Country or RegionCodeSurface Area (km²)Status ChecklistAll Species Indigenous Species Endemics
EUROPE (1)
NORTHERN EUROPE (10)
more country list Iceland ICE 103.000 ++795734255
795All Species
734Indigenous Species
432Indigenous Species except Microspecies
255Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
36 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
134 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
556 Dicotyledons (of them 253 endemic)
302 Microspecies (of them 249 endemic)
61 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

A guide to the flowering plants and ferns of Iceland (Kristinsson 1998); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Jan Mayen Isl. JMY 380 ++57563
57All Species
56Indigenous Species
51Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
41 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

The flora of Jan Mayen (Lid 1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Svalbard (incl. Bjornoya) SVA 62.160 ++1971891
197All Species
189Indigenous Species
183Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
54 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
129 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
8 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Svalbards flora (Roenning 1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Faeroe Isl. FOR 1.399 ++3843639
384All Species
363Indigenous Species
331Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
235 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
32 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
21 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Isle of Man, Orkney Isl., Shetland Isl., but excl. Channel Isl. and Northern Ireland) GRB 244.110 ++34652620691
3465All Species
2620Indigenous Species
1507Indigenous Species except Microspecies
691Endemic Species
67Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
79 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
361 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2124 Dicotyledons (of them 686 endemic)
1113 Microspecies (of them 624 endemic)
845 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

Flora of the British Isles (Clapham et al. 1962); New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002); Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Sell & Murrell 1997); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The illustrated field guide to ferns and allied plants of the British Iles (Jermy 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Wild Orchids of Scotland (Allan, Woods & Clarks 1993); Orchidaceae. In: Flora of Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Vol. 5 (Sell & Murrell 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Ireland (incl. Northern Ireland) IRE 70.000 ++1516121624
1516All Species
1216Indigenous Species
971Indigenous Species except Microspecies
24Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
228 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
29 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
897 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
245 Microspecies (of them 18 endemic)
300 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

An Irish Flora (Webb et al. 1996); Flora of the British Isles (Clapham et al. 1962); New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 200); Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Sell & Murrell 1997); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The illustrated field guide to ferns and allied plants of the British Iles (Jermy 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

British & Irish Orchids: a field guide (Ettlinger 1976); A Guide to the Wild Orchids of Great Britain and Ireland (Lang 1989); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Denmark DEN 43.094 +1954166963
1954All Species
1669Indigenous Species
1179Indigenous Species except Microspecies
63Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
281 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1296 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
490 Microspecies (of them 61 endemic)
285 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Dansk Flora (Frederiksen et al. 2006); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Dansk feltflora (Hansen 1981); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Norway NOR 385.639 ++421338892000
4213All Species
3889Indigenous Species
1314Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2000Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
332 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3439 Dicotyledons (of them 2000 endemic)
2575 Microspecies (of them 2000 endemic)
324 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Den Nya Nordiska Floran (Mossberg & Stenberg 2003); Norsk Flora (Lid et al. 2005); Norsk og svensk flora (Lid 1963); Flora Nordica, Vol. 1 (Jonsell, ed., 2000); Nordisk fjaellflora (Nilsson 1991); Flora över Dal (Andersson 1981); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed. von Gjaerevoll 1985); Orkideer i Norden (Nylen 1984); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sweden SWE 449.964 ++387635421235
3876All Species
3542Indigenous Species
1492Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1235Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
63 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
373 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3053 Dicotyledons (of them 1234 endemic)
2050 Microspecies (of them 1227 endemic)
334 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Mossberg & Stenberg (2003); Norsk Flora (Lid et al. 2005); Norsk og svensk flora (Lid 1963); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed. von Gjaerevoll 1985); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Orkideer i Norden (Nylen 1984); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Finland FIN 338.144 ++27882565763
2788All Species
2565Indigenous Species
1140Indigenous Species except Microspecies
763Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
307 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2161 Dicotyledons (of them 763 endemic)
1425 Microspecies (of them 760 endemic)
223 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland (Kurtto et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora Fennica, vol. 1-3 (Lönnrotin 2002); Field Flora of Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed., Gjaerevoll 1985); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kaemmekaet - Suomen orkideat (Korhonen & Vuokko 1987); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
MIDDLE EUROPE (11)
more country list Netherlands NET 33.920 ++2031168647
2031All Species
1686Indigenous Species
1248Indigenous Species except Microspecies
47Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
294 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1297 Dicotyledons (of them 47 endemic)
438 Microspecies (of them 47 endemic)
345 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Heukels Flora van Nederland (23. Aufl., Mejden et al. 2005); De Nederlandse Oecologische Flora (5 vols., Weeda 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora van Nederland (21. ed.) (Heuckels & van der Meijden 1990); De orchideen van Nederland - ecologie - verspreiding - bedreiging - beheer (Kreutz & Dekker 2000); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Belgium BGM 30.688 ++2071167015
2071All Species
1670Indigenous Species
1383Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
55 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
313 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
51 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1244 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
287 Microspecies (of them 15 endemic)
401 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora (van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1972)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed.) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Orchidaceae Belgicae (Klopfenstein & Toussaint 1983-87); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Luxembourg LUX 2.586 ++130011624
1300All Species
1162Indigenous Species
1057Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
46 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
204 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
869 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
105 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora (van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1972); Red List of the Vascular Plants of Luxembourg (Colling 2005)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed., Lambinon & Verloove 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Online Atlas of the Pteridophytes of Luxembourg (www.pteridophytes.lu)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Luxemburgs (Mangen et al. 1993); Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Germany GER 356.970 ++43863678294
4386All Species
3678Indigenous Species
2475Indigenous Species except Microspecies
294Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
84 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
511 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
71 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2996 Dicotyledons (of them 286 endemic)
1203 Microspecies (of them 262 endemic)
708 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Florenliste von Deutschland - Gefäßpflanzen. Version 11 (Hand et al. 2020, www.kp-buttler.de)

Most recent flora

Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed., many volumes); Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder (Schmeil/Fitschen) (92. Auflage 2003, ed. Senghas & Seybold); Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora, ed. 8 (Oberdorfer, Begr., 2001); Exkursionsflora von Deutschland (Rothmaler, Begr., 21. Aufl. 2017, ed. Jäger); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder (Schmeil/Fitschen), (89. Auflage 1993, ed. Senghas & Seybold); Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1995); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Switzerland SWI 41.285 ++3403300199
3403All Species
3001Indigenous Species
2464Indigenous Species except Microspecies
99Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
82 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
477 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
65 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2359 Dicotyledons (of them 97 endemic)
537 Microspecies (of them 92 endemic)
402 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora Helvetica Checklist 2017 (Juillerat et al. 2017)

Most recent flora

Flora Helvetica (5. Aufl., Lauber et al. 2012); Flora der Schweiz (3 vols., Hess et al. 1976-1980); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004); Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed., multiple volumes); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1994); Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Reinhard et al. 1991); Die Orchideen der Schweiz (Danesch 1984); Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Hess, Landolt & Hirzel 1967-1970); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Liechtenstein LIE 161 ++140512900
1405All Species
1290Indigenous Species
1258Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
238 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
958 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
32 Microspecies (of them endemic)
115 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora von Liechtenstein (Waldburger et al. 2003); Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1994); Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Reinhard et al. 1991); Die Orchideen der Schweiz (Danesch 1984); Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Hess, Landolt & Hirzel 1967-1970); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Austria AUT 83.858 ++3575318299
3575All Species
3182Indigenous Species
2691Indigenous Species except Microspecies
99Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
76 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
520 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
68 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2500 Dicotyledons (of them 93 endemic)
491 Microspecies (of them 66 endemic)
393 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Exkursionsflora von Österreich (Fischer, ed., 1994); Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1995); Wildwachsende Orchideen in Österreich (Redl 1996); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Poland POL 312.684 ++2954264041
2954All Species
2640Indigenous Species
2003Indigenous Species except Microspecies
41Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
66 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
417 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
46 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2097 Dicotyledons (of them 40 endemic)
637 Microspecies (of them 33 endemic)
314 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flowering Plants and Pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist (Mirez et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

Flora polska (Szafera, ed., 1919 - 1980, 14 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Poland (Szlachetko & Skakuj 1996); Storczyki Zachodniej Czesci Polskich Beskidow (Bernacki 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Atlas Flory Polskiej i Ziem Osciennych, Vol. 5, pt. 1 (Madalski 1971); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Czech Republic CZE 78.866 ++2671239946
2671All Species
2399Indigenous Species
1938Indigenous Species except Microspecies
46Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
409 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
55 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1849 Dicotyledons (of them 44 endemic)
461 Microspecies (of them 38 endemic)
272 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic (Danihelka et al. 2012)

