOZ 799.380 ++53434922275
5343All Species
4922Indigenous Species
4922Indigenous Species except Microspecies
275Endemic Species
275Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
224 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
54 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
723 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 34 endemic)
203 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
3699 Dicotyledons (of them 226 endemic)
421 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique (da Silva et al. 2004); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A Provisional Check-List of the Orchidaceae of Mozambique (Schelpe 1976)
SOUTH AFRICA (27)
more country list Namibia (incl. Caprivi Strip) NAM 824.269 ++40303838628
4030All Species
3838Indigenous Species
3838Indigenous Species except Microspecies
628Endemic Species
628Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
921 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 122 endemic)
19 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2825 Dicotyledons (of them 504 endemic)
192 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of Namibian Indigenous and Naturalised Plants (Klaassen & Kwembeya 2013); List of Namibian Plant Species (Kolberg et al. 1992); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrica (Merxmüller 1966-1972, very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika, Lfg. 26 (Merxmüller, ed., 1969)
more country list Botswana BOT 581.730 ++2565244814
2565All Species
2448Indigenous Species
2448Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
49 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
636 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
27 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1723 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
117 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana (Setshogo 2005); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1970); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Zambesiaca: Orchidaceae (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98); Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list South Africa SAF 1.219.090 +204021945312751
20402All Species
19453Indigenous Species
19439Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12751Endemic Species
12751Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
62.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
269 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 32 endemic)
46 Gymnosperms (of them 31 endemic)
40 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
4617 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3040 endemic)
469 Orchids (of them 255 endemic)
14012 Dicotyledons (of them 9387 endemic)
14 Microspecies (of them endemic)
949 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list Lesotho LES 30.355 +1772162237
1772All Species
1622Indigenous Species
1620Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
87 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
431 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
60 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1042 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
150 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Lesotho (Basutoland) (Guillarmod 1971); Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list Eswatini [Swaziland] SWZ 17.363 +2780263737
2780All Species
2637Indigenous Species
2637Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
107 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
17 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
642 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
89 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1770 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
143 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Flora of Swaziland: Orchidaceae (Compton 1976)
MIDDLE ATLANTIC OCEAN (28)
more country list Ascension Isl. ASC 88 +403413
40All Species
34Indigenous Species
34Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
32.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
15 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
7 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
6 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Fairhurst, W. (2004) Flowering plants of Ascension Island; A plan for the conservation of endemic and native flora of Ascension Island (Lambdon et al. 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
more country list St. Helena STH 122 ++1028251
102All Species
82Indigenous Species
82Indigenous Species except Microspecies
51Endemic Species
51Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
50% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
29 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 30 endemic)
20 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

St. Helena: Checklist of endemic & indigenous plants (Clifton 1996)

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants & Ferns of St. Helena (Lambdon 2013); The Endemic Flora of St. Helena (Cronk 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
INDIAN OCEAN (29)
more country list Madagascar MDG 587.041 +11882114789395
11882All Species
11478Indigenous Species
11478Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9395Endemic Species
9395Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
79.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
688 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 347 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
348 Basal Angiosperms (of them 330 endemic)
1559 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1021 endemic)
930 Orchids (of them 754 endemic)
7944 Dicotyledons (of them 6937 endemic)
404 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar (www.tropicos.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (H. Humbert, ed., 1937 ff., almost complete, but partially outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of Madagascar: annotated checklist (Du Puy et al. 1999); Orchids of Madagascar, ed. 2 (Hermans 2007)
more country list Comores (incl. Mayotte) COM 1.862 o1045996205
1045All Species
996Indigenous Species
996Indigenous Species except Microspecies
205Endemic Species
205Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
162 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 11 endemic)
168 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
93 Orchids (of them 33 endemic)
552 Dicotyledons (of them 130 endemic)
49 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (H. Humbert, ed., 1937 ff., almost complete, but partially outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of Madagascar: annotated checklist (Du Puy et al. 1999); Orchids of Madagascar, ed. 2 (Hermans 2007)
more country list Mozambique Channel Isl. (Iles Eparses p. p., incl. Ile Europa, Juan de Nova Isl.) MCI 36 +170830
170All Species
83Indigenous Species
81Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
61 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
87 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated account of the vascular flora of the Iles Eparses (Boullet et al. 2018)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)
more country list Mauritius (incl. Tromelin Isl.) MAU 2.040 ++19411025274
1941All Species
1025Indigenous Species
1025Indigenous Species except Microspecies
274Endemic Species
274Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
201 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
25 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
223 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 34 endemic)
97 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
478 Dicotyledons (of them 197 endemic)
916 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list La Reunion REU 2.503 ++18491080259
1849All Species
1080Indigenous Species
1080Indigenous Species except Microspecies
259Endemic Species
259Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
248 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 19 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
211 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
230 Orchids (of them 83 endemic)
368 Dicotyledons (of them 125 endemic)
769 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list Rodrigues Isl. ROD 109 ++42522344
425All Species
223Indigenous Species
223Indigenous Species except Microspecies
44Endemic Species
44Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
72 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
5 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
115 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
202 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list Iles Glorieuses (Iles Eparses p. p.) IGL 7 +128630
128All Species
63Indigenous Species
61Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
38 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
65 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated account of the vascular flora of the Iles Eparses (Boullet et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Agalega Isl. AGA 24 -110
1All Species
1Indigenous Species
1Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega (Fosberg et al. 1983, only historical records, no recent data) [not seen or included]

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Aldabra ALD 155 +11410121
114All Species
101Indigenous Species
100Indigenous Species except Microspecies
21Endemic Species
21Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
43 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989); Flora of Aldabra (Hemsley 1919)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Seychelles SEY 300 +81040373
810All Species
403Indigenous Species
403Indigenous Species except Microspecies
73Endemic Species
73Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
85 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
122 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
22 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
168 Dicotyledons (of them 41 endemic)
407 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Chagos Arch. (Diego Garcia) CGS 30 ++179801
179All Species
80Indigenous Species
80Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
53 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
99 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia (Topp 1988)
TEMPERATE ASIA (3)
SIBERIA (30)
more country list Siberia (incl. Altay, Sayan, Tuva, Krasnoyarsk, Buryatia, Chita, Transbaikalia, Yakutia, Irkutsk, NE-Siberia) SIB 10.600.000 +45854509562
4585All Species
4509Indigenous Species
4312Indigenous Species except Microspecies
562Endemic Species
481Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
97 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
23 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
922 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 103 endemic)
43 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3419 Dicotyledons (of them 454 endemic)
197 Microspecies (of them 81 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR / chief ed. V. L. Komarov (30 vols., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff., 3 vols. published); Flora of Siberia (Malychev, ed., 2000 ff., 14 vols., to be continued); Vascular Plants of the Russian Far East (Kharkevich, ed., 2003 ff., 1 vol. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968)
RUSSIAN FAR EAST (31)
more country list Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Amur, Ussuri, Okhotsk, Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Commander Isl., Primorye, Khabarovsk, Magadan) RFE 2.500.000 +38473556595
3847All Species
3556Indigenous Species
3439Indigenous Species except Microspecies
595Endemic Species
518Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
137 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
909 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 139 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2416 Dicotyledons (of them 447 endemic)
117 Microspecies (of them 77 endemic)
291 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR / chief ed. V. L. Komarov (30 vols., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff., 3 vols. published); Flora of Siberia (Malychev, ed., 2000 ff., 14 vols., to be continued); Vascular Plants of the Russian Far East (Kharkevich, ed., 2003 ff., 1 vol. published); Flora murmanskoj oblasti (Kirova, 5 vols., 1953-1966); Flora i paleogeografija Komandoskikh ostrovov (Vasil'ev 1957)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968)
MIDDLE ASIA (32)
more country list Kazakhstan KAZ 2.717.300 +53155129504
5315All Species
5129Indigenous Species
4999Indigenous Species except Microspecies
504Endemic Species
478Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
876 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 67 endemic)
27 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4142 Dicotyledons (of them 437 endemic)
130 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
186 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Kazakhstan (Abdulina 1999)

Most recent flora

Flora Kazakhstana (Pavlov, etc., 1956-1966, 9 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Kazakhstan SSR (Kuznetzov & Pavlov 1958); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Turkmenistan TKM 488.100 +29712839203
2971All Species
2839Indigenous Species
2819Indigenous Species except Microspecies
203Endemic Species
199Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
540 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
14 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2254 Dicotyledons (of them 173 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
132 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published); Flora Turkmenii (Fedtschenko et al., eds., 1932-60); Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Opredelitelja Rastenii Turkmenistana (Key to the Plants of Turkmenistan) (Nikitin & Geldichanov 1988)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) (Kopet Dagh only)
more country list Uzbekistan UZB 447.700 o41523778259
4152All Species
3778Indigenous Species
3740Indigenous Species except Microspecies
259Endemic Species
255Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
664 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3070 Dicotyledons (of them 203 endemic)
38 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
374 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Sennikov et al. (Checklist, in prep.)

Most recent flora

Flora Uzbekistana (Schreder et al., eds., 1953-62, 6 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Uzbekistana, Vol. 1 (Schreder et al. 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae (Czerniakowska). - In: Flora Uzbekistanica I (Schreiber, ed., 1941); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Kyrgyzstan (Kirgisia) KGZ 198.500 +37113633334
3711All Species
3633Indigenous Species
3528Indigenous Species except Microspecies
334Endemic Species
320Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
612 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 57 endemic)
12 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2971 Dicotyledons (of them 277 endemic)
105 Microspecies (of them 14 endemic)
78 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan (Lazkov & Sultanova 2011)

Most recent flora

Flora Kirghiszkoj SSR (Vykhotsev 1967-70, incomplete); Nikitina (1995); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Kirgistan III (Shishkin & Vvedensky 1951); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Tajikistan TZK 143.100 o46754434526
4675All Species
4434Indigenous Species
4350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
526Endemic Species
500Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
28 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
741 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 68 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3643 Dicotyledons (of them 457 endemic)
84 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
241 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas (Nowak & Nobis 2020, only about 30% covered); Flora Tadzikskoj SSR (Ovchinnikov et al., ed., 1957 - 1991, 10 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Tadjikskoj SSSR, Vol. 1 (Ovchinnikov 1957)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Tadshikistan (Ovchinnikov 1963); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
CAUCASUS (33)
more country list Northern Caucasus (incl. Chechnya, Daghestan, etc.) NCS 200.000 +41283891351
4128All Species
3891Indigenous Species
3790Indigenous Species except Microspecies
351Endemic Species
315Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
747 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3016 Dicotyledons (of them 311 endemic)
101 Microspecies (of them 36 endemic)
237 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orkhidei nachei strany (Vakhrameeva et al. 1991)
more country list Gruziya [Georgia - Caucasus] (incl. Abkhazia, Adzharia) GEO 69.700 +39763709215
3976All Species
3709Indigenous Species
3596Indigenous Species except Microspecies
215Endemic Species
184Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
75 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
689 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2883 Dicotyledons (of them 197 endemic)
113 Microspecies (of them 31 endemic)
267 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Georgia - A Nomenclatural Checklist (Gagnidze 2005); Conspectus Flora Kavkaza (Takhtajan 2003-2012, 4 of 5 vols. published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Georgia (in Georgian), Vol. 1 (1971), Vol. 2 (2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Illustrated Field Guide to the Flora of Georgia (South Caucasus) (Fischer et al. 2018)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular Plants of Georgia - A Nomenclatural Checklist (Gagnidze 2005)
more country list Armenia ARM 29.800 +35023422148
3502All Species
3422Indigenous Species
3350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
148Endemic Species
132Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
658 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2669 Dicotyledons (of them 128 endemic)
72 Microspecies (of them 16 endemic)
80 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Flora of Armenia (Saghatelyan, unpubl.); Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Armenii (ed. A. L. Tahtadzjiana) (11 vols., 1954-2011); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [S-Aserbaidshan, Talysh-Region]
more country list Azerbaijan (incl. Talysh, incl. Nakhichevan) AZE 81.100 +36903544134
3690All Species
3544Indigenous Species
3490Indigenous Species except Microspecies
134Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
747 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2691 Dicotyledons (of them 112 endemic)
54 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
146 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Azerbaidzana (2 vols. published, 1953-1957); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [Talysh region only]; Orchidaceae (Karjagin). - In: Flora of Aserbaidshan II (1952)
WESTERN ASIA (34)
more country list Eastern Aegaean Islands (Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodos, Kos, Symi, Samos, Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Limnos etc.) EAI 7.000 ++2385223175
2385All Species
2231Indigenous Species
2215Indigenous Species except Microspecies
75Endemic Species
75Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
463 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
54 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1663 Dicotyledons (of them 59 endemic)
16 Microspecies (of them endemic)
154 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016); Dimopoulos et al. (2013, 2016); Checklist updating and analysis of the flora of Symi island and of the nearby island of Seskli (Cattaneo & Grano 2019); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Hellenica (Strid & Kit Tan, eds., 1997 ff.); Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000); Flora von Rhodos and Chalki (Kleinsteuber et al., 2016 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen von Kreta und Karpathos (Alibertis 1997); Orchideen auf Rhodos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001); Orchideen auf Kreta, Karpathos & Kasos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001)
more country list Turkey (excl. European Turkey) TUR 756.816 ++981196473383
9811All Species
9647Indigenous Species
9470Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3383Endemic Species
3311Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
33.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
98 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
33 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
1580 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 507 endemic)
91 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
7824 Dicotyledons (of them 2849 endemic)
177 Microspecies (of them 72 endemic)
164 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000, 9 vols. + 2 supplement volumes, complete); Flowers of Turkey - A photo guide (Pils 2006)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen der Türkei (Kreutz 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey, Vol. 11 (Supplement (Kreutz 2000); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982)
more country list Iraq IRQ 438.317 +29952950176
2995All Species
2950Indigenous Species
2931Indigenous Species except Microspecies
176Endemic Species
173Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
551 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2349 Dicotyledons (of them 163 endemic)
19 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
45 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Iraq (1966-1980, incomplete); Flora of Lowland Iraq (Rechinger, ed., 1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Iraq, Vol. 8 (Wood 1985)
more country list Iran IRN 1.648.000 ++791878472613
7918All Species
7847Indigenous Species
7766Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2613Endemic Species
2587Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
32.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
1034 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 173 endemic)
43 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6687 Dicotyledons (of them 2434 endemic)
81 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010, 178 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978)
more country list Afghanistan AFG 652.225 ++43724266885
4372All Species
4266Indigenous Species
4217Indigenous Species except Microspecies
885Endemic Species
878Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
710 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 63 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3474 Dicotyledons (of them 822 endemic)
49 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
106 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Afghanistan: an augmented checklist (Breckle et al. 2013); Checklist of the Flowering plants of Afghanistan (Podlech 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010, 178 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978)
more country list Cyprus CYP 9.251 ++16921606112
1692All Species
1606Indigenous Species
1595Indigenous Species except Microspecies
112Endemic Species
109Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
23 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
322 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
38 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1211 Dicotyledons (of them 85 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
86 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 1/2 (Meikle 1977, 1985); An Illustrated Flora of North Cyprus, Vol. 2 (Viney 1996); Illustrated Flora of Cyprus (Christofides 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Orchidaceae (J. J. Wood). - In: Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 2 (Meikle 1985); Orchids of Cyprus (Morschek & Morschek 1996)
more country list Lebanon LEB 10.230 +26742607119
2674All Species
2607Indigenous Species
2594Indigenous Species except Microspecies
119Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
32 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
466 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2057 Dicotyledons (of them 98 endemic)
13 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
67 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie (Mouterde, 1966/1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie I (Mouterde 1966); Die Orchideen der Levante (Fragman & Kretzschmar, in prep.)
more country list Syria SYR 185.180 +2849280690
2849All Species
2806Indigenous Species
2796Indigenous Species except Microspecies
90Endemic Species
90Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
16 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
473 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2264 Dicotyledons (of them 62 endemic)
10 Microspecies (of them endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie (Mouterde, 1966/1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, Vol. I (Mouterde 1966); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982)
more country list Israel + Palestine ISR 21.946 +2443233561
2443All Species
2335Indigenous Species
2332Indigenous Species except Microspecies
61Endemic Species
61Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
473 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1800 Dicotyledons (of them 43 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
108 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Palaestina (4 + 4 vols., 1966-1987, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Annotated List of the Orchids of Israel (Dafni et al. 1986); Orchids of Israel (Dafni 1981); Flora Palestina, pt. IV (Feinbrun-Dothan 1986)
more country list Sinai peninsula SIN 61.000 +1325128831
1325All Species
1288Indigenous Species
1288Indigenous Species except Microspecies
31Endemic Species
31Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
260 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1012 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
37 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Egypt (Boulos, ed., 1999-2005)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Flora of Egypt, Vol. 1: Azollaceae - Oxalidaceae (Boulos 1999)
more country list Jordania JOR 89.556 +1612158129
1612All Species
1581Indigenous Species
1577Indigenous Species except Microspecies
29Endemic Species
29Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
269 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1286 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
31 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Jordan (Al-Eisawi 1986)
ARABIAN PENINSULA (35)
more country list Saudi Arabia SAU 2.240.000 +2105202685
2105All Species
2026Indigenous Species
2026Indigenous Species except Microspecies
85Endemic Species
85Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
407 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1575 Dicotyledons (of them 62 endemic)
79 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Saudi-Arabia (3 vols., 3rd ed., Migahid 1988-1989); Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Chaudhary, ed., 2001 ff.); Flora of Eastern Saudi-Arabia (Mandaville 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986); Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.), Vol. 6 (Heller & Heyn 1991); Flora of Eastern Saudi-Arabia (MANDAVILLE 1990); Orchidaceae, in: Flora of Saudi-Arabia, 3. Aufl. (MIGAHID 1989)
more country list Kuwait KUW 17.820 ++3933861
393All Species
386Indigenous Species
386Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
88 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
295 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Kuwait (2 vols., 1985-1987, complete); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)
more country list Bahrain BAR 707 +2762660
276All Species
266Indigenous Species
266Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
55 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
207 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Qatar QAT 11.427 ++3923110
392All Species
311Indigenous Species
311Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
72 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
237 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
81 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

The Flora of Qatar (2 vols., Abd el Bary & Ekhlas 2012); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list United Arab Emirates (incl. Dubai, Abu Dhabi) UAE 83.600 +3753581
375All Species
358Indigenous Species
358Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
106 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
248 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
17 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Oman OMA 309.500 ++10981057104
1098All Species
1057Indigenous Species
1057Indigenous Species except Microspecies
104Endemic Species
104Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
220 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
803 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
41 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman (Ghazanfar 1992)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Sultanate of Oman (Ghazanfar et al., 4 vols. 2003-2018, complete); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Yemen (excl. Soqotra) YEM 527.970 +20631969212
2063All Species
1969Indigenous Species
1969Indigenous Species except Microspecies
212Endemic Species
212Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
434 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
18 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1461 Dicotyledons (of them 186 endemic)
94 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
CHINA (36)
more country list China (incl. Hongkong, Macao and Hainan; excl. Tibet, Taiwan and South China Sea Isl.) CHI 8.351.300 ++309322988014147
30932All Species
29880Indigenous Species
29578Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14147Endemic Species
13927Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
45% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1903 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 599 endemic)
169 Gymnosperms (of them 52 endemic)
950 Basal Angiosperms (of them 544 endemic)
4352 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1954 endemic)
1332 Orchids (of them 468 endemic)
21174 Dicotyledons (of them 10530 endemic)
302 Microspecies (of them 220 endemic)
1052 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete, plus many picture volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 2-6); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999])

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Native Orchids of China in Colour (Singchi = Xinqi et al. 1998)
more country list Tibet [Xizang] TIB 1.220.000 ++682767771006
6827All Species
6777Indigenous Species
6710Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1006Endemic Species
986Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
491 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
51 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
94 Basal Angiosperms (of them 18 endemic)
844 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 76 endemic)
288 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
5009 Dicotyledons (of them 879 endemic)
67 Microspecies (of them 20 endemic)
50 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete, plus many picture volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 2-6); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999])