Most recent flora

Klič ke Květeně České republiky (Kubát, ed., 2002); Květena České (Socialistické) republiky (Slavík & Hejný, ed., 1988-2005, 7 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideje nasi prirody (Prochazka & Velisek 1983); Orchid distribution and protection in Moravia and Silesia (Husak 1996); Verbreitung und Schutz der Orchideen in Mähren und Schlesien (Jatiova & Smitak 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Slovakia SLO 49.034 ++32692744107
3269All Species
2744Indigenous Species
2404Indigenous Species except Microspecies
107Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
68 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
463 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
57 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2139 Dicotyledons (of them 105 endemic)
340 Microspecies (of them 98 endemic)
525 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

http://ibot.sav.sk/checklist/index.php (Marhold & Hindak)

Most recent flora

Klič ke Květeně České republiky (Kubát, ed., 2002); Květena České (Socialistické) republiky (Slavík & Hejný, ed., 1988-2005, 7 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideje nasi prirody (Prochazka & Velisek 1983); Orchid distribution and protection in Moravia and Silesia (Husak 1996); Verbreitung und Schutz der Orchideen in Mähren und Schlesien (Jatiova & Smitak 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Hungary HUN 93.030 ++2431216674
2431All Species
2166Indigenous Species
2002Indigenous Species except Microspecies
74Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
413 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
57 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1630 Dicotyledons (of them 70 endemic)
164 Microspecies (of them 55 endemic)
265 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Vadon elo orchideak (Molnar, Sulyok & Videki 1995); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
SOUTH WESTERN EUROPE (12)
more country list Portugal (excl. Azores, Madeira) POR 89.357 ++2930251179
2930All Species
2511Indigenous Species
2461Indigenous Species except Microspecies
79Endemic Species
77Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
61 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
494 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1898 Dicotyledons (of them 67 endemic)
50 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
419 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011)

Most recent flora

Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); The Orchid Flora of Portugal (Tyteca 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Spain (excl. Baleares) SPA 501.453 ++634657561182
6346All Species
5756Indigenous Species
5205Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1182Endemic Species
874Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
106 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
898 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
82 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4642 Dicotyledons (of them 1079 endemic)
551 Microspecies (of them 308 endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Andorra ADO 468 ++9669334
966All Species
933Indigenous Species
876Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
82 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
828 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
57 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
33 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flowers of Andorra (Crozier & Matschke 1993); Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Gibraltar GIB 7 ++6615621
661All Species
562Indigenous Species
561Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
96 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
441 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
99 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

The flowers of Gibraltar (Linares et al. 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Baleares BAL 4.992 ++16151442120
1615All Species
1442Indigenous Species
1428Indigenous Species except Microspecies
120Endemic Species
118Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
251 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
36 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1113 Dicotyledons (of them 111 endemic)
14 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
173 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora de Mallorca (Vols. I-IV, Bonafe 1977-1980); Illustrated Flora of Mallorca (Beckett 1993); Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Orquidacies. - In: Flora de Mallorca, Vol. 2 (Barcelo 1978); Petita guia de las Orquidies de les Balears (Alomar 1994); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list France (mainland, excl. Corsica) FRA 535.285 ++59765192301
5976All Species
5192Indigenous Species
4371Indigenous Species except Microspecies
301Endemic Species
142Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
117 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
18 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
818 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
96 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
4131 Dicotyledons (of them 270 endemic)
821 Microspecies (of them 159 endemic)
784 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index synonymique de la flore de France (Kerguélen 1993)

Most recent flora

Les quatres flores de France (4. ed., Fournier 1977); Flora Gallica (Tison & de Foucault 2014); Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed.) (Lambinon et al. 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Monaco MCO 2 -48420
48All Species
42Indigenous Species
42Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
6 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
more country list British Channel Isl. CIS 198 +15069164
1506All Species
916Indigenous Species
814Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
31 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
184 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
684 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
102 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vice-County Census Catalogue (Botanicalkeys.co.uk)

Most recent flora

Wildflowers of Alderney (Bonnard 2008); A flora of the Island of Jersey (Lester-Garland 1903)
more country list Corsica COR 8.680 ++2238207380
2238All Species
2073Indigenous Species
2029Indigenous Species except Microspecies
80Endemic Species
65Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
410 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1531 Dicotyledons (of them 69 endemic)
44 Microspecies (of them 15 endemic)
165 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Corsica (Jeanmonod & Gamisans 2007); Les quatres flores de France (4. ed., Fournier 1977); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sardinia SAR 23.318 ++21181972139
2118All Species
1972Indigenous Species
1954Indigenous Species except Microspecies
139Endemic Species
131Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
376 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1485 Dicotyledons (of them 132 endemic)
18 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
146 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora dell' Isola di Sardegna, Vol. 1-4 (Arrigoni 2006-2013); Flora Sarda / Piante Endemiche (Marras 2000); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna (Giotta & Picitto 1990); Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna (Scrugli 1991); Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982) Orchidee. Specie spontanee (Liverani 1991); Orchidacee d’Italia (Grünanger 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE (13)
more country list Italy (mainland) (incl. Elba Isl., Capri Isl.) ITA 203.856 ++60405450572
6040All Species
5450Indigenous Species
4980Indigenous Species except Microspecies
572Endemic Species
419Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
119 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
897 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 48 endemic)
118 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
4287 Dicotyledons (of them 502 endemic)
470 Microspecies (of them 153 endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-3 (Pignatti 1982); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4; Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982); Orchidee d’Italia (Sguazzini & Glerean 1981); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sicily (incl. Isole Pelagie) SIC 25.426 ++25922361173
2592All Species
2361Indigenous Species
2339Indigenous Species except Microspecies
173Endemic Species
166Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
49 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
462 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1768 Dicotyledons (of them 149 endemic)
22 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
231 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily (Giardina et al. 2007); An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-3 (Pignatti 1982); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4; Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982); Orchidee d’Italia (Sguazzini & Glerean 1981); A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily (GIARDINA et al. 2007); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Malta MLT 316 ++87478511
874All Species
785Indigenous Species
785Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
114 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
615 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
89 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

A Flora of the Maltese Islands (Haslam, Sell & Wolseley 1977); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Le Orchidaceae dell'archipelago maltese (Bartolo et al. 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list San Marino SMA 61 -220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent flora

Flora della repubblica di San Marino (Pampanini 1930) [not seen and not yet included, few newer publications neither seen nor included]

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Slovenia SLV 20.273 +2979272541
2979All Species
2725Indigenous Species
2591Indigenous Species except Microspecies
41Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
68 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
512 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2064 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
134 Microspecies (of them 30 endemic)
254 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Register flore Slovenije (Trpin & Vres 1995)

Most recent flora

Flora of Slovenia (iFlora - Plant Guide Book 22) (Tackenberg); Mala flora Slovenije, kljuc za dolocanje praprotnic in semenk (Martinic et al. 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Croatia CRO 56.594 +4302380490
4302All Species
3804Indigenous Species
3681Indigenous Species except Microspecies
90Endemic Species
78Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
80 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
669 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
87 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2941 Dicotyledons (of them 78 endemic)
123 Microspecies (of them 12 endemic)
498 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Nikolić T. ed. (2015): Flora Croatica Database (http://hirc.botanic.hr/fcd)

Most recent flora

Flora Hrvatske (Domac 2002); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Bosnia & Hercegovina BIH 51.197 -2765259037
2765All Species
2590Indigenous Species
2522Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
458 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
55 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2002 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
68 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
175 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Bosne i Hercegovine (Beck 1903-1921, 1927, Beck & Maly 1950, Bjelčić 1967-1983, incomplete); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Montenegro MNT 13.812 o2532245822
2532All Species
2458Indigenous Species
2404Indigenous Species except Microspecies
22Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
62 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
431 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1895 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
54 Microspecies (of them 6 endemic)
74 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Katalog Vaskularne Flora Crne Gore, Tom. 1 (Stesevic & Cakovic 2013) [incomplete]

Most recent flora

Conspectus Florae Montenegrinae (Rohlena 1942); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideenflora Montenegros (Parolly 1991, in Mitt. Bl. AHO Bad.-Württ., Vol. 24); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Serbia SRB 77.474 o3077294832
3077All Species
2948Indigenous Species
2882Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
28Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
517 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
56 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2296 Dicotyledons (of them 28 endemic)
66 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
129 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An Annotated Checklist of Vascular Flora of Serbia, Vol. 1 (Niketic & Tomovic 2018) [incomplete]

Most recent flora

Flora SR Srbije (Josifović 1970-1976, 1977; Sarić & Diklić 1986); Flora Srbije (Saric et al., eds., 1992; Stevanovic et al., eds., 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Kosovo KOS 10.877 -1341296
134All Species
129Indigenous Species
124Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
119 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
5 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Northern Macedonia NMA 25.713 o2958286382
2958All Species
2863Indigenous Species
2786Indigenous Species except Microspecies
82Endemic Species
75Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
438 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2297 Dicotyledons (of them 78 endemic)
77 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
95 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org) [incomplete because many species are only listed for "former Yugoslavia"]