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Native Orchids of China in Colour (Singchi = Xinqi et al. 1998)
MONGOLIA (37)
more country list Mongolia MON 1.566.500 ++28332794148
2833All Species
2794Indigenous Species
2725Indigenous Species except Microspecies
148Endemic Species
138Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
50 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
521 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
25 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2176 Dicotyledons (of them 139 endemic)
69 Microspecies (of them 10 endemic)
39 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus of the vascular plants of Mongolia (Urgamal et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia (Grubov 1982); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999]); Flowers of Mongolia (Hauck & Solongo 2010)
EASTERN ASIA (38)
more country list North Korea NKO 120.500 ++1891188823
1891All Species
1888Indigenous Species
1886Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
103 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
499 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1218 Dicotyledons (of them 16 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
3 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF) (Chang et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Illustrated flora of Korea (Lee 1979, 2 vols.); Flora of Korea (No Lee 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee 1985)
more country list South Korea (incl. Cheju Do Isl.) KOR 99.300 ++29772348128
2977All Species
2348Indigenous Species
2343Indigenous Species except Microspecies
128Endemic Species
125Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
274 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
534 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
84 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1403 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
629 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF) (Chang et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Illustrated flora of Korea (Lee 1979, 2 vols.); Flora of Korea (No Lee 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee 1985)
more country list Japan (incl. Izu Isl., Yakushima Isl., excl. Ryukyu Isl. and Bonin Isl.) JAP 372.769 ++525048091336
5250All Species
4809Indigenous Species
4792Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1336Endemic Species
1328Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
672 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 106 endemic)
40 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
101 Basal Angiosperms (of them 53 endemic)
1093 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 282 endemic)
195 Orchids (of them 37 endemic)
2708 Dicotyledons (of them 851 endemic)
17 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
441 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Japan (revised edition, Iwatsuki et al., eds., 1995 ff., 7 of 8 parts published, last part planned for 2020)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Japan (Ohwi 1965)
more country list Ryukyu Isl. (Nansei Shoto) (incl. Osumi Isl., Tokara Isl., Amami Isl., Okinawa Isl., Daito Isl., Sakishima Isl.) NNS 4.700 ++20461808117
2046All Species
1808Indigenous Species
1806Indigenous Species except Microspecies
117Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
310 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 11 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
48 Basal Angiosperms (of them 14 endemic)
397 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
130 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
915 Dicotyledons (of them 67 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
238 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Okinawa and the Southern Ryukyu Islands (Walker 1976)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Ryukyu Islands (Garay & Sweet 1974) [incl. checklist of northern Ryukyu Isl.]
more country list Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Isl.) OGA 73 ++48134873
481All Species
348Indigenous Species
348Indigenous Species except Microspecies
73Endemic Species
73Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
171 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
133 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands (Kobayashi & Ono 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bonin Islands (Toyoda 1981)
more country list Kazan-Retto (Volcano Isl., Iwo-jima) KZN 30 ++2481868
248All Species
186Indigenous Species
186Indigenous Species except Microspecies
8Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
55 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
46 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
75 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands (Kobayashi & Ono 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bonin Islands (Toyoda 1981)
more country list Taiwan (incl. Lan Yu Isl.) TAI 36.000 ++53524318926
5352All Species
4318Indigenous Species
4307Indigenous Species except Microspecies
926Endemic Species
916Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
17.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
751 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 81 endemic)
25 Gymnosperms (of them 8 endemic)
113 Basal Angiosperms (of them 40 endemic)
699 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
409 Orchids (of them 144 endemic)
2321 Dicotyledons (of them 556 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 10 endemic)
1034 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Taiwan (Li et al., eds., 1975-2003); Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Updating Taiwanese pteridophyte checklist (Taiwan Pteridophyte Group 2019); Index to Ferns and Fern Allies of Taiwan (Knapp 2014); Ferns of Taiwan (Ralf Knapp 2010, with supplement 2013); Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 1-6, 1990 ff.); Flora of Taiwan, Vol. 1 (2nd. ed., 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Flora of Taiwan (Li et al., 1975-79); Native Orchids of Taiwan (Lin 1975-1987, 3 vols.)
TROPICAL ASIA (4)
INDIAN SUBCONTINENT (40)
more country list Pakistan PAK 796.095 +53034703315
5303All Species
4703Indigenous Species
4633Indigenous Species except Microspecies
315Endemic Species
292Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
140 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
23 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
879 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3608 Dicotyledons (of them 292 endemic)
70 Microspecies (of them 23 endemic)
600 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir (Stewart 1972)

Most recent flora

Flora of West Pakistan (Nasir, ed., 1970 ff., 217 vols., mostly complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [only northern and western part]; Flora of Pakistan, no. 164 (Renz 1984)
more country list Nepal NEP 147.181 +62535880367
6253All Species
5880Indigenous Species
5836Indigenous Species except Microspecies
367Endemic Species
363Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
562 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
916 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 44 endemic)
392 Orchids (of them 25 endemic)
3894 Dicotyledons (of them 292 endemic)
44 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
373 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Nepalese Flowering Plants (3 vols., Rajbhandari et al. 2012, plus supplement 2015)

Most recent flora

Flora of Nepal (publication ongoing, only vol. 3 published [Watson et al., ed., 2011]; Handbook of Flowering Plants of Nepal (Vol. 1 of 2, Shrestha et al. 2018); Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, 3 of 50 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Fraser-Jenkins et al. (2015-2020): Ferns and Fern-allies of Nepal, Volume 1-3 (complete); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997); An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal (Press, Shrestha & Sutton 2001); The Orchids of Nepal Himalaya (Banerji & Pradhan 1984); Orchids of Nepal (Banerji 1978)
more country list Bhutan BHU 47.000 ++49674689155
4967All Species
4689Indigenous Species
4672Indigenous Species except Microspecies
155Endemic Species
153Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
536 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
105 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
677 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
382 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
2970 Dicotyledons (of them 127 endemic)
17 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
278 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bhutan (Grierson & Long, eds., 1983-2002, 9 vols., complete); Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, few volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Bhutan (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2009); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Bhutan, Vol. 3.3 (Orchidaceae) (2001)
more country list India (incl. Assam, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Chumbi, Jammu & Kashmir, excl. Andaman and Nicobar Isl., excl. Lakshadweep Isl.) IND 3.279.173 o17838166884577
17838All Species
16688Indigenous Species
16490Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4577Endemic Species
4469Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1029 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 52 endemic)
62 Gymnosperms (of them 20 endemic)
495 Basal Angiosperms (of them 229 endemic)
3041 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 979 endemic)
1225 Orchids (of them 370 endemic)
10836 Dicotyledons (of them 2927 endemic)
198 Microspecies (of them 108 endemic)
1150 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flowering Plants of India (Checklist, Karthikeyan et al. 2009, 1 of ca. 10 vols. published); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of India (Sharma et al., eds., 1993 ff., 8 of 23 vols. published); Fascicles of Flora of India (1978 ff., 26 vols. published); numerous regional floras in India; Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, few volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018), Part III (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2020); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997); Illustrated Manual of Ferns of Assam (Borthakur et al. 2000); The Ferns of India: Enumeration, Synonyms and Distribution (Chandra 2000); Fern flora of South India (Nampy & Madhusoodanan 1998); An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A catalogue of Indian Orchids (Sathish Kumar & Manilal 1994); Orchid flora of Arunachal Pradesh (Chowdhery 1998); Orchids of India (2nd ed.) (Bose et al. 1999); Orchids of Kumaon Himalaya (Pangtey et al. 1991); Orchids of Meghalaya (Kataki 1986); Orchids of Mussoorie (Raizada et al. 1981); Orchids of Nagaland (Deorani & Naithani 1995); Orchids of Nagaland (Hynniewta et al. 2000); Orchids of Nilgiris (2nd. ed., Joseph 1987); Orchids of Western Ghats (Kumar 1995); Flora of Hassan District Karnataka (Saldanha et al. 1976); The Orchids of Bombay (Santapau & Kapadia 1966); The Orchid Flora of NW-Himalaya (Deva & Naithani 1986); Monocotyledonous Plants of Uttar Pradesh: A Checklist (Uniyal et al. 1999)
more country list Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives) LDV 32 ++3421860
342All Species
186Indigenous Species
186Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
45 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
135 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
156 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plant Diversity of Lakshadweep Islands (C. S. Reddy & P. S. Roy 2012)
more country list Maldives MDV 298 o3601900
360All Species
190Indigenous Species
190Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
130 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
170 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

List of Addu vascular plants (Fosberg et al. 1966)
more country list Sri Lanka SRL 65.610 ++42753602888
4275All Species
3602Indigenous Species
3601Indigenous Species except Microspecies
888Endemic Species
888Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
332 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 37 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
110 Basal Angiosperms (of them 50 endemic)
723 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 95 endemic)
197 Orchids (of them 62 endemic)
2238 Dicotyledons (of them 643 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
673 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon (Dassayanake, ed., 1980-2006, 15 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon, vol. 15/1-2 (Shaffer-Fehre, ed., 2006); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); An annotated check-list of the Pteridophytes of Ceylon (Sledge 1982)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae, Apostasiaceae (Jayaweera). In: A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, Vol. 2 (Dassanayake, ed., 1981)
more country list Bangladesh BAN 147.570 o3267284433
3267All Species
2844Indigenous Species
2844Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
217 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
87 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
450 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
161 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1922 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
423 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bangladesh (Khan, ed., 1975 ff., partially published); Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, vols. 5-12 (Ahmed, ed., 2007-2009, complete) [only 5 of 8 volumes seen and included]

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, vol. 5 (2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Bangladesh, vol. ##
INDOCHINA (41)
more country list Andaman Isl. AND 6.496 +20211660153
2021All Species
1660Indigenous Species
1660Indigenous Species except Microspecies
153Endemic Species
153Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
79 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
92 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
293 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
97 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
1090 Dicotyledons (of them 89 endemic)
361 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Checklist, Dagar & Singh 1999); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Hajra et al., eds., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); Pteridophytes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dixit 2001)
more country list Nicobar Isl. NCB 1.800 +1465120564
1465All Species
1205Indigenous Species
1205Indigenous Species except Microspecies
64Endemic Species
64Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
94 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
61 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
227 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
59 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
757 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
260 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Checklist, Dagar & Singh 1999); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Hajra et al., eds., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); Pteridophytes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dixit 2001); Flora of Great Nicobar Island (Sinha 1999)
more country list Myanmar MYA 676.552 +1080099531127
10800All Species
9953Indigenous Species
9945Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1127Endemic Species
1125Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
746 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
41 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
378 Basal Angiosperms (of them 68 endemic)
1458 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 138 endemic)
1024 Orchids (of them 106 endemic)
6306 Dicotyledons (of them 804 endemic)
8 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
847 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar (Kress et al. 2003); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A Contribution Toward the Knowledge of Ferns and Lycophytes from Northern and Northwestern Myanmar (Khine et al. 2017); The ferns of Burma (Dickason 1946)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

An annotated checklist of Myanmar orchid flora (Aung et al. 2020)
more country list Thailand THA 513.115 +10795103741940
10795All Species
10374Indigenous Species
10374Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1940Endemic Species
1940Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
754 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 31 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
446 Basal Angiosperms (of them 136 endemic)
1934 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 407 endemic)
1221 Orchids (of them 168 endemic)
5982 Dicotyledons (of them 1192 endemic)
421 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Thailand (Smitinand et al., eds., 1981-2020, ca. 60% complete, to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Flora of Thailand, Vol. 3/1-4 (Tagawa & Iwatsuki 1979-1989); Pteridophytes in Thailand (Boonkeerd & Pollawatn 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Contributions to the Orchid Flora of Thailand / Orchid Genera in Thailand, 1-13 (Seidenfaden 1972-1998); A Field Guide to the Wild Orchids of Thailand (Vaddhanaphuti 2001); Flora of Thailand, Vol. 12/1 (Orchidaceae 1) (Pedersen et al. 2011); Flora of Thailand, Vol. 12/2 (Orchidaceae 2) (Pedersen et al. 2014)
more country list Laos LAO 236.800 +56545335308
5654All Species
5335Indigenous Species
5335Indigenous Species except Microspecies
308Endemic Species
308Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
287 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
34 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
219 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
876 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 93 endemic)
524 Orchids (of them 32 endemic)
3395 Dicotyledons (of them 170 endemic)
319 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of Plants in Lao PDR (Jin et al. 2016, very data deficient); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992)
more country list Cambodia CBD 181.035 +43514031130
4351All Species
4031Indigenous Species
4031Indigenous Species except Microspecies
130Endemic Species
130Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
204 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
171 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
686 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
297 Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
2656 Dicotyledons (of them 87 endemic)
320 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia (Cho et al. 2016); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992)
more country list Vietnam VIE 331.690 +11735110102495
11735All Species
11010Indigenous Species
11009Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2495Endemic Species
2495Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
873 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 65 endemic)
63 Gymnosperms (of them 16 endemic)
617 Basal Angiosperms (of them 176 endemic)
1550 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 494 endemic)
1083 Orchids (of them 293 endemic)
6824 Dicotyledons (of them 1451 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
725 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Câyco Viêtnam (Pham Hoàng Hô, 1991-1993, 6 vols., complete); Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951); Cay Co Vietnam (An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam), vol. 1 (Pham-Hoang Ho (1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992); Identification Guide to Vietnamese Orchids (Averyanov 1994); Preliminary List of the Vietnamese Orchids, Vol. 1-2 (Averyanov 1988); Updated Checklist of the Orchids of Vietnam (Averyanov & Averyanova 2004)
MALESIA (42)
more country list peninsular Malaysia (incl. Langkawi Isl.) MLY 132.246 +922889512011
9228All Species
8951Indigenous Species
8951Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2011Endemic Species
2011Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
691 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 45 endemic)
34 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
651 Basal Angiosperms (of them 192 endemic)
1349 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 316 endemic)
930 Orchids (of them 185 endemic)
5296 Dicotyledons (of them 1266 endemic)
277 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya (Turner 1995 publ. 1997); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of peninsular Malaysia (Parris, Kiew, eds., 2010 ff., 5 vols. published, to be continued); Flora Malesiana