Most recent flora

Flora na Republika Makedonija (Micevski et al. 1983-2006, Matevski 2010; 7 vols. published, incomplete); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Albania ALB 28.748 +3334319759
3334All Species
3197Indigenous Species
3137Indigenous Species except Microspecies
59Endemic Species
46Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
569 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2487 Dicotyledons (of them 51 endemic)
60 Microspecies (of them 13 endemic)
137 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Albania (Barina et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Illustrated Flora of Albania (Pils 2016); Flore de l'Albanie (1992-2000, vols. 2, 3, 4); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Illustrated Flora of Albania (Pils 2016); Die Orchideenflora Albaniens (Gölz & Reinhard 1984); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Romania ROM 237.500 ++33953121101
3395All Species
3121Indigenous Species
2964Indigenous Species except Microspecies
101Endemic Species
56Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
61 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
590 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
58 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2398 Dicotyledons (of them 98 endemic)
157 Microspecies (of them 45 endemic)
274 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Republicii Socialiste România (1952-1976); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora Romaniei, Vol. II (Beldie 1979); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Bulgaria BUL 110.994 ++37733582174
3773All Species
3582Indigenous Species
3439Indigenous Species except Microspecies
174Endemic Species
128Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
606 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
52 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2844 Dicotyledons (of them 156 endemic)
143 Microspecies (of them 46 endemic)
191 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus of the Bulgarian vascular flora (Assyov et al., 4th ed. 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora na Narodna Republika Bălgarija (Jordanov et al., 1963-1995, 10 vols.); Flora bulgarica (CD-ROM, 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora von Bulgarien (Stojanow & Stafanov 1948); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list European Turkey TUE 23.764 ++2016195613
2016All Species
1956Indigenous Species
1943Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
25 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
440 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1450 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
13 Microspecies (of them endemic)
60 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000, 9 vols. + 2 supplement volumes, complete); Flowers of Turkey - A photo guide (Pils 2006)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen der Türkei (Kreutz 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Greece (incl. Kikladhes, excl. Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos and E-Aegaean) GRC 123.600 ++51394843727
5139All Species
4843Indigenous Species
4675Indigenous Species except Microspecies
727Endemic Species
649Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
12.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
881 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 108 endemic)
87 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
3776 Dicotyledons (of them 611 endemic)
168 Microspecies (of them 78 endemic)
296 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Greece. An Annotated Checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, with supplement 2015); Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016)

Most recent flora

Flora Hellenica (Strid & Kit Tan (eds., 1997 ff., 3 vols. published); Mountain Flora of Greece (Vol. 1/2, Strid, ed., 1989/1991); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Synopsis Flora Graecae: Orchidaceae (Diapulis 1995); The Orchids of Greece - Inventory and Review (Kalopissis 1988); Orchids of Greece (Lepper 1981); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Crete KRI 8.336 ++19671815166
1967All Species
1815Indigenous Species
1805Indigenous Species except Microspecies
166Endemic Species
165Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
35 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
367 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1359 Dicotyledons (of them 136 endemic)
10 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
152 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Greece. An Annotated Checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, with supplement 2015); Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016)

Most recent flora

Exkursionsflora für Kreta (Jahn & Schönfelder 1995); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen von Kreta und Karpathos (Alibertis 1997) (engl. ed. 1998); Orchidaceae (Scheurer & Jahn). In: Exkursionsflora für Kreta (Jahn & Schönfelder 1995); Orchideen auf Kreta, Karpathos & Kasos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
EASTERN EUROPE (14)
more country list Estonia EST 45.339 ++1926140340
1926All Species
1403Indigenous Species
1117Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
263 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1046 Dicotyledons (of them 39 endemic)
286 Microspecies (of them 37 endemic)
523 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Eesti NSV Floora (Flora of Estonian SSR, Vol. 1-11, 1953-1984); Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Vascular Plant Flora of Estonia (Kukk 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Native orchids in Estonia (Kuusk 1996); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Latvia LAT 64.589 ++161912964
1619All Species
1296Indigenous Species
1115Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
276 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
937 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
181 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
323 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Flora of Latvian vascular taxa (Gavrilova & Sulcs 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Diversity, state and protection of Orchidaceae species in Lithuania (Gudzinskas 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Lithuania LIT 65.300 ++151712262
1517All Species
1226Indigenous Species
1139Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
280 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
867 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
87 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
291 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Vascular plants of Lithuania (Gudzinskas 1999); Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Diversity, state and protection of Orchidaceae species in Lithuania (Gudzinskas 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Belarus BLR 207.595 +184414915
1844All Species
1491Indigenous Species
1393Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
43 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
304 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1098 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
98 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
353 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Fedorov, ed., 11 vols., 1988-2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list European Russia (excl. Caucasus, incl. Kaliningrad region, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya) RUS 4.300.000 ++46514179401
4651All Species
4179Indigenous Species
3489Indigenous Species except Microspecies
401Endemic Species
152Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
74 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
727 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 30 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3314 Dicotyledons (of them 371 endemic)
690 Microspecies (of them 249 endemic)
472 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Fedorov, ed., 11 vols., 1988-2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orkhidei nachei strany (Vakhrameeva et al. 1991)
more country list Moldova (incl. Transnistria) MLD 33.843 o6145432
614All Species
543Indigenous Species
505Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
15 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
512 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
38 Microspecies (of them endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Ukraine (excl. Crimea) UKR 577.720 ++31962951109
3196All Species
2951Indigenous Species
2755Indigenous Species except Microspecies
109Endemic Species
90Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
562 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2281 Dicotyledons (of them 94 endemic)
196 Microspecies (of them 19 endemic)
245 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of the Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist (Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk 1999); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Vasheka OV, Bezsmertna OO (2012). Ferns atlas of Ukrainian flora: monograf.

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Ukraine (Sobko 1989, in russian); Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Crimea KRY 26.080 ++2265209487
2265All Species
2094Indigenous Species
2021Indigenous Species except Microspecies
87Endemic Species
63Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
36 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
355 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1650 Dicotyledons (of them 76 endemic)
73 Microspecies (of them 24 endemic)
171 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of the Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist (Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk 1999); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Vasheka OV, Bezsmertna OO (2012). Ferns atlas of Ukrainian flora: monograf.

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of the Orchids of Crimea (Fateryga & Kreutz 2014); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
AFRICA (2)
NORTHERN AFRICA (20)
more country list Morocco MOR 453.730 ++43063889675
4306All Species
3889Indigenous Species
3861Indigenous Species except Microspecies
675Endemic Species
664Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
64 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
696 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 77 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3082 Dicotyledons (of them 595 endemic)
28 Microspecies (of them 11 endemic)
417 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore pratique du Maroc (Fennane et al. 1999-2015, 3 vols.); Fennane & Ibn Tattou (2005-2007): Flore vasculaire du Maroc, inventaire et chorologie