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series I: Ferns and Lycophytes, Vol. 1 (2010), 2 (2013) (Parris et al., eds.) (to be continued); A revised Flora of Malaya II: Ferns of Malaya, ed. 2 (Holttum 1966)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992)
more country list Singapore SNG 710 ++2633218916
2633All Species
2189Indigenous Species
2189Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
171 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
179 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
320 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
224 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1287 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
444 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore (Chong et al. 2009)

Most recent flora

The concise flora of Singapore (Keng, 2 vols., 1990, 1998); Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series I: Ferns and Lycophytes, Vol. 1 (2010), 2 (2013) (Parris et al., eds.) (to be continued); A Guide to the Ferns of Singapore (Wee 1987)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992); A Guide to the Orchids of Singapore (Tan & Sin 1995)
more country list Sumatera (incl. Mentawai, Enggano, Nias, Simeulue, Lingga Arch., Krakatau, Bangka, Belitung, Batu) SUM 425.150 o751273912023
7512All Species
7391Indigenous Species
7391Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2023Endemic Species
2023Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
748 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 135 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
443 Basal Angiosperms (of them 127 endemic)
917 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 277 endemic)
1165 Orchids (of them 481 endemic)
4081 Dicotyledons (of them 1001 endemic)
121 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sumatra (Comber 2001)
more country list South China Sea Isl. SCS 2 -40310
40All Species
31Indigenous Species
31Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
20 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
9 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
more country list Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan, incl. Natuna Isl., Riouw Arch., excl. Brunei) BOR 743.384 o12415122365379
12415All Species
12236Indigenous Species
12236Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5379Endemic Species
5379Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
43.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1011 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 264 endemic)
60 Gymnosperms (of them 18 endemic)
791 Basal Angiosperms (of them 293 endemic)
1671 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 932 endemic)
1721 Orchids (of them 931 endemic)
6982 Dicotyledons (of them 2941 endemic)
179 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Enumeratio Phanerogamarum Bornearum (Masamune 1942, 1945); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far); The plants of Mount Kinabalu (2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Plants of Mt. Kinabalu, vol. 1 (Ferns and Fern Allies) (Parris et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A Checklist of the Orchids of Borneo (Wood & Cribb 1994); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 1 (Chan et al. 1994); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 2 (Vermeulen 1991); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 3 (Wood 1997); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 4 (Wood 2003); Bulbophyllum of Borneo (Vermeulen, O'Byrne & Lamb 2015)
more country list Brunei BRN 5.765 +24982462103
2498All Species
2462Indigenous Species
2462Indigenous Species except Microspecies
103Endemic Species
103Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
285 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
166 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
225 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
1758 Dicotyledons (of them 58 endemic)
36 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam (Wong & Dransfield, ed., 1996)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Plants of Mt. Kinabalu, vol. 1 (Ferns and Fern Allies) (Parris et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Wood). In: A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam (Wong & Dransfield, ed., 1996)
more country list Sulawesi (Celebes) (incl. Selayar, Banggai, Sangihe, Kabaena) SUL 189.070 -504048701351
5040All Species
4870Indigenous Species
4870Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1351Endemic Species
1351Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
789 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 87 endemic)
33 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
200 Basal Angiosperms (of them 55 endemic)
625 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 201 endemic)
665 Orchids (of them 380 endemic)
2558 Dicotyledons (of them 627 endemic)
170 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of woody plants of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Keßler et al. 2002); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Hovenkamp, P. (2013 onwards): Ferns of Sulawesi - Checklist. sulawesiferns.myspecies.info

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Palawan (incl. Busuanga, Culion) PLW 14.649 o15171509220
1517All Species
1509Indigenous Species
1509Indigenous Species except Microspecies
220Endemic Species
220Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
231 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
81 Basal Angiosperms (of them 10 endemic)
219 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
943 Dicotyledons (of them 173 endemic)
8 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.philippineplants.org

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Checklist by J. F. Barcelona (pers. comm.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidiana Philippiniana (Valmayor 1984); The Orchids of the Philippines (Cootes 2001) (contains checklist)
more country list Philippines (excl. Palawan, Sulu Arch.) PHI 325.000 +948687964350
9486All Species
8796Indigenous Species
8796Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4350Endemic Species
4350Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
45.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1020 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 244 endemic)
38 Gymnosperms (of them 11 endemic)
400 Basal Angiosperms (of them 225 endemic)
1034 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 345 endemic)
1198 Orchids (of them 836 endemic)
5106 Dicotyledons (of them 2689 endemic)
690 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.philippineplants.org

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines (www.philippineplants.org); Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna, Vol. 2 (Zamora & Co 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidiana Philippiniana (Valmayor 1984); The Orchids of the Philippines (Cootes 2001) (contains checklist)
more country list Jawa (incl. Madura Isl., Kangean Arch., Bawean) JAW 130.520 o67935481795
6793All Species
5481Indigenous Species
5479Indigenous Species except Microspecies
795Endemic Species
794Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
556 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 45 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
227 Basal Angiosperms (of them 31 endemic)
796 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
786 Orchids (of them 189 endemic)
3101 Dicotyledons (of them 433 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
1312 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Java (Backer & van den Brink, 1963-1968, outdated); Flora Malesiana (about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Java (Comber 1991)
more country list Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor, Alor, Wetar) [incl. East Timor] LSI 80.000 o29192726338
2919All Species
2726Indigenous Species
2726Indigenous Species except Microspecies
338Endemic Species
338Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
369 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
58 Basal Angiosperms (of them 11 endemic)
414 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
205 Orchids (of them 50 endemic)
1665 Dicotyledons (of them 234 endemic)
193 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of Bali - a provisional checklist (van Balgooy et al. 2014) [not seen nor included]

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Ferns of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Posthumus 1944); On the Ferns of Sumba (Posthumus 1930); A preliminary Study on Pteridophytes of Lombok: List of the Species (Wardani & Jaenudin 2013)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Timor: checklist (Silveira et al. 2008); Flora of Bali - a provisional checklist (van Balgooy et al. 2014 [not seen nor included]); Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Moluccas [Maluku] (Tanimbar, Kei, Aru, Banda, Ambon, Seram, Buru, Obi, Bacan, Halmaheira, Ternate, Tidore, Morotai, Talaud, Sulu Arch.) MOL 74.500 o39913866670
3991All Species
3866Indigenous Species
3866Indigenous Species except Microspecies
670Endemic Species
670Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
690 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 92 endemic)
30 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
189 Basal Angiosperms (of them 43 endemic)
475 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 65 endemic)
442 Orchids (of them 173 endemic)
2040 Dicotyledons (of them 297 endemic)
125 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Taxonomic Studies of Pteridophytes of Ambon and Seram (Moluccas) (in 12 parts) (Kato 1988-2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Cocos (Keeling) Islands CKI 14 ++129740
129All Species
74Indigenous Species
74Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
21 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
52 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Christmas Isl. (Austr.) XMS 135 ++38021918
380All Species
219Indigenous Species
219Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
29 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
161 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
PAPUASIA (43)
more country list New Guinea (Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea, incl. d'Entrecasteaux Isl., Goodenough Isl., Louisiade Arch., Rennell, Yapen, Biak, Waigeu Islands etc.) NWG 800.000 -14311140149278
14311All Species
14014Indigenous Species
14014Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9278Endemic Species
9278Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
64.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1327 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 612 endemic)
64 Gymnosperms (of them 20 endemic)
810 Basal Angiosperms (of them 621 endemic)
1789 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 954 endemic)
2831 Orchids (of them 2375 endemic)
7193 Dicotyledons (of them 4696 endemic)
297 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far), Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea (3 vols. published, outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The ferns and fern-allies of Papua New Guinea (Johns & Bellamy, 1979 ff., in 12 parts); A Checklist of the Fern Allies, Ferns and Gymnosperms of the N. E. Kepala Burung (Vogelkop), Irian Jaya, Indonesia (Edwards, Johns & Kowalska 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of Papuasian Orchids (Ormerod 2017); A. Schuiteman & Ed de Vogel (2001-2010, CD-ROM): Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea: illustrated checklist and genera. Part 1: Checklist and genera (2001). Part 2: Genus Dendrobium and allied genera (2002). Part 3: Genera Acanthephippium to Hymenorchis (2005). Part 4: Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella (2006). Part 5: Genera Pachystoma to Zeuxine (2008). Part 6: Genus Bulbophyllum (2010).
more country list Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Admirality Isl., Manus Isl., Umboi, etc.) BIS 48.500 - -14411422250
1441All Species
1422Indigenous Species
1422Indigenous Species except Microspecies
250Endemic Species
250Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
17.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
259 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 17 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 14 endemic)
163 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 52 endemic)
259 Orchids (of them 52 endemic)
673 Dicotyledons (of them 115 endemic)
19 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far); Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists (Peekel 1947, reprint 1985, very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of Papuasian Orchids (Ormerod 2017); A. Schuiteman & Ed de Vogel (2001-2010, CD-ROM): Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea: illustrated checklist and genera. Part 1: Checklist and genera (2001). Part 2: Genus Dendrobium and allied genera (2002). Part 3: Genera Acanthephippium to Hymenorchis (2005). Part 4: Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella (2006). Part 5: Genera Pachystoma to Zeuxine (2008). Part 6: Genus Bulbophyllum (2010).
more country list Solomon Isl. (incl. Bougainville, excl. Santa Cruz Isl.) SOL 35.926 -18951870476
1895All Species
1870Indigenous Species
1870Indigenous Species except Microspecies
476Endemic Species
476Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
447 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 35 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
82 Basal Angiosperms (of them 38 endemic)
197 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 74 endemic)
310 Orchids (of them 41 endemic)
819 Dicotyledons (of them 286 endemic)
25 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Sol Amazing! (Lycophytes and Ferns of the Solomon Islands) (Chen et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainville (Lewis & Cribb 1991)
AUSTRALASIA (5)
AUSTRALIA (50)
more country list Australia (incl. Tasmania, excl. other islands) AUS 7.690.849 +233692119618072
23369All Species
21196Indigenous Species
21176Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18072Endemic Species
18072Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
77.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
454 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 151 endemic)
119 Gymnosperms (of them 103 endemic)
295 Basal Angiosperms (of them 226 endemic)
2909 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2135 endemic)
1507 Orchids (of them 1360 endemic)
15912 Dicotyledons (of them 14097 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them endemic)
2173 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Census of Australian Vascular Plants (Hnatiuk 1990); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia (1982 ff., 29 vols. published, about 60% complete); Flora of Victoria (1993-1999, complete); Flora of New South Wales (2000-2002, 2 vols. published); Flora of the Darwin region (Dunlop et al., 1995); Flora of South Eastern Queensland (1983-1989, 3 vols.); Flora of South Australia (1980-1986, 2 vols. published); The Student's Flora of Tasmania (5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Australia, Volume 48 (1998); Flora of South Australia (Jessop & Toelken 1986); The Ferns of Tasmania (Garrett 1997); Ferns and Allied Plants of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia (Duncan & Isaac 1994); Flora of Victoria, Vol. 2 (Walsh & Entwistle, ed., 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Catalogue of Australian Orchidaceae (Clements 1989); Native Orchids of Australia (Jones 1987); A Complete Guide to Native Orchids of Australia (Jones 2006); Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria (Bishop 1996); Flora of South Australia, pt. I (Black 1960); Orchids of South Australia (Bates & Weber 1990); Contributions to Tasmanian Orchidology (Jones 1998); The Orchids of Tasmania (Jones et al. 1999); Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria (Bishop 1996); The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995); Orchids of Western Australia (Dixon et al. 1989); Orchids of SW-Australia (3rd ed.) (Hoffmann & Brown 2001)
more country list Ashmore Reef & Cartier Isl. ASH 1 ++16150
16All Species
15Indigenous Species
15Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
12 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 49 (Oceanic Islands 1) (1994)
more country list Lord Howe Isl. LHI 154 ++49828284
498All Species
282Indigenous Species
282Indigenous Species except Microspecies
84Endemic Species
84Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
56 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
12 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
147 Dicotyledons (of them 50 endemic)
216 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Norfolk Isl. (incl. Philip Isl.) NFK 39 ++45219833
452All Species
198Indigenous Species
198Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
37 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
99 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
254 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
NEW ZEALAND (51)
more country list New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl., Three Kings Isl., Snares Isl., excl. remote islands) NZL 270.000 ++400722831508
4007All Species
2283Indigenous Species
2263Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1508Endemic Species
1507Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
37.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
191 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 31 endemic)
22 Gymnosperms (of them 21 endemic)
22 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
472 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 268 endemic)
120 Orchids (of them 53 endemic)
1456 Dicotyledons (of them 1122 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
1724 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete); The flora of the Snares Islands, New Zealand (Fineran 1969); The New Flora of New Zealand (2014 ff., http://www.nzflora.info/publications.html)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Kermadec Isl. KER 36 ++14510215
145All Species
102Indigenous Species
102Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
22 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Kermadec Islands Flora: An annotated checklist (Sykes 1977); New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands (Sykes & West 1996); Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands (Sykes & West 1996); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985); New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Chatham Isl. CTM 963 ++80441740
804All Species
417Indigenous Species
415Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
40Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
101 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
186 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
387 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants recorded from Chatham Islands (De Lange et al. 2011); Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey et al. 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Antipodes Isl. ATP 60 ++67675
67All Species
67Indigenous Species
67Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
22 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
27 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Auckland Isl. AUC 551 ++2481752
248All Species
175Indigenous Species
175Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
48 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
77 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
73 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
PACIFIC (6)
SOUTH WEST PACIFIC (60)
more country list Santa Cruz Isl. (Vanikoro, etc.) SCZ 815 -14013910
140All Species
139Indigenous Species
139Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
56 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Sol Amazing! (Lycophytes and Ferns of the Solomon Islands) (Chen et al. 2017)
more country list New Caledonia (incl. Ile des Pins, Loyalty Isl., Ile Art) NWC 19.058 o392234042566
3922All Species
3404Indigenous Species
3404Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2566Endemic Species
2566Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
65.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
282 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 113 endemic)
54 Gymnosperms (of them 48 endemic)
111 Basal Angiosperms (of them 101 endemic)
316 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 140 endemic)
217 Orchids (of them 109 endemic)
2424 Dicotyledons (of them 2055 endemic)
518 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.endemia.nc