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flore pratique du Maroc, Vol. 1 (Salvo & Ouyahya 1999)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Les orchidées du Maroc (Raynaud 1985); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Western Sahara WSA 267.769 +2352331
235All Species
233Indigenous Species
233Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
39 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
190 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental (Lebrun 1998); CJB African Plant Database); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de Mauritanie, Vol. 2 (Barry & Celles 1991); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Algeria ALG 2.381.740 ++37163369188
3716All Species
3369Indigenous Species
3351Indigenous Species except Microspecies
188Endemic Species
185Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
608 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2641 Dicotyledons (of them 162 endemic)
18 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
347 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de l'Algerie (Quezel & Santa 1962, 2 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Tunisia TUN 164.418 ++2428222861
2428All Species
2228Indigenous Species
2220Indigenous Species except Microspecies
61Endemic Species
61Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
431 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1717 Dicotyledons (of them 56 endemic)
8 Microspecies (of them endemic)
200 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flore de Tunisie: Catalogue synonymique commente (Le Floc'h & Boulos 2008); Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de la Tunisie (Pottier-Alapetite, ed., 1979-1984, 3 vols. + Atlas, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidées de Tunisie (Valles & Valles-Lombard 1988)
more country list Libya LBY 1.757.000 ++1931174791
1931All Species
1747Indigenous Species
1744Indigenous Species except Microspecies
91Endemic Species
91Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
16 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
357 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1354 Dicotyledons (of them 76 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
184 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Libya (Ali & Jafri, eds., 1976-1990, 150 vols., almost complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Libya - Pteridophytes (1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidaceae (Flora Libia, Fasc. 119) (Hossain & El-Gadi 1985); Zur Kenntnis der Orchideenflora der Cyrenaika (Libyen) (Baumann & Baumann 2001)
more country list Egypt (excl. Sinai peninsula) EGY 878.000 ++1955181730
1955All Species
1817Indigenous Species
1810Indigenous Species except Microspecies
30Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
397 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
1403 Dicotyledons (of them 22 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Egypt (Boulos, ed., 1999-2005, 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Egypt, Vol. 1: Azollaceae - Oxalidaceae (Boulos 1999)
MACARONESIA (21)
more country list Azores AZO 2.247 ++94258756
942All Species
587Indigenous Species
582Indigenous Species except Microspecies
56Endemic Species
54Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
51 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
136 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
392 Dicotyledons (of them 36 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
355 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993); Catalogo das plantas vasculares dos Acores (Palhina 1966)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora Europaea, Vol. 5 (Soó 1980); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die Orchideen der Azoren (Frey 1977)
more country list Madeira MDR 741 ++1301766109
1301All Species
766Indigenous Species
759Indigenous Species except Microspecies
109Endemic Species
109Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
145 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
548 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them endemic)
535 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011); Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Madeira (Press et al. 1994) Die Farne und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras (Muer, Sauerbier & Calixto 2020)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Madeira (Press 1994); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Orchideen von Madeira (Rückbrodt & Rückbrodt 1990)
more country list Islas Selvagens (Salvajes Isl.) SEL 3 ++110973
110All Species
97Indigenous Species
97Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Menezes de Sequeira et al. (2011); CJB African Plant Database; Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Madeira (Press et al. 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Madeira (Press 1994); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Orchideen von Madeira (Rückbrodt & Rückbrodt 1990)
more country list Canary Isl. CNY 7.273 ++20851555545
2085All Species
1555Indigenous Species
1550Indigenous Species except Microspecies
545Endemic Species
544Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
246 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1239 Dicotyledons (of them 511 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
530 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database; Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen der Kanarischen Inseln (Muer, Sauerbier & Calixto 2016); Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln (Hohenester & Weiss 1993)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln (Hohenester & Weiss 1993); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986)
more country list Cape Verde Isl. CVI 4.033 ++75253788
752All Species
537Indigenous Species
537Indigenous Species except Microspecies
88Endemic Species
88Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
35 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
136 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
363 Dicotyledons (of them 77 endemic)
215 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora de Cabo Verde (Paiva et al., 1995-2002, 106 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Ferns and Fern-Allies (Pteridophyta) of the Cape Verde Islands (Lobin et al. 1998)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
WEST TROPICAL AFRICA (22)
more country list Mauritania MTN 1.030.700 +8367753
836All Species
775Indigenous Species
773Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
223 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
537 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
61 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental (Lebrun 1998); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore de Mauritanie (2 vols., Barry & Celles 1991); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Senegal SEN 196.722 +1845177116
1845All Species
1771Indigenous Species
1771Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
543 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1133 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
74 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Enumeration des plantes vasculaires du Senegal (Lebrun 1973); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore illustrée du Sénégal (Berhaut, ed., 1971-1988, incomplete); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Orchidaceae (van den Berghen). - In: Flore Illustree du Senegal, Vol. 9 (Berhault 1988)
more country list Gambia GAM 11.295 -6696452
669All Species
645Indigenous Species
645Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
180 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
435 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
24 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Gambian Biodiversity: A Provisional Checklist of all Species Recorded within the Gambia (Emms & Brummitt 2005) [not seen]; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of the Gambia (Jones 1994); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Guinea-Bissau GNB 36.125 ++140513345
1405All Species
1334Indigenous Species
1334Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
22 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
24 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
330 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
927 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) (Catarino et al. 2008); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora da Guiné-Bissau / Jardim e museu agrícola do Ultramar .. (7 vol., 1971-1983, incomplete); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Guinea [Conakry] GUI 245.857 ++3058275597
3058All Species
2755Indigenous Species
2755Indigenous Species except Microspecies
97Endemic Species
97Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
168 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
44 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
629 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
128 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1786 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
303 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore de la République de Guinée (Lisowski 2009); Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée (Lisowski 2011); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Sierra Leone SIE 71.740 o2684256458
2684All Species
2564Indigenous Species
2564Indigenous Species except Microspecies
58Endemic Species
58Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
138 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
59 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
577 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
158 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
1632 Dicotyledons (of them 39 endemic)
120 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Liberia LBR 99.067 o2216216177
2216All Species
2161Indigenous Species
2160Indigenous Species except Microspecies
77Endemic Species
77Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
192 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
61 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
376 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
147 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1385 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Über die Farne Liberias (Westafrika), ihr Vorkommen und ihre Verbreitung (Kunkel 1962)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Mali MLI 1.240.192 o164515746
1645All Species
1574Indigenous Species
1573Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
440 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1073 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali (Boudet et al. 1986); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)
more country list Burkina Faso BKN 274.200 +203018011
2030All Species
1801Indigenous Species
1801Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
15 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
550 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1187 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
229 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso (Lebrun et al. 1991); Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso (Thiombiano et al. 2012); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Diversity, distribution and preliminary conservation status of the flora of Burkina Faso (Schmidt et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931);
more country list Ivory Coast IVO 322.462 +3511340869
3511All Species
3408Indigenous Species
3408Indigenous Species except Microspecies
69Endemic Species
69Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
157 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
93 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
702 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
216 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2240 Dicotyledons (of them 56 endemic)
103 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flore de la Cote d'Ivoire: Catalogue systematique, biogeographie et ecologie (Ake-Assi 2001-2002); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Les Orchidees de Cote d’Ivoire (Perez-Vera 2003)
more country list Ghana GHA 238.500 o3163302532
3163All Species
3025Indigenous Species
3025Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
158 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
67 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
681 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
154 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1964 Dicotyledons (of them 26 endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A list of the Gold Coast Pteridophyta (Adams & Alston 1955); Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Togo TOG 56.785 ++2150198213
2150All Species
1982Indigenous Species
1981Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
26 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
525 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
77 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1295 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
168 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore analytique du Togo (Brunel, ed., 1984); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Flore analytique du Togo (Brunel & Butzin 1985)
more country list Benin BEN 112.622 ++2652226111
2652All Species
2261Indigenous Species
2261Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
50 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
38 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
543 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1582 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
391 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Souza (1987); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Bénin (3 vols., Souza, ed., 2006-2009); Flore analytique du Benin (Akoegninou et al., eds., 2006); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Flora of Benin, Vol. 1 (Souza 1987); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Niger NGR 1.267.000 o8107842
810All Species
784Indigenous Species
784Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
237 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
527 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
26 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger (Fabrègues & Lebrun 1976); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Nigeria NGA 923.768 o4677454984
4677All Species
4549Indigenous Species
4548Indigenous Species except Microspecies
84Endemic Species
84Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
192 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
113 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
913 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
283 Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
3045 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Orchids of Nigeria (Segerbäck et al. 1983)
WEST CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA (23)
more country list Cameroon CMN 475.442 +71666735792
7166All Species
6735Indigenous Species
6735Indigenous Species except Microspecies
792Endemic Species
792Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
276 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
235 Basal Angiosperms (of them 37 endemic)
1030 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 84 endemic)
406 Orchids (of them 45 endemic)
4782 Dicotyledons (of them 620 endemic)
431 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist (Onana 2011); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Cameroun (1963 - 2014, 79 families covered, still incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 3 (Tardieu-Blot 1964); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953); The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist (Onana 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 34-36: Orchidaceae 1-3 (Szlachetko & Olszewski 1998/2001)
more country list Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo) BIO 2.017 +1937174133
1937All Species
1741Indigenous Species
1741Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
213 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
59 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
261 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
134 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
1074 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
196 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Velayos, M. et al. (2013): Preliminary Checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Velayos, ed., 2008 ff., 5 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); The Pteridophyta of Bioko, Vol. 1-5 (Benl 1978-91)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Principe Isl. PRI 146 +52141219
521All Species
412Indigenous Species
412Indigenous Species except Microspecies
19Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
78 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
63 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
197 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
109 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated Catalogue of the flowering plants of Sao Tome and Principe (Figueiredo et al. 2011); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Catalogue of the vascular plants of S. Tome etc. (Exell 1944); Checklist of the ferns of Sao Tome and Principe (Internet)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Guide des Orchidees de Sao Tome et Principe (Stevart & de Oliveira (2000)
more country list Sao Tomé SAO 855 +111783379
1117All Species
833Indigenous Species
833Indigenous Species except Microspecies
79Endemic Species
79Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
147 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
107 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
98 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
462 Dicotyledons (of them 50 endemic)
284 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated Catalogue of the flowering plants of Sao Tome and Principe (Figueiredo et al. 2011); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Checklist of the ferns of Sao Tome and Principe (Internet)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Guide des Orchidees de Sao Tome et Principe (Stevart & de Oliveira (2000)
more country list Annobon Isl. ANN 17 +33727216
337All Species
272Indigenous Species
272Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
50 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
25 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
145 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
65 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Velayos, M. et al. (2016): Checklist of the Vascular plants of Annobon (Equatorial Guinea); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Velayos, M. et al. (2014): Checklist of the Vascular plants of Annobon (Equatorial Guinea); Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial, Vol. 1 (Velayos et al. 2008)
more country list Equatorial Guinea (mainland [Rio Muni], excluding islands) EQG 24.500 -1811176343
1811All Species
1763Indigenous Species
1763Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
43Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
136 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
68 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
297 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
160 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1100 Dicotyledons (of them 34 endemic)
48 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of Equatorial Guinean Flora (Royal Jardin Botanico Madrid, Internet); CJB African Plant Database; few checklists on family level

Most recent flora

Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Velayos, ed., 2008 ff., 5 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial, Vol. 1 (Velayos et al. 2008)
more country list Gabon GAB 267.667 +47134611502
4713All Species
4611Indigenous Species
4611Indigenous Species except Microspecies
502Endemic Species
502Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
173 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
199 Basal Angiosperms (of them 24 endemic)
595 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 47 endemic)
276 Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
3366 Dicotyledons (of them 409 endemic)
102 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Sosef et al. (2006): Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Gabon (Aubreville et al., eds., 1961 ff., 54 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore du Gabon, Vol. 8. Ptéridophytes (Tardieu-Blot 1964); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae 1 (Szlachetko & Olszewski 2000). In: Flore du Gabon (Morat, ed.)
more country list Congo [Brazzaville] CON 342.000 +4188405074
4188All Species
4050Indigenous Species
4050Indigenous Species except Microspecies
74Endemic Species
74Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
211 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
156 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
716 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
158 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2804 Dicotyledons (of them 51 endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo (Sita & Moutsambote 1988); Lachenaud (2009): La flore des plantes vascularies de la Republique du Congo: nouvelles donnees; CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Central African Republic CAF 622.436 +3527333789
3527All Species
3337Indigenous Species
3337Indigenous Species except Microspecies
89Endemic Species
89Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
115 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
583 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
154 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2386 Dicotyledons (of them 55 endemic)
190 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique (Boulevert 1977-1984, 3 vols.); CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique (Boulevert 1977); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Central African Republic (Cribb & Fay 1987)
more country list Cabinda CAB 7.823 o47747642
477All Species
476Indigenous Species
476Indigenous Species except Microspecies
42Endemic Species
42Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
36 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
43 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
396 Dicotyledons (of them 30 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plants of Angola (Figueiredo & Smith 2008) [Checklist]; CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Conspectus florae angolensis: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A provisional checklist of the Orchidaceae of Angola (Schelpe 1976)
more country list D.R. Congo (Zaire) ZAI 2.344.885 o880385991335
8803All Species
8599Indigenous Species
8599Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1335Endemic Species
1335Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
332 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
172 Basal Angiosperms (of them 20 endemic)
1294 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 177 endemic)
547 Orchids (of them 50 endemic)
6243 Dicotyledons (of them 1074 endemic)
204 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete); Flora of Tropical East Africa (various volumes) - covers mountains in eastern part of the country

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of the Upper Katanga (Kornas et al. 2000); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
more country list Rwanda RWA 26.338 o2141209957
2141All Species
2099Indigenous Species
2099Indigenous Species except Microspecies
57Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
175 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
24 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
391 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
202 Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
1307 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
42 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985); Flora of Tropical East Africa (various volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
more country list Burundi BUR 27.834 o2025199137
2025All Species
1991Indigenous Species
1991Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
181 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
359 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
180 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1253 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985))

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA (24)
more country list Chad CHA 1.284.000 +1776161914
1776All Species
1619Indigenous Species
1619Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
36 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
14 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
358 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1184 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
157 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis (Brundu 2013); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad meridional (Lebrun et al. 1972, with supplements 1976, 1977, 1986)

Most recent flora

Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Sudan SUD 1.886.068 +2114198628
2114All Species
1986Indigenous Species
1986Indigenous Species except Microspecies
28Endemic Species
28Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
170 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
521 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1268 Dicotyledons (of them 18 endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Sudan and South Sudan (Darbyshire et al. 2015); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan (Andrews 1950-1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and the fern-allies of the Sudan (Macleay 1953); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list South Sudan SSU 619.745 +2780268440
2780All Species
2684Indigenous Species
2684Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
40Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
36 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
651 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1923 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Sudan and South Sudan (Darbyshire et al. 2015); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan (Andrews 1950-1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and the fern-allies of the Sudan (Macleay 1953); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Ethiopia ETH 1.133.380 ++50404833560
5040All Species
4833Indigenous Species
4833Indigenous Species except Microspecies
560Endemic Species
560Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
178 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1056 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 104 endemic)
164 Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
3414 Dicotyledons (of them 428 endemic)
207 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989 - 2006, 8 vols., complete except Ferns)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 6 (Cribb & Thomas 1997)
more country list Eritrea ERI 121.144 ++1548149924
1548All Species
1499Indigenous Species
1499Indigenous Species except Microspecies
24Endemic Species
24Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
28 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
410 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1029 Dicotyledons (of them 14 endemic)
49 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989 - 2006, 8 vols., complete except Ferns)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 6 (Cribb & Thomas 1997)
more country list Djibouti DJI 23.200 +62258810
622All Species
588Indigenous Species
588Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
13 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
129 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
440 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la République de Djibouti (Lebrun et al. 1990); CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)
more country list Somalia SOM 637.700 ++29582899710
2958All Species
2899Indigenous Species
2899Indigenous Species except Microspecies
710Endemic Species
710Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
24% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
15 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
557 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 102 endemic)
11 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2273 Dicotyledons (of them 607 endemic)
59 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The plants of Somalia: an overview and checklist (Kuchar 1986); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Somalia (Thulin, ed., 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1 (Thulin, ed., 1993)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Pettersson). - In: Flora of Somalia, Vol. 4 (Thulin 1995)
more country list Soqotra (incl. Abd-al-Kuri Isl., Samha Isl.) SOC 3.579 ++819783304
819All Species
783Indigenous Species
782Indigenous Species except Microspecies
304Endemic Species
303Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
37% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
162 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
587 Dicotyledons (of them 276 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
36 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Ethnoflora of Soqotra (Miller & Morris 2004)
EAST TROPICAL AFRICA (25)
more country list Uganda UGA 241.038 ++4511435169
4511All Species
4351Indigenous Species
4350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
69Endemic Species
69Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
270 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
51 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
937 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
291 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
2797 Dicotyledons (of them 38 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
160 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae: in Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989)
more country list Kenya KEN 582.646 ++62516011477
6251All Species
6011Indigenous Species
6011Indigenous Species except Microspecies
477Endemic Species
477Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
279 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
62 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
1251 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 87 endemic)
258 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
4155 Dicotyledons (of them 367 endemic)
240 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989); Orchids of Kenya (Stewart 1996)
more country list Tanzania (incl. Pemba Isl., Zanzibar) TAN 945.268 ++942391471566
9423All Species
9147Indigenous Species
9147Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1566Endemic Species
1566Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
402 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 24 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
123 Basal Angiosperms (of them 42 endemic)
1736 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 180 endemic)
550 Orchids (of them 91 endemic)
6328 Dicotyledons (of them 1226 endemic)
276 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989)
SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA (26)
more country list Angola (excl. Cabinda) ANG 1.238.877 +638361401157
6383All Species
6140Indigenous Species
6140Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1157Endemic Species
1157Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
203 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
73 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
1184 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 164 endemic)
216 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
4459 Dicotyledons (of them 967 endemic)
243 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plants of Angola (Figueiredo & Smith 2008) [Checklist]; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Conspectus florae Angolensis (Fernandes et al., eds., 1937-1993, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A provisional checklist of the Orchidaceae of Angola (Schelpe 1976)
more country list Zambia ZAM 752.614 ++58975700389
5897All Species
5700Indigenous Species
5700Indigenous Species except Microspecies
389Endemic Species
389Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
176 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
1073 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 116 endemic)
409 Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
3988 Dicotyledons (of them 247 endemic)
197 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of Zambian vascular plants (Phiri 2005); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970); Distribution and ecology of the Pteridophytes in Zambia (Kornas 1978)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora Zambesiaca (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98)
more country list Malawi MLW 118.484 ++41754086157
4175All Species
4086Indigenous Species
4086Indigenous Species except Microspecies
157Endemic Species
157Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
235 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
31 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
723 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
405 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
2689 Dicotyledons (of them 99 endemic)
89 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in Flora Zambesiaca (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98)
more country list Zimbabwe ZIM 390.759 ++53914977236
5391All Species
4977Indigenous Species
4976Indigenous Species except Microspecies
236Endemic Species
236Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
272 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
38 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
874 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 45 endemic)
349 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
3437 Dicotyledons (of them 168 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
414 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants (Mapaura 2004); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Zambesiaca: Orchidaceae (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98); A list of orchids indigenous in Rhodesia (Grosvenor 1976)
more country list Mozambique MOZ 799.380 ++53184901275
5318All Species
4901Indigenous Species
4901Indigenous Species except Microspecies
275Endemic Species
275Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
225 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 7 endemic)
713 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 32 endemic)
198 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
3697 Dicotyledons (of them 227 endemic)
417 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique (da Silva et al. 2004); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A Provisional Check-List of the Orchidaceae of Mozambique (Schelpe 1976)
SOUTH AFRICA (27)
more country list Namibia (incl. Caprivi Strip) NAM 824.269 ++40233831627
4023All Species
3831Indigenous Species
3831Indigenous Species except Microspecies
627Endemic Species
627Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
921 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 122 endemic)
19 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2818 Dicotyledons (of them 503 endemic)
192 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of Namibian Indigenous and Naturalised Plants (Klaassen & Kwembeya 2013); List of Namibian Plant Species (Kolberg et al. 1992); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrica (Merxmüller 1966-1972, very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika, Lfg. 26 (Merxmüller, ed., 1969)
more country list Botswana BOT 581.730 ++2557243915
2557All Species
2439Indigenous Species
2439Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
49 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
636 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
27 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1714 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
118 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana (Setshogo 2005); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1970); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Zambesiaca: Orchidaceae (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98); Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list South Africa SAF 1.219.090 +204001945112753
20400All Species
19451Indigenous Species
19437Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12753Endemic Species
12753Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
62.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
270 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 32 endemic)
46 Gymnosperms (of them 31 endemic)
40 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
4617 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3040 endemic)
469 Orchids (of them 255 endemic)
14009 Dicotyledons (of them 9389 endemic)
14 Microspecies (of them endemic)
949 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list Lesotho LES 30.355 +1772162237
1772All Species
1622Indigenous Species
1620Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
87 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
431 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
60 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1042 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
150 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Lesotho (Basutoland) (Guillarmod 1971); Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list Eswatini [Swaziland] SWZ 17.363 +2776263338
2776All Species
2633Indigenous Species
2633Indigenous Species except Microspecies
38Endemic Species
38Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
107 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
17 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
642 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
89 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1766 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
143 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Flora of Swaziland: Orchidaceae (Compton 1976)
MIDDLE ATLANTIC OCEAN (28)
more country list Ascension Isl. ASC 88 +403413
40All Species
34Indigenous Species
34Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
32.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
15 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
7 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
6 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Fairhurst, W. (2004) Flowering plants of Ascension Island; A plan for the conservation of endemic and native flora of Ascension Island (Lambdon et al. 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
more country list St. Helena STH 122 ++1028251
102All Species
82Indigenous Species
82Indigenous Species except Microspecies
51Endemic Species
51Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
50% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
29 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 30 endemic)
20 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