Most recent flora

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie (1967-2014, 26 vols. published [approx. 40%], to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances, Vol. 3 (Brownlie 1969)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances, Vol. 8 (Hallé 1977); Orchidees Indigenes de Nouvelle-Caledonie (Société Néo-Caledonienne d’Orchidophilie 1995); Checklist of New Caledonian Orchidaceae (Clements & Jones 1999, in Orchadian 13)
more country list Vanuatu VAN 12.190 o875854176
875All Species
854Indigenous Species
854Indigenous Species except Microspecies
176Endemic Species
176Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
208 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 15 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
23 Basal Angiosperms (of them 10 endemic)
75 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
183 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
359 Dicotyledons (of them 110 endemic)
21 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vanuatu National Herbarium (PVNH) (Chanel et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Vanuatu (Lewis & Cribb 1989)
more country list Rotuma Isl. ROT 43 +4912312
491All Species
231Indigenous Species
231Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
42 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
260 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Preliminary Checklist of the Flora of Rotuma with Rotuman Names (McClatchley et al. 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Rotuma Island, a Descriptive Manual (St. John 1954)
more country list Tonga TON 750 o77953228
779All Species
532Indigenous Species
532Indigenous Species except Microspecies
28Endemic Species
28Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
91 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
70 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
304 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
247 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plants of Tonga (Yuncker 1959); The vegetation of Late, Tonga (Sykes 1981); Rain forest vegetation of 'Eua Island (Drake et al. 1996); The rare plants of Tonga (Whistler 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Pteridophytes of 'Eua, Southern Tonga (Sykes 1978); New or noteworthy ferns from the Tongan Islands (Iwatsuki 1963)
more country list Niue Isl. NUE 264 o5662232
566All Species
223Indigenous Species
223Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
31 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
19 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
138 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
343 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The flora of Niue Island (Yuncker 1943); Contributions to the flora of Niue (Sykes 1970)
more country list Fiji FIJ 18.376 ++25181703793
2518All Species
1703Indigenous Species
1703Indigenous Species except Microspecies
793Endemic Species
793Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
31.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
308 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 51 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 5 endemic)
101 Basal Angiosperms (of them 77 endemic)
148 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 44 endemic)
175 Orchids (of them 46 endemic)
959 Dicotyledons (of them 570 endemic)
815 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Vitiensis nova (A.C. Smith, 1971-1996, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The pteridophyte flora of Fiji (Brownlie 1977); A revised Checklist of Fijian ferns and lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora vitiensis nova, Vol. 5 (Kores 1991)
more country list Wallis & Futuna WAL 177 +1601554
160All Species
155Indigenous Species
155Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
10 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
5 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The vascular plants of the Horne and Wallis Islands (St. John & Smith 1971)

Most recent flora

Contribution a la Connaissance de la Vegetation et de la Flore de Wallis et Futuna (Morat & Veillon 1985)
more country list American Samoa ASA 197 o68255817
682All Species
558Indigenous Species
558Indigenous Species except Microspecies
17Endemic Species
17Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
152 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
22 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
61 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
254 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
124 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of Samoa (Christopherson 1935/1938); A study of the rare plants of American Samoa (Whistler 1998); Vegetation of Eastern Samoa (Whistler 1980); Plants of the Manua Islands (Yuncker 1945)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revision of the Pteridophyta of Samoa (Christensen 1943)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Samoa (Cribb & Whistler 1996)
more country list [Western] Samoa SAM 2.831 o1001868182
1001All Species
868Indigenous Species
868Indigenous Species except Microspecies
182Endemic Species
182Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
226 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
91 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
111 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
403 Dicotyledons (of them 121 endemic)
133 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of Samoa (Christopherson 1935/1938); Vegetation and Flora of the Aleipata Islands, Western Samoa (Whistler 1983); Plants of the Manua Islands (Yuncker 1945)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revision of the Pteridophyta of Samoa (Christensen 1943)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Samoa (Cribb & Whistler 1996)
more country list Tuvalu (Ellice Isl.) TUV 26 o83560
83All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
38 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
27 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation and Flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu (Woodroffe 1985)
more country list Tokelau Isl. (incl. Swains Isl.) TOK 14 +106560
106All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
29 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
50 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll (Parham 1971); The Flora and Vegetation of Swains Island (Whistler 1983)
more country list Phoenix Islands (Kiribati p. p.) PHX 42 +83410
83All Species
41Indigenous Species
41Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
28 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
42 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific (Fosberg & Stoddart 1994)
more country list Gilbert Islands (Kiribati p. p.) GIL 311 +212980
212All Species
98Indigenous Species
98Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
61 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
114 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, checklist (Fosberg & Sachet 1987); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands (Thaman 1992)
more country list Banaba (Ocean Isl., Kiribati p. p.) OCE 6 o28210
28All Species
21Indigenous Species
21Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
16 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)
more country list Nauru NRU 21 ++126510
126All Species
51Indigenous Species
51Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
35 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
75 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands (Thaman 1992); The Flora of Nauru (Thaman et al. 1994)
more country list Pacific Equatorial Sporades (incl. Howland Isl., Baker Isl.) HBI 5 -110
1All Species
1Indigenous Species
1Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
SOUTH CENTRAL PACIFIC (61)
more country list Line Isl. (Kiribati p. p., incl. Christmas Isl. = Kiritimati) LIN 757 +169570
169All Species
57Indigenous Species
57Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
112 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of the northern Line Islands (Wester 1985)

Most recent flora

Notes on the vascular flora and terrestrial vertebrates of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands (Clapp & Sibley 1971); Vegetation History of Washington Island (Teraina), Northern Line Islands (Wester et al. 1992); Plants of Christmas Island (Chock & Hamilton 1962)
more country list Cook Isl. (incl. Rarotonga Isl.) COO 230 +56027230
560All Species
272Indigenous Species
272Indigenous Species except Microspecies
30Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
42 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 18 endemic)
288 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Rarotonga (Wilder 1931); Flora of Cook Islands (2016)
more country list Marquesas Isl. MRQ 1.020 +634400179
634All Species
400Indigenous Species
400Indigenous Species except Microspecies
179Endemic Species
179Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
28.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
114 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 33 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
55 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
216 Dicotyledons (of them 118 endemic)
234 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Most recent flora

Flora of the Marquesas (M.-H. Sachet), 1 vol. published; Guide floristique - Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou (Butaud 2014); Guide floristique - Niva Oa, Tahuata, Fatuiva (Butaud 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1932)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Gambier Isl. (incl. Mangareva Isl.) GBI 450 +88506
88All Species
50Indigenous Species
50Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
38 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Census of the flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia (St. John 1988)