St. Helena: Checklist of endemic & indigenous plants (Clifton 1996)

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants & Ferns of St. Helena (Lambdon 2013); The Endemic Flora of St. Helena (Cronk 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
INDIAN OCEAN (29)
more country list Madagascar MDG 587.041 +11880114769387
11880All Species
11476Indigenous Species
11476Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9387Endemic Species
9387Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
79% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
689 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 347 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
348 Basal Angiosperms (of them 330 endemic)
1560 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1020 endemic)
930 Orchids (of them 754 endemic)
7940 Dicotyledons (of them 6930 endemic)
404 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar (www.tropicos.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (H. Humbert, ed., 1937 ff., almost complete, but partially outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of Madagascar: annotated checklist (Du Puy et al. 1999); Orchids of Madagascar, ed. 2 (Hermans 2007)
more country list Comores (incl. Mayotte) COM 1.862 o1046997205
1046All Species
997Indigenous Species
997Indigenous Species except Microspecies
205Endemic Species
205Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
163 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 11 endemic)
168 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
93 Orchids (of them 33 endemic)
552 Dicotyledons (of them 130 endemic)
49 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (H. Humbert, ed., 1937 ff., almost complete, but partially outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of Madagascar: annotated checklist (Du Puy et al. 1999); Orchids of Madagascar, ed. 2 (Hermans 2007)
more country list Mozambique Channel Isl. (Iles Eparses p. p., incl. Ile Europa, Juan de Nova Isl.) MCI 36 +170830
170All Species
83Indigenous Species
81Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
61 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
87 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated account of the vascular flora of the Iles Eparses (Boullet et al. 2018)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)
more country list Mauritius (incl. Tromelin Isl.) MAU 2.040 ++19391023273
1939All Species
1023Indigenous Species
1023Indigenous Species except Microspecies
273Endemic Species
273Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
201 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
25 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
224 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 35 endemic)
96 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
476 Dicotyledons (of them 195 endemic)
916 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list La Reunion REU 2.503 ++18481080259
1848All Species
1080Indigenous Species
1080Indigenous Species except Microspecies
259Endemic Species
259Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
248 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 19 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
212 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
229 Orchids (of them 83 endemic)
368 Dicotyledons (of them 125 endemic)
768 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list Rodrigues Isl. ROD 109 ++42622445
426All Species
224Indigenous Species
224Indigenous Species except Microspecies
45Endemic Species
45Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
73 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
5 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
115 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
202 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list Iles Glorieuses (Iles Eparses p. p.) IGL 7 +128630
128All Species
63Indigenous Species
61Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
38 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
65 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated account of the vascular flora of the Iles Eparses (Boullet et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Agalega Isl. AGA 24 -110
1All Species
1Indigenous Species
1Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega (Fosberg et al. 1983, only historical records, no recent data) [not seen or included]

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Aldabra ALD 155 +11510323
115All Species
103Indigenous Species
102Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
43 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989); Flora of Aldabra (Hemsley 1919)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Seychelles SEY 300 +81040373
810All Species
403Indigenous Species
403Indigenous Species except Microspecies
73Endemic Species
73Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
85 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
122 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
22 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
168 Dicotyledons (of them 41 endemic)
407 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Chagos Arch. (Diego Garcia) CGS 30 ++179801
179All Species
80Indigenous Species
80Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
53 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
99 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia (Topp 1988)
TEMPERATE ASIA (3)
SIBERIA (30)
more country list Siberia (incl. Altay, Sayan, Tuva, Krasnoyarsk, Buryatia, Chita, Transbaicalia, Yakutia, Irkutsk, NE-Siberia) SIB 10.600.000 +45834507560
4583All Species
4507Indigenous Species
4310Indigenous Species except Microspecies
560Endemic Species
479Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
98 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
23 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
922 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 103 endemic)
43 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3416 Dicotyledons (of them 452 endemic)
197 Microspecies (of them 81 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR / chief ed. V. L. Komarov (30 vols., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff., 3 vols. published); Flora of Siberia (Malychev, ed., 2000 ff., 14 vols., to be continued); Vascular Plants of the Russian Far East (Kharkevich, ed., 2003 ff., 1 vol. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968)
RUSSIAN FAR EAST (31)
more country list Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Amur, Ussuri, Okhotsk, Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Commander Isl., Primorye, Khabarovsk, Magadan) RFE 2.500.000 +38473556595
3847All Species
3556Indigenous Species
3439Indigenous Species except Microspecies
595Endemic Species
518Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
137 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
909 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 139 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2416 Dicotyledons (of them 447 endemic)
117 Microspecies (of them 77 endemic)
291 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR / chief ed. V. L. Komarov (30 vols., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff., 3 vols. published); Flora of Siberia (Malychev, ed., 2000 ff., 14 vols., to be continued); Vascular Plants of the Russian Far East (Kharkevich, ed., 2003 ff., 1 vol. published); Flora murmanskoj oblasti (Kirova, 5 vols., 1953-1966); Flora i paleogeografija Komandoskikh ostrovov (Vasil'ev 1957)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968)
MIDDLE ASIA (32)
more country list Kazakhstan KAZ 2.717.300 +53155129504
5315All Species
5129Indigenous Species
4999Indigenous Species except Microspecies
504Endemic Species
478Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
876 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 67 endemic)
27 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4142 Dicotyledons (of them 437 endemic)
130 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
186 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Kazakhstan (Abdulina 1999)

Most recent flora

Flora Kazakhstana (Pavlov, etc., 1956-1966, 9 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Kazakhstan SSR (Kuznetzov & Pavlov 1958); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Turkmenistan TKM 488.100 +29712839203
2971All Species
2839Indigenous Species
2819Indigenous Species except Microspecies
203Endemic Species
199Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
540 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
14 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2254 Dicotyledons (of them 173 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
132 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published); Flora Turkmenii (Fedtschenko et al., eds., 1932-60); Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Opredelitelja Rastenii Turkmenistana (Key to the Plants of Turkmenistan) (Nikitin & Geldichanov 1988)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) (Kopet Dagh only)
more country list Uzbekistan UZB 447.700 o41503775256
4150All Species
3775Indigenous Species
3737Indigenous Species except Microspecies
256Endemic Species
252Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
664 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3067 Dicotyledons (of them 200 endemic)
38 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
375 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Sennikov et al. (Checklist, in prep.)

Most recent flora

Flora Uzbekistana (Schreder et al., eds., 1953-62, 6 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Uzbekistana, Vol. 1 (Schreder et al. 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae (Czerniakowska). - In: Flora Uzbekistanica I (Schreiber, ed., 1941); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Kyrgyzstan (Kirgisia) KGZ 198.500 +37113633334
3711All Species
3633Indigenous Species
3528Indigenous Species except Microspecies
334Endemic Species
320Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
612 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 57 endemic)
12 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2971 Dicotyledons (of them 277 endemic)
105 Microspecies (of them 14 endemic)
78 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan (Lazkov & Sultanova 2011)

Most recent flora

Flora Kirghiszkoj SSR (Vykhotsev 1967-70, incomplete); Nikitina (1995); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Kirgistan III (Shishkin & Vvedensky 1951); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Tajikistan TZK 143.100 o46744433525
4674All Species
4433Indigenous Species
4349Indigenous Species except Microspecies
525Endemic Species
499Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
28 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
741 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 68 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3642 Dicotyledons (of them 456 endemic)
84 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
241 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas (Nowak & Nobis 2020, only about 30% covered); Flora Tadzikskoj SSR (Ovchinnikov et al., ed., 1957 - 1991, 10 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Tadjikskoj SSSR, Vol. 1 (Ovchinnikov 1957)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Tadshikistan (Ovchinnikov 1963); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
CAUCASUS (33)
more country list Northern Caucasus (incl. Chechnya, Daghestan, etc.) NCS 200.000 +41303893352
4130All Species
3893Indigenous Species
3792Indigenous Species except Microspecies
352Endemic Species
316Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
747 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3018 Dicotyledons (of them 312 endemic)
101 Microspecies (of them 36 endemic)
237 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orkhidei nachei strany (Vakhrameeva et al. 1991)
more country list Gruziya [Georgia - Caucasus] (incl. Abkhazia, Adzharia) GEO 69.700 +39763709215
3976All Species
3709Indigenous Species
3596Indigenous Species except Microspecies
215Endemic Species
184Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
76 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
689 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2882 Dicotyledons (of them 197 endemic)
113 Microspecies (of them 31 endemic)
267 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Georgia - A Nomenclatural Checklist (Gagnidze 2005); Conspectus Flora Kavkaza (Takhtajan 2003-2012, 4 of 5 vols. published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Georgia (in Georgian), Vol. 1 (1971), Vol. 2 (2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Illustrated Field Guide to the Flora of Georgia (South Caucasus) (Fischer et al. 2018)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular Plants of Georgia - A Nomenclatural Checklist (Gagnidze 2005)
more country list Armenia ARM 29.800 +35013421147
3501All Species
3421Indigenous Species
3349Indigenous Species except Microspecies
147Endemic Species
131Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
658 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2668 Dicotyledons (of them 127 endemic)
72 Microspecies (of them 16 endemic)
80 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Flora of Armenia (Saghatelyan, unpubl.); Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Armenii (ed. A. L. Tahtadzjiana) (11 vols., 1954-2011); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [S-Aserbaidshan, Talysh-Region]
more country list Azerbaijan (incl. Talysh, incl. Nachichevan) AZE 81.100 +36903544134
3690All Species
3544Indigenous Species
3490Indigenous Species except Microspecies
134Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
747 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2691 Dicotyledons (of them 112 endemic)
54 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
146 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Azerbaidzana (2 vols. published, 1953-1957); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [Talysh region only]; Orchidaceae (Karjagin). - In: Flora of Aserbaidshan II (1952)
WESTERN ASIA (34)
more country list Eastern Aegaean Islands (Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodos, Kos, Symi, Samos, Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Limnos etc.) EAI 7.000 ++2383223175
2383All Species
2231Indigenous Species
2215Indigenous Species except Microspecies
75Endemic Species
75Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
463 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
54 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1663 Dicotyledons (of them 59 endemic)
16 Microspecies (of them endemic)
152 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016); Dimopoulos et al. (2013, 2016); Checklist updating and analysis of the flora of Symi island and of the nearby island of Seskli (Cattaneo & Grano 2019); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Hellenica (Strid & Kit Tan, eds., 1997 ff.); Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000); Flora von Rhodos and Chalki (Kleinsteuber et al., 2016 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen von Kreta und Karpathos (Alibertis 1997); Orchideen auf Rhodos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001); Orchideen auf Kreta, Karpathos & Kasos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001)
more country list Turkey (excl. European Turkey) TUR 756.816 ++979796343370
9797All Species
9634Indigenous Species
9458Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3370Endemic Species
3299Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
33.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
98 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
33 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
1577 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 504 endemic)
91 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
7814 Dicotyledons (of them 2839 endemic)
176 Microspecies (of them 71 endemic)
163 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000, 9 vols. + 2 supplement volumes, complete); Flowers of Turkey - A photo guide (Pils 2006)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen der Türkei (Kreutz 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey, Vol. 11 (Supplement (Kreutz 2000); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982)
more country list Iraq IRQ 438.317 +29932948174
2993All Species
2948Indigenous Species
2929Indigenous Species except Microspecies
174Endemic Species
171Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
551 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2347 Dicotyledons (of them 161 endemic)
19 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
45 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Iraq (1966-1980, incomplete); Flora of Lowland Iraq (Rechinger, ed., 1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Iraq, Vol. 8 (Wood 1985)
more country list Iran IRN 1.648.000 ++791178402606
7911All Species
7840Indigenous Species
7759Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2606Endemic Species
2580Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
32.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
1034 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 173 endemic)
43 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6680 Dicotyledons (of them 2427 endemic)
81 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010, 178 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978)
more country list Afghanistan AFG 652.225 ++43724266884
4372All Species
4266Indigenous Species
4217Indigenous Species except Microspecies
884Endemic Species
877Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
710 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 63 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3474 Dicotyledons (of them 821 endemic)
49 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
106 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Afghanistan: an augmented checklist (Breckle et al. 2013); Checklist of the Flowering plants of Afghanistan (Podlech 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010, 178 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978)
more country list Cyprus CYP 9.251 ++16911605112
1691All Species
1605Indigenous Species
1594Indigenous Species except Microspecies
112Endemic Species
109Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
23 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
322 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
38 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1210 Dicotyledons (of them 85 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
86 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 1/2 (Meikle 1977, 1985); An Illustrated Flora of North Cyprus, Vol. 2 (Viney 1996); Illustrated Flora of Cyprus (Christofides 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Orchidaceae (J. J. Wood). - In: Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 2 (Meikle 1985); Orchids of Cyprus (Morschek & Morschek 1996)
more country list Lebanon LEB 10.230 +26752608119
2675All Species
2608Indigenous Species
2595Indigenous Species except Microspecies
119Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
32 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
466 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2058 Dicotyledons (of them 98 endemic)
13 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
67 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie (Mouterde, 1966/1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie I (Mouterde 1966); Die Orchideen der Levante (Fragman & Kretzschmar, in prep.)
more country list Syria SYR 185.180 +2848280589
2848All Species
2805Indigenous Species
2795Indigenous Species except Microspecies
89Endemic Species
89Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
16 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
473 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2263 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
10 Microspecies (of them endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie (Mouterde, 1966/1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, Vol. I (Mouterde 1966); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982)
more country list Israel + Palestine ISR 21.946 +2444233661
2444All Species
2336Indigenous Species
2333Indigenous Species except Microspecies
61Endemic Species
61Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
473 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1801 Dicotyledons (of them 43 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
108 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Palaestina (4 + 4 vols., 1966-1987, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Annotated List of the Orchids of Israel (Dafni et al. 1986); Orchids of Israel (Dafni 1981); Flora Palestina, pt. IV (Feinbrun-Dothan 1986)
more country list Sinai peninsula SIN 61.000 +1325128831
1325All Species
1288Indigenous Species
1288Indigenous Species except Microspecies
31Endemic Species
31Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
260 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1012 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
37 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Egypt (Boulos, ed., 1999-2005)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Flora of Egypt, Vol. 1: Azollaceae - Oxalidaceae (Boulos 1999)
more country list Jordania JOR 89.556 +1612158129
1612All Species
1581Indigenous Species
1577Indigenous Species except Microspecies
29Endemic Species
29Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
269 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1286 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
31 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Jordan (Al-Eisawi 1986)
ARABIAN PENINSULA (35)
more country list Saudi Arabia SAU 2.240.000 +2104202585
2104All Species
2025Indigenous Species
2025Indigenous Species except Microspecies
85Endemic Species
85Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
407 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1574 Dicotyledons (of them 62 endemic)
79 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Saudi-Arabia (3 vols., 3rd ed., Migahid 1988-1989); Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Chaudhary, ed., 2001 ff.); Flora of Eastern Saudi-Arabia (Mandaville 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986); Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.), Vol. 6 (Heller & Heyn 1991); Flora of Eastern Saudi-Arabia (MANDAVILLE 1990); Orchidaceae, in: Flora of Saudi-Arabia, 3. Aufl. (MIGAHID 1989)
more country list Kuwait KUW 17.820 ++3933861
393All Species
386Indigenous Species
386Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
88 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
295 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Kuwait (2 vols., 1985-1987, complete); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)
more country list Bahrain BAR 707 +2762660
276All Species
266Indigenous Species
266Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
55 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
207 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Qatar QAT 11.427 ++3923110
392All Species
311Indigenous Species
311Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
72 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
237 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
81 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