Most recent flora

La vegetation des iles Gambier (Huguenin 1974); Chock & Hamilton (1962); Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Gambier - Guide floristique (Butaud 2013)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1932)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Society Isl. (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Huahine, Bora Bora, Makatea, etc.) SCI 1.628 ++1242653239
1242All Species
653Indigenous Species
652Indigenous Species except Microspecies
239Endemic Species
239Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
197 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 52 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
68 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
35 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
332 Dicotyledons (of them 156 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
589 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Societensis (Welsh 1998); Botanique de l'ile de Tupai (Sachet 1983); Flora of Makatea (Wilder 1934); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Society Islands (Copeland 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Societensis (Welsh 1998)
more country list Tuamotu Arch. (excl. Gambier Isl.) TUA 450 +3121409
312All Species
140Indigenous Species
140Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
94 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)
172 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flora of Maupiti (Fosberg & Sachet 19??); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Guide floristique - Atolls soulevés des Tuamotu (Polynésie francaise) Butaud & Jacq 2009); Tuamotu de l'ouest - Guide floristique (Butaud 2013); Tuamotu du centre - Guide floristique (Butaud 2010); Tuamotu de l'est - Guide Floristique (Butaud 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Austral Isl. (Tubuai Isl., incl. Rapa Isl.) AUI 148 +605367101
605All Species
367Indigenous Species
367Indigenous Species except Microspecies
101Endemic Species
101Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
102 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
55 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
11 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
190 Dicotyledons (of them 72 endemic)
238 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Les Orchidees du Tubuai, suives d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des Iles Australes (Hallé 1980)

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Guide floristique - Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai, Raivavae (Australes) (Butaud 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les orchidees de Tubuai (Hallé 1980); Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Pitcairn Isl. (incl. Oeno Atoll) PIT 6 +836011
83All Species
60Indigenous Species
60Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
3 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
23 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island (St. John 1987); List of the flora of Oeno Atoll (St. John & Philipson 1960)

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The pteridophyte flora of Pitcairn Island (Brownlie 1961); Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)
more country list Henderson Isl. (incl. Ducie Atoll) HEN 37 ++59564
59All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
3 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Henderson Island (Southeast Polynesia): Summary of current knowledge (Fosberg et al. 1983); Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Ducie Atoll (Rehder & Rantall 1975)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Easter Island (Rapa Nui) EAS 180 o30269
30All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
30% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
13 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
5 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
4 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg 1998); Flowering Plants of Easter Island (Zizka 1991)
NORTH WEST PACIFIC (62)
more country list Minami-Torishima (Marcus Isl.) MCU 2 -2290
22All Species
9Indigenous Species
9Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

An Ecological Perspective of Marcus Island (Sakagami 1961)
more country list Palau Isl. (Republic of Palau, Western Carolines) PLU 516 o1096717136
1096All Species
717Indigenous Species
717Indigenous Species except Microspecies
136Endemic Species
136Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
12.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
122 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
163 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
350 Dicotyledons (of them 81 endemic)
379 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Palau with vernacular names (Fosberg et al. 1980); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Flora of Micronesia (Fosberg & Sachet, 5 vols. published, 1975-1993)
more country list Northern Marianas MRN 464 +67235620
672All Species
356Indigenous Species
356Indigenous Species except Microspecies
20Endemic Species
20Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
78 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
189 Dicotyledons (of them 16 endemic)
316 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vascular flora of the northern Mariana Islands (Fosberg et al. 1975-1980)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)
more country list Guam GUM 540 o103341412
1033All Species
414Indigenous Species
414Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
114 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
205 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
619 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

The Flora of Guam (Stone 1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)
more country list Federal States of Micronesia (Central and Eastern Carolines: Truk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae) MIC 702 +1207694126
1207All Species
694Indigenous Species
694Indigenous Species except Microspecies
126Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
143 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
145 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
328 Dicotyledons (of them 71 endemic)
513 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei (Herrera et al. 2010); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Flora of Micronesia (Fosberg & Sachet, 5 vols. published, 1975-1993); Flora of Ponape (Glassmann 1952)
more country list Marshall Isl. MRS 174 o3861280
386All Species
128Indigenous Species
128Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
32 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
258 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vascular Plants recorded from Jaluit Atoll (Fosberg & Sachet 1962); A review of the natural history of the Marshall Islands (Fosberg 1990); Vegetation of Bikini Atoll (Fosberg 1988)
more country list Wake Isl. WAK 8 o110341
110All Species
34Indigenous Species
34Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vegetation and flora of Wake Island (Fosberg 1959); Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963 (Fosberg & Sachet 1969)
NORTH CENTRAL PACIFIC (63)
more country list Hawaii (incl. Johnston Atoll, Midway Isl.) HAW 16.729 ++239112301062
2391All Species
1230Indigenous Species
1229Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1062Endemic Species
1062Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
169 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 121 endemic)
27 Basal Angiosperms (of them 24 endemic)
142 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 95 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
889 Dicotyledons (of them 819 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1161 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i (2., rev. ed., Wagner, Herbst & Sohmer 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Hawai’i (Valier 1995)
NORTH AMERICA (7)
ARCTIC NORTH AMERICA (70)
more country list Alaska (incl. Aleutes) ASK 1.530.000 ++1522132635
1522All Species
1326Indigenous Species
1323Indigenous Species except Microspecies
35Endemic Species
35Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
85 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
362 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
29 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
833 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
196 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories (Hulten 1968); Flora of the Aleutian Islands (Hulten 1960); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list Greenland GNL 2.175.600 ++52142511
521All Species
425Indigenous Species
419Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
147 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
236 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of Greenland (2nd ed., Holmen 1968); A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980)

Most recent flora

Flora of Canada (Scoggan, ed., 1978-1979); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
CANADA (70-72)
more country list Canada CDN 9.970.610 ++4963388072
4963All Species
3880Indigenous Species
3822Indigenous Species except Microspecies
72Endemic Species
59Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
173 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
21 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
968 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
75 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2606 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
58 Microspecies (of them 13 endemic)
1083 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

The flora of Canada (Scoggan 1978, 1979, 4 vols.); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Les fougeres et les plantes alliees du Canada (Cody & Britton 1989); Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list St. Pierre & Miquelon SPM 242 ++5144050
514All Species
405Indigenous Species
403Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
40 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
154 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
196 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
109 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Les plantes vasculaires des iles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (LeGallo 1954); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
USA (73-78)
more country list USA (Lower 48 States) USA 8.262.426 ++18925156477554
18925All Species
15647Indigenous Species
15339Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7554Endemic Species
7306Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
38.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
436 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 75 endemic)
117 Gymnosperms (of them 26 endemic)
96 Basal Angiosperms (of them 42 endemic)
2717 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1027 endemic)
203 Orchids (of them 51 endemic)
12078 Dicotyledons (of them 6333 endemic)
308 Microspecies (of them 248 endemic)
3278 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list Bermuda BER 53 +21013711
210All Species
137Indigenous Species
137Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
38 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
76 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
73 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bermuda (Britton 1918)
MEXICO (79)
more country list Mexico MEX 1.964.382 +250002394211999
25000All Species
23942Indigenous Species
23931Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11999Endemic Species
11995Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
48% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1043 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 195 endemic)
170 Gymnosperms (of them 91 endemic)
645 Basal Angiosperms (of them 328 endemic)
3378 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1501 endemic)
1324 Orchids (of them 582 endemic)
17382 Dicotyledons (of them 9302 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
1058 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico (Villasenor 2016); numerous state checklists

Most recent flora

Numerous state floras (and Flora Novo-Galiciana); Flora Mesoamericana (southern Mexico only, 12 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004); Flora Novo-Galiciana, Volume 17 (McVaugh 1992); Pteridophytes. Flora of Chiapas, part 2 (Smith 1981); Flora of Baja California (Wiggins 1980); Pteridophyte flora of Oaxaca, Mexico (Mickel & Beitel 1988); Ferns and fern allies of Chihuahua, Mexico (Knobloch & Correll 1962); Listados floristicos de Mexico. IX. Flora de Durango (Elizondo et al. 1991); Flora de Mexico, Volume 6, parts 1-3: Pteridophyta (1993-1995)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Listado Actualizado de las Orquideas de Mexico (Soto Arenas 1988); Icones Orchidacearum (Mexico), Fasc. 1-6 (Hagsater & Salazar 1990-2003)
more country list Isla Guadalupe GLP 244 ++19815023
198All Species
150Indigenous Species
150Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
15 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
123 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
48 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The Flora of Guadalupe Island, Mexico (Moran 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Listado Actualizado de las Orquideas de Mexico (Soto Arenas 1988)
more country list Revillagigedo Isl. (incl. Socorro Isl.) RGI 157 +18615226
186All Species
152Indigenous Species
152Indigenous Species except Microspecies
26Endemic Species
26Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
17 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
24 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
103 Dicotyledons (of them 17 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The vascular flora of Isla Socorro, Mexico (Lewin & Moran 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004)
TROPICAL AMERICA (8)
CENTRAL AMERICA (80)
more country list Guatemala GUA 108.889 o81687867641
8168All Species
7867Indigenous Species
7863Indigenous Species except Microspecies
641Endemic Species
641Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
718 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
30 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
321 Basal Angiosperms (of them 62 endemic)
1199 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 62 endemic)
944 Orchids (of them 190 endemic)
4655 Dicotyledons (of them 322 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
301 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts); Flora of Guatemala (Standley, ed., 1958-1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala, pt. 1-3 (Stolze 1976-83)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Orchids of Guatemala: A revised annotated checklist (Dix & Dix 2000); Orchids of Guatemala and Belize (Ames & Correll 1985); Guatemala y sus orquídeas (Behar & Tinschert 1998)
more country list Belize BLZ 22.965 +3625337963
3625All Species
3379Indigenous Species
3378Indigenous Species except Microspecies
63Endemic Species
63Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
260 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
127 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
621 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
297 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
2065 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
246 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize (Balick et al. 2000)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize (Balick, Nee & Atha 2000); Native Orchids of Belize (McLeish, Pearce & Adams 1995); Orchids of Guatemala and Belize (Ames & Correll 1985); Lista Comentada de las orquideas de Belice (Catling & Catling 1988)
more country list El Salvador ELS 21.041 o2943274243
2943All Species
2742Indigenous Species
2742Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
43Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
372 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
74 Basal Angiosperms (of them 7 endemic)
425 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
407 Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
1453 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
201 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); An Annotated Checklist of the Monilophytes (Ferns) and Lycophytes of El Salvador (Monterrosa & Monro 2008); Una guia taxonomica para helechos de El Salvador (Seiler 1980); Listado de la flora Salvadorensis / Pteridophyta (Pfeiffer-Berendsohn 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Las Orquideas de El Salvador (Hamer 1974-1981)
more country list Honduras HON 112.492 +75906648198
7590All Species
6648Indigenous Species
6648Indigenous Species except Microspecies
198Endemic Species
198Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
648 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
27 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
310 Basal Angiosperms (of them 20 endemic)
1117 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
614 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
3932 Dicotyledons (of them 134 endemic)
942 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de Honduras, espermatofitas (Nelson Sutherland et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Hondurensis Plantarum Vascularium Catalogus. Pteridophyta (Sutherland et al. 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft)
more country list Nicaragua NIC 129.494 ++6350590376
6350All Species
5903Indigenous Species
5902Indigenous Species except Microspecies
76Endemic Species
76Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
606 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
248 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
1022 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
632 Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
3385 Dicotyledons (of them 55 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
447 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts); Flora of Nicaragua (Stevens et al., eds.) (2001-2009, 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Flora of Nicaragua, Vol. 4 (Helechos) (Gomez & Arbelaez 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Orchids of Nicaragua, Pt. 1-6 (Hamer 1982-1985); Orchidaceae (Hamer). - In: Flora of Nicaragua, Vol. 2 (Stevens, ed., 2001)
more country list Costa Rica (except Isla del Coco) COS 51.060 ++10992103641774
10992All Species
10364Indigenous Species
10363Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1774Endemic Species
1774Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1151 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 109 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
769 Basal Angiosperms (of them 315 endemic)
1575 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 181 endemic)
1533 Orchids (of them 476 endemic)
5325 Dicotyledons (of them 690 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
628 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003-2020, 8 vols., complete); Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama (Dressler 1993); Flora Costaricensis, Family 39, part V (Maxillarieae and Oncidinae) (Atwood & de Retana 1999); Lista actualizada de las orquideas de Costa Rica (Mora-Retana & Garcia 1992); Catalogo revisado y anotado de las Orchidaceae de Costa Rica (Pupulin 2002); Orchidaceae (Dressler et al.) - In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, Vol. III (Hammel et al., ed., 2003)
more country list Isla del Coco (Cocos Isl.) COC 40 ++17215835
172All Species
158Indigenous Species
158Indigenous Species except Microspecies
35Endemic Species
35Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 17 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
26 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
65 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
14 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Preliminary List of Plants from Cocos Island (Fosberg & Klawe 1966)

Most recent flora

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003-2020, 8 vols., complete); Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of ca. 10 volumes published, plus numerous drafts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); The ferns and fern-allies of Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Gomez 1975) [= Contribuciones a la pteridologia costarricense. VII. Pteridofita de la Isla de Cocos]
more country list Panama PAN 75.517 +1009696761453
10096All Species
9676Indigenous Species
9675Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1453Endemic Species
1453Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
945 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 42 endemic)
22 Gymnosperms (of them 11 endemic)
623 Basal Angiosperms (of them 115 endemic)
1622 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 296 endemic)
1385 Orchids (of them 338 endemic)
5079 Dicotyledons (of them 651 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
420 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of Panama, vol. 1: The introduction and checklist (d'Arcy 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Flora of Panama: Checklist and index (D'Arcy 1987); The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

An updated checklist of the Orchidaceae of Panama (Bogarin et al. 2014); Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama (Dressler 1993); Flora of Panama: Checklist and index (D'Arcy 1987); Checklist of the Orchids of Panama (Dressler 1980)
more country list Clipperton Isl. CLI 30 +28150
28All Species
15Indigenous Species
15Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora and vegetation of Clipperton Island (Sachet 1962)
more country list Isla Malpelo MAL 1 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent flora

Flora terreste de la isla Malpelo (Colombia) (Gonzalez-Roman et al. 2014); The biological investigation of Malpelo Island (Graham 1975)
CARIBBEAN (81)
more country list Bahamas BAH 13.939 +1327106251
1327All Species
1062Indigenous Species
1061Indigenous Species except Microspecies
51Endemic Species
51Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
41 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
216 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
53 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
733 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
265 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bahamian Archipelago (Correll & Correll 1982); Endemic Seed Plants in the Bahamian Archipelago (Freid et al. 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Sauleda & Adams). - In: Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Correll & Correll 1982)
more country list Turks & Caicos Isl. TCI 430 +4173647
417All Species
364Indigenous Species
364Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
80 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
268 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
53 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Sauleda & Adams 197
more country list Cuba CUB 114.525 +691360452817
6913All Species
6045Indigenous Species
6045Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2817Endemic Species
2817Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
40.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
549 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 91 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 5 endemic)
160 Basal Angiosperms (of them 73 endemic)
919 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 246 endemic)
316 Orchids (of them 103 endemic)
4089 Dicotyledons (of them 2299 endemic)
868 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Base de datos de especímenes de la flora de Cuba : con mapas de distribución, Versión 4.0 - 2008

Most recent flora

Flora de la Republica de Cuba (1998 ff., 16 vols. published); Flora de Cuba (Leon & Alain 1946-1962, outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lista de los helechos y licofitos de Cuba (Sanchez 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Las orquideas nativas de Cuba (Diaz 1988); Iconografia de orquídeas Cubanas (Marquez & Bocourt Vigli 1997); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Cayman Isl. CAY 262 +70354319
703All Species
543Indigenous Species
543Indigenous Species except Microspecies
19Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
101 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
382 Dicotyledons (of them 13 endemic)
160 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Cayman Islands (Proctor 1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Cayman Islands (Proctor 1984); Orquideas de las Islas Cayman (Adams 1971)
more country list Jamaica JAM 10.991 +37133006793
3713All Species
3006Indigenous Species
3006Indigenous Species except Microspecies
793Endemic Species
793Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
558 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 63 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 28 endemic)
450 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 41 endemic)
207 Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
1693 Dicotyledons (of them 603 endemic)
707 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flowering plants of Jamaica (Adams 1972); Flora of Jamaica (Warner 2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Jamaica (Proctor 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchids of Jamaica (Gloudon & Tobisch 1995); A Checklist of the Orchids of Jamaica (Adams 1966); Orchidaceae (Adams, Proctor & Read). In: Flowering Plants of Jamaica (1972); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Hispaniola (Dominican Republic & Haiti) HIS 76.200 +589149241851
5891All Species
4924Indigenous Species
4924Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1851Endemic Species
1851Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
31.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
591 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 65 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
176 Basal Angiosperms (of them 83 endemic)
599 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 57 endemic)
360 Orchids (of them 160 endemic)
3191 Dicotyledons (of them 1484 endemic)
967 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Hispaniola (Liogier, ed.) (1981 ff., 9 vols. published, mostly complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Navassa Isl. NAV 5 +1381053
138All Species
105Indigenous Species
105Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
80 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
33 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Navassa Island and its flora. 2. Checklist of the vascular plants (Zanoni & Buck 1999)
more country list Puerto Rico (incl. Mona Isl., Desecheo Isl., Culebra Isl., Vieques Isl.) PUE 8.959 +32982348240
3298All Species
2348Indigenous Species
2347Indigenous Species except Microspecies
240Endemic Species
240Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
366 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 22 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
86 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
412 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
135 Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
1345 Dicotyledons (of them 180 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
950 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Liogier (1982)

Most recent flora

Flora of Puerto Rico (Liogier, ed., 1985-1997, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman & Del Mayda 1995); An orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman 1995); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Virgin Islands (U.S. Virgin Islands & British Virgin Islands) VIR 495 +1562106018
1562All Species
1060Indigenous Species
1059Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
193 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
745 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
502 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola (d'Arcy 1967))

Most recent flora

Flora of Virgin Gorda (Little et al. 1971); The flora of the American Virgin Islands (Britton 1918); Flora of St. John (Proctor in Acevedo-Rodriguez et al. 1996); The island of Anegada and its flora (D'Arcy 1971)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); An Orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackermann 1995)
more country list Anguilla AGU 70 ++3392602
339All Species
260Indigenous Species
260Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
44 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
212 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
79 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Maarten (St. Martin) STM 86 ++4663662
466All Species
366Indigenous Species
366Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
14 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
64 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
274 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
100 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Barthelemy (St. Barts) SBA 21 ++4423500
442All Species
350Indigenous Species
350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
19 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
309 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
92 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

The flora of the island of St. Bartholomew and its origin (Questel 1941); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Saba SAB 13 ++5524250
552All Species
425Indigenous Species
425Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
59 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
283 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
127 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Eustatius STE 21 ++4493531
449All Species
353Indigenous Species
353Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
32 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
36 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
256 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Kitts & Nevis STK 269 ++8066612
806All Species
661Indigenous Species
661Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
131 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
25 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
380 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
145 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977); A revised list of pteridophytes from St. Kitts (Proctor 1962)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Antigua and Barbuda (incl. Redonda Isl.) ABA 441 ++9727651
972All Species
765Indigenous Species
765Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
18 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
553 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
207 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Montserrat MTS 102 ++8997074
899All Species
707Indigenous Species
707Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
119 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
35 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
16 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
457 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
192 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Guadeloupe (incl. Marie Galante, La Désirade, Les Saintes) GDL 1.600 ++2051163926
2051All Species
1639Indigenous Species
1639Indigenous Species except Microspecies
26Endemic Species
26Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
287 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
64 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
270 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
107 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
910 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
412 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Fournet 1978); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Orchidaceae (Fournet). - In: Flore illustrée des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (1978); Atlas des Orchidées sauvages de Gouadeloupe (Feldmann & Barré 2001)
more country list Dominica DOM 750 ++1450120215
1450All Species
1202Indigenous Species
1201Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
196 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
45 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
179 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
90 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
691 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
248 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Dominica (Hodge 1954, Nicolson 1991); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Flora of Dominica, Pt. 1 (Orchidaceae) (Hodge 1954)
more country list Martinique MAR 1.102 ++1885147032
1885All Species
1470Indigenous Species
1470Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
224 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
57 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
242 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
83 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
863 Dicotyledons (of them 20 endemic)
415 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Fournet 1978); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Lucia STL 616 ++1451113810
1451All Species
1138Indigenous Species
1138Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
121 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
47 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
189 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
58 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
721 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
313 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Vincent and the Grenadines STV 389 ++1355111212
1355All Species
1112Indigenous Species
1112Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
168 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
48 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
59 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
707 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
243 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Grenada GRE 344 ++10979246
1097All Species
924Indigenous Species
924Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
153 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
27 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
131 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
70 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
543 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
173 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); The Orchids of the Islands of Grenada, British West Indies (Schultes 1956, in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 25)
more country list Barbados BBD 430 ++8505816
850All Species
581Indigenous Species
581Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
103 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
422 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
269 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Barbados (Gooding et al., 1965); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Barbados (Gooding, Loveless & Proctor 1965)
more country list Trinidad & Tobago TRT 5.048 +3473233883
3473All Species
2338Indigenous Species
2337Indigenous Species except Microspecies
83Endemic Species
83Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
290 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 10 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
77 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
462 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
185 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1322 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1135 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago (Baksh-Comeau et al. 2016)

Most recent flora

Flora of Trinidad & Tobago - Williams, R. O. et al. (1928-1979, plus additional volumes up to 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Checklist of the pteridophytes of Trinidad & Tobago (Baksh-Comeau 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Native Orchids of Trinidad and Tobago (Schultes 1960)
more country list Aruba ARU 179 +3332712
333All Species
271Indigenous Species
271Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
210 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list Bonaire BON 288 +3703013
370All Species
301Indigenous Species
301Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
65 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
228 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
69 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list Curacao CUR 444 +5174316
517All Species
431Indigenous Species
431Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
96 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
318 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
86 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list San Andres y Providencia SWC 43 o3002960
300All Species
296Indigenous Species
296Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
222 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
4 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA (82)
more country list Colombia CLM 1.141.748 +25455243847451
25455All Species
24384Indigenous Species
24383Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7451Endemic Species
7451Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1708 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 196 endemic)
35 Gymnosperms (of them 13 endemic)
1433 Basal Angiosperms (of them 439 endemic)
3614 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 916 endemic)
4198 Orchids (of them 2112 endemic)
13396 Dicotyledons (of them 3775 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1071 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia (Bernal, Gradstein & Celis, eds., 2015)

Most recent flora

Flora de Colombia (1983 ff., 26 vols. published, very incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989); Helechos y plantas afines de Colombia (Murillo-Pulido 1990); Flora de Colombia, Vol. 9: Pteridophyta 1 (Murillo-Pulido 1988)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Native Colombian Orchids, Vol. 1-6 (Escobar 1990-98); Orquideas de Colombia (Ortiz 1995) [contains checklist]; Lista de especies de Orquídeas registradas para Colombia: Adiciones y correcciones (Ortiz 2000, in Orquideologia 21)
more country list Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita) VEN 912.050 +16552159313658
16552All Species
15931Indigenous Species
15930Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3658Endemic Species
3658Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
22.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1238 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 138 endemic)
29 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
732 Basal Angiosperms (of them 177 endemic)
2646 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 622 endemic)
1508 Orchids (of them 297 endemic)
9778 Dicotyledons (of them 2421 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
621 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Nuevo Catalogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela (Hokche, Berry & Huber, eds., 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et al., eds., 9 vols., complete); Flora of Venezuela (Lasser et al., eds., 1968-1989, 21 vols.(?) published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora de Venezuela, Vol. 1 + 2 (Helechos) (Vareschi 1968-69); Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 2 (1995)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Venezuelan orchids illustrated (Dunsterville & Garay 1959-1976, 6 vols.) (reprint as Orchids of Venezuela - An Illustrated Field Guide, 1979, 2nd ed. as Illustrated Field Guide of Orchids of Venezuela, Romero & Carnevali 2000, 3 Vols.); Flora de Venezuela, Vol. XV, pt. 1-5 (Foldats 1969-70); Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 7 (2003)
more country list Guyana (British Guyana) GUY 214.969 +64286184453
6428All Species
6184Indigenous Species
6184Indigenous Species except Microspecies
453Endemic Species
453Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
526 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 26 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
300 Basal Angiosperms (of them 27 endemic)
1042 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
573 Orchids (of them 38 endemic)
3739 Dicotyledons (of them 306 endemic)
244 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et al., eds., 9 vols., complete); Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana: Orchidaceae (Christensen in Mori et al. 1997)
more country list Surinam SUR 163.265 +46434420133
4643All Species
4420Indigenous Species
4420Indigenous Species except Microspecies
133Endemic Species
133Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
322 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
241 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
824 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 25 endemic)
396 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2635 Dicotyledons (of them 87 endemic)
223 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Pteridophytes of Suriname (Kramer 1978)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Orchideeen van Suriname (Werkhoven 1986)
more country list French Guiana FRG 83.534 +50734875346
5073All Species
4875Indigenous Species
4875Indigenous Species except Microspecies
346Endemic Species
346Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
332 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
289 Basal Angiosperms (of them 30 endemic)
806 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 48 endemic)
436 Orchids (of them 49 endemic)
3009 Dicotyledons (of them 206 endemic)
198 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana (Mori 1997, 2 vols.); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana: Orchidaceae (Christensen in Mori et al. 1997)
more country list Ecuador ECU 272.045 +18927182595560
18927All Species
18259Indigenous Species
18256Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5560Endemic Species
5559Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1481 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 183 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
988 Basal Angiosperms (of them 240 endemic)
2570 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 753 endemic)
4225 Orchids (of them 2232 endemic)
8980 Dicotyledons (of them 2151 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
668 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador (Moeller-Jorgensen ed., 1999); Ulloa Ulloa & Neill (2005); Neill & Ulloa Ulloa (2011)

Most recent flora

Flora of Ecuador (1973 ff., 96 vols. published, still incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 9 (Garay 1979); Native Ecuadorian orchids (Dodson & Escobar 1994, Dodson 2001); Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2009): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 76: Orchidaceae. Genera Aa - Cyrtidiorchis.; Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2009): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 84: Orchidaceae. Masdevallia and Affiliates.; Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2010): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 87: Orchidaceae. Genera Cyrtochiloides - Epibator.
more country list Galapagos Isl. GAL 7.844 +785656174
785All Species
656Indigenous Species
656Indigenous Species except Microspecies
174Endemic Species
174Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
22.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
118 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 11 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
16 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
415 Dicotyledons (of them 143 endemic)
129 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador (Moeller-Jorgensen ed., 1999)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Galapagos Islands (Wiggins & Porter 1971)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of the Galapagos Islands (Luer 1972)
WEST CENTRAL SOUTH AMERICA (83)
more country list Peru PER 1.280.000 +20781202027179
20781All Species
20202Indigenous Species
20200Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7179Endemic Species
7179Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
34.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1250 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 145 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
1458 Basal Angiosperms (of them 739 endemic)
2646 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 850 endemic)
2407 Orchids (of them 1068 endemic)
12421 Dicotyledons (of them 4375 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
579 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru (Brako & Zarucchi 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Peru (1936 - 1995, 26 (?) vols. published); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta of Peru, pt. 1-6 (Tryon & Stolze 1989-94)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Icones Orchidacearum Peruvianum (Bennett & Christenson 1995-2000, Vol. 1-8, ongoing series); Orchids of Peru, Vol. I-IV (Schweinfurth 1959-1961, in Fieldiana Bot.)
more country list Bolivia BOL 1.098.581 +15465145972964
15465All Species
14597Indigenous Species
14597Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2964Endemic Species
2964Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1181 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 139 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
558 Basal Angiosperms (of them 122 endemic)
2260 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 387 endemic)
1384 Orchids (of them 562 endemic)
9197 Dicotyledons (of them 1751 endemic)
868 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia (Jorgensen et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Prodromus of a Fern Flora of Bolivia (Smith & Kessler 2016 ff., over 30 parts, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orquideas de Bolivia, Vol. 1 (Vasquez & Ibisch 2000); Orquideas de Bolivia, Vol. 2 (Vasquez & Ibisch 2003); Index Orchidacearum Bolivianum (Hashimoto 1993)
BRAZIL (84)
more country list Brazil BRA 8.547.404 +368163623020996
36816All Species
36230Indigenous Species
36229Indigenous Species except Microspecies
20996Endemic Species
20996Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
57% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1361 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 498 endemic)
25 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
1598 Basal Angiosperms (of them 833 endemic)
6817 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4308 endemic)
2783 Orchids (of them 1810 endemic)
23646 Dicotyledons (of them 13543 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
586 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil (floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br)

Most recent flora

various regional floras (all incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Brasileira: Orquideas 1 (A-L), 2 (M-Z) (CD-ROM, Campacci 2000); Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil (floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br); Orchidaceae Brasilienses (Pabst & Dungs 1975-77); Icones Orchidacearum Brasilienses (Castro & Campacci, Vol. 1, 2001)
more country list Fernando Noronha Isl. FNI 26 -272612
27All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
22 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Terrestrial vascular floras of Brazil's Oceanic Archipelagos (Alves 2006) [not seen and not included]
more country list Ilha da Trindade ITR 11 -161613
16All Species
16Indigenous Species
16Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
81.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)

Most recent flora

Terrestrial vascular floras of Brazil's Oceanic Archipelagos (Alves 2006) [not seen and not included]
TEMPERATE SOUTH AMERICA (85)
more country list Paraguay PAR 406.752 +51604999420
5160All Species
4999Indigenous Species
4999Indigenous Species except Microspecies
420Endemic Species
420Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
242 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
102 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
910 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 51 endemic)
167 Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
3577 Dicotyledons (of them 337 endemic)
161 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora de Paraguay (1983 ff., 39 vols. published, still incomplete)
more country list Uruguay URU 176.215 +28082479130
2808All Species
2479Indigenous Species
2479Indigenous Species except Microspecies
130Endemic Species
130Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
102 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
26 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
679 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
49 Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
1622 Dicotyledons (of them 82 endemic)
329 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora del Uruguay (1958 ff., only 4 vols. published?)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora de Uruguay, Vol. 1 Pteridophyta (Legrand & Lombardo 1958)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora del Uruguay (Herter 1949)
more country list Argentina ARG 2.780.400 +1011492641873
10114All Species
9264Indigenous Species
9261Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1873Endemic Species
1870Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
371 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 19 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
106 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
1970 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 396 endemic)
267 Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
6530 Dicotyledons (of them 1419 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
850 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008); Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de la Republica Argentina (2 vols., Zuloaga et al. 1996)
more country list Chile (excl. Juan Fdz. Isl.) CLE 756.626 +497444161931
4974All Species
4416Indigenous Species
4410Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1931Endemic Species
1931Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
38.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
120 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 16 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
917 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 354 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 36 endemic)
3284 Dicotyledons (of them 1510 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them endemic)
558 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008); Catalogo de la flora vascular de Chile (Marticorena 1984)

Most recent flora

Flora de Chile (1995-2005, ongoing, 4 vols. published)
more country list Desventuradas Isl. DSV 30 +473714
47All Species
37Indigenous Species
37Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
30 Dicotyledons (of them 13 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

The flora of San Felix Island (Johnston 1931); Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg 1998)
more country list Juan Fernandez Isl. JNF 181 +400259117
400All Species
259Indigenous Species
259Indigenous Species except Microspecies
117Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 21 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
54 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
150 Dicotyledons (of them 75 endemic)
141 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Vascular flora of the Robinson Crusoe Islands (Marticorena et al. 1998)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Helechos de Juan Fernandez (Barrera Moscoso 1997)
ANTARCTIC (9)
ANTARCTIC CONTINENT (90)
more country list Antarctic continent ANT 13.200.000 +220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
SUBANTARCTIC ISLANDS (91)
more country list Macquarie Isl. MAQ 123 ++55483
55All Species
48Indigenous Species
48Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
26 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Campbell Isl. CMP 137 ++1361242
136All Species
124Indigenous Species
124Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
39 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
5 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
60 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Heard & McDonald Isl. HMD 372 +13120
13All Species
12Indigenous Species
12Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Marion & Prince Edward Isl. MPE 335 +37252
37All Species
25Indigenous Species
25Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
11 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Ile Amsterdam & St. Paul Isl. ASP 67 +26269
26All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
34.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Iles Crozet CRZ 300 +20200
20All Species
20Indigenous Species
20Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Iles Kerguélen KEG 6.993 +40291
40All Species
29Indigenous Species
29Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
15 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
11 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Falkland Isl. FAL 12.173 +25716616
257All Species
166Indigenous Species
166Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
21 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
45 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
96 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
91 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of the Falkland Islands (Woods 2000); The vascular flora of the Falkland Islands (Moore 1968)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The current status and distribution of the Falkland islands pteridophyte flora (Broughton & MacAdam 2003)
more country list Tristan da Cunha (incl. Gough Island, Nightingale Isl., Inaccessible Island) TDC 202 o17910347
179All Species
103Indigenous Species
103Indigenous Species except Microspecies
47Endemic Species
47Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
40 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
35 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
27 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vegetation and Checklist of Inaccessible Island (Roux et al. 1992)

Most recent flora

The terrestrial botany of the Tristan da Cunha Islands (Wace & Dixon 1965); Vegetation and Checklist of Inaccessible Island (Roux et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
more country list South Georgia Isl. SGE 3.756 ++78250
78All Species
25Indigenous Species
24Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
53 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

The Vascular Flora of South Georgia (Greene 1964); Survey for baseline information on introduced vascular plants: South Georgia (Osborne et al. 2009)
more country list South Sandwich Isl. SSA 310 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
more country list South Orkney Isl. SOI 622 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
more country list South Shetland Isl. SSI 4.700 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)