The Flora of Qatar (2 vols., Abd el Bary & Ekhlas 2012); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list United Arab Emirates (incl. Dubai, Abu Dhabi) UAE 83.600 +3753581
375All Species
358Indigenous Species
358Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
106 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
248 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
17 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Oman OMA 309.500 ++10971056103
1097All Species
1056Indigenous Species
1056Indigenous Species except Microspecies
103Endemic Species
103Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
220 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
802 Dicotyledons (of them 89 endemic)
41 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman (Ghazanfar 1992)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Sultanate of Oman (Ghazanfar et al., 4 vols. 2003-2018, complete); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Yemen (excl. Soqotra) YEM 527.970 +20631969212
2063All Species
1969Indigenous Species
1969Indigenous Species except Microspecies
212Endemic Species
212Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
434 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
18 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1461 Dicotyledons (of them 186 endemic)
94 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
CHINA (36)
more country list China (incl. Hongkong, Macao and Hainan; excl. Tibet, Taiwan and South China Sea Isl.) CHI 8.351.300 ++308602980814076
30860All Species
29808Indigenous Species
29506Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14076Endemic Species
13856Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1897 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 595 endemic)
169 Gymnosperms (of them 52 endemic)
951 Basal Angiosperms (of them 544 endemic)
4350 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1952 endemic)
1332 Orchids (of them 468 endemic)
21109 Dicotyledons (of them 10465 endemic)
302 Microspecies (of them 220 endemic)
1052 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete, plus many picture volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 2-6); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999])

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Native Orchids of China in Colour (Singchi = Xinqi et al. 1998)
more country list Tibet [Xizang] TIB 1.220.000 ++68086758989
6808All Species
6758Indigenous Species
6691Indigenous Species except Microspecies
989Endemic Species
969Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
490 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
51 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
94 Basal Angiosperms (of them 18 endemic)
844 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 76 endemic)
288 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
4991 Dicotyledons (of them 863 endemic)
67 Microspecies (of them 20 endemic)
50 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete, plus many picture volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 2-6); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999])

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Native Orchids of China in Colour (Singchi = Xinqi et al. 1998)
MONGOLIA (37)
more country list Mongolia MON 1.566.500 ++28322793148
2832All Species
2793Indigenous Species
2724Indigenous Species except Microspecies
148Endemic Species
138Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
50 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
521 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
25 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2175 Dicotyledons (of them 139 endemic)
69 Microspecies (of them 10 endemic)
39 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus of the vascular plants of Mongolia (Urgamal et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia (Grubov 1982); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999]); Flowers of Mongolia (Hauck & Solongo 2010)
EASTERN ASIA (38)
more country list North Korea NKO 120.500 ++1891188823
1891All Species
1888Indigenous Species
1886Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
103 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
499 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1218 Dicotyledons (of them 16 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
3 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF) (Chang et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Illustrated flora of Korea (Lee 1979, 2 vols.); Flora of Korea (No Lee 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee 1985)
more country list South Korea (incl. Cheju Do Isl.) KOR 99.300 ++29772348128
2977All Species
2348Indigenous Species
2343Indigenous Species except Microspecies
128Endemic Species
125Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
274 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
534 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
84 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1403 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
629 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF) (Chang et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Illustrated flora of Korea (Lee 1979, 2 vols.); Flora of Korea (No Lee 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee 1985)
more country list Japan (incl. Izu Isl., Yakushima Isl., excl. Ryukyu Isl. and Bonin Isl.) JAP 372.769 ++524548041332
5245All Species
4804Indigenous Species
4787Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1332Endemic Species
1324Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
672 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 106 endemic)
40 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
101 Basal Angiosperms (of them 53 endemic)
1093 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 282 endemic)
195 Orchids (of them 37 endemic)
2703 Dicotyledons (of them 847 endemic)
17 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
441 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Japan (revised edition, Iwatsuki et al., eds., 1995 ff., 7 of 8 parts published, last part planned for 2020)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Japan (Ohwi 1965)
more country list Ryukyu Isl. (Nansei Shoto) (incl. Osumi Isl., Tokara Isl., Amami Isl., Okinawa Isl., Daito Isl., Sakishima Isl.) NNS 4.700 ++20461808117
2046All Species
1808Indigenous Species
1806Indigenous Species except Microspecies
117Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
310 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 11 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
48 Basal Angiosperms (of them 14 endemic)
397 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
130 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
915 Dicotyledons (of them 67 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
238 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Okinawa and the Southern Ryukyu Islands (Walker 1976)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Ryukyu Islands (Garay & Sweet 1974) [incl. checklist of northern Ryukyu Isl.]
more country list Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Isl.) OGA 73 ++48134873
481All Species
348Indigenous Species
348Indigenous Species except Microspecies
73Endemic Species
73Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
171 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
133 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands (Kobayashi & Ono 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bonin Islands (Toyoda 1981)
more country list Kazan-Retto (Volcano Isl., Iwo-jima) KZN 30 ++2481868
248All Species
186Indigenous Species
186Indigenous Species except Microspecies
8Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
55 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
46 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
75 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands (Kobayashi & Ono 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bonin Islands (Toyoda 1981)
more country list Taiwan (incl. Lan Yu Isl.) TAI 36.000 ++53504316923
5350All Species
4316Indigenous Species
4305Indigenous Species except Microspecies
923Endemic Species
913Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
17.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
751 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 81 endemic)
25 Gymnosperms (of them 8 endemic)
113 Basal Angiosperms (of them 40 endemic)
699 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
409 Orchids (of them 144 endemic)
2319 Dicotyledons (of them 553 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 10 endemic)
1034 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Taiwan (Li et al., eds., 1975-2003); Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Index to Ferns and Fern Allies of Taiwan (Knapp 2014); Ferns of Taiwan (Ralf Knapp 2010, with supplement 2013); Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 1-6, 1990 ff.); Flora of Taiwan, Vol. 1 (2nd. ed., 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Flora of Taiwan (Li et al., 1975-79); Native Orchids of Taiwan (Lin 1975-1987, 3 vols.)
TROPICAL ASIA (4)
INDIAN SUBCONTINENT (40)
more country list Pakistan PAK 796.095 +53054705316
5305All Species
4705Indigenous Species
4635Indigenous Species except Microspecies
316Endemic Species
293Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
140 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
23 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
879 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3610 Dicotyledons (of them 293 endemic)
70 Microspecies (of them 23 endemic)
600 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir (Stewart 1972)

Most recent flora

Flora of West Pakistan (Nasir, ed., 1970 ff., 217 vols., mostly complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [only northern and western part]; Flora of Pakistan, no. 164 (Renz 1984)
more country list Nepal NEP 147.181 +62495876363
6249All Species
5876Indigenous Species
5832Indigenous Species except Microspecies
363Endemic Species
359Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
562 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
915 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 43 endemic)
391 Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
3892 Dicotyledons (of them 290 endemic)
44 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
373 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Nepalese Flowering Plants (3 vols., Rajbhandari et al. 2012, plus supplement 2015)

Most recent flora

Flora of Nepal (publication ongoing, only vol. 3 published [Watson et al., ed., 2011]; Handbook of Flowering Plants of Nepal (Vol. 1 of 2, Shrestha et al. 2018); Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, 3 of 50 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Fraser-Jenkins et al. (2015-2020): Ferns and Fern-allies of Nepal, Volume 1-3 (complete); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997); An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal (Press, Shrestha & Sutton 2001); The Orchids of Nepal Himalaya (Banerji & Pradhan 1984); Orchids of Nepal (Banerji 1978)
more country list Bhutan BHU 47.000 ++49674689155
4967All Species
4689Indigenous Species
4672Indigenous Species except Microspecies
155Endemic Species
153Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
536 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
105 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
677 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
382 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
2970 Dicotyledons (of them 127 endemic)
17 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
278 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bhutan (Grierson & Long, eds., 1983-2002, 9 vols., complete); Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, few volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Bhutan (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2009); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Bhutan, Vol. 3.3 (Orchidaceae) (2001)
more country list India (incl. Assam, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Chumbi, Jammu & Kashmir, excl. Andaman and Nicobar Isl., excl. Lakshadweep Isl.) IND 3.279.173 o17821166714558
17821All Species
16671Indigenous Species
16473Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4558Endemic Species
4450Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1029 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 52 endemic)
62 Gymnosperms (of them 20 endemic)
495 Basal Angiosperms (of them 228 endemic)
3040 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 978 endemic)
1225 Orchids (of them 370 endemic)
10820 Dicotyledons (of them 2910 endemic)
198 Microspecies (of them 108 endemic)
1150 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flowering Plants of India (Checklist, Karthikeyan et al. 2009, 1 of ca. 10 vols. published); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of India (Sharma et al., eds., 1993 ff., 8 of 23 vols. published); Fascicles of Flora of India (1978 ff., 26 vols. published); numerous regional floras in India; Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, few volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018), Part III (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2020); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997); Illustrated Manual of Ferns of Assam (Borthakur et al. 2000); The Ferns of India: Enumeration, Synonyms and Distribution (Chandra 2000); Fern flora of South India (Nampy & Madhusoodanan 1998); An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A catalogue of Indian Orchids (Sathish Kumar & Manilal 1994); Orchid flora of Arunachal Pradesh (Chowdhery 1998); Orchids of India (2nd ed.) (Bose et al. 1999); Orchids of Kumaon Himalaya (Pangtey et al. 1991); Orchids of Meghalaya (Kataki 1986); Orchids of Mussoorie (Raizada et al. 1981); Orchids of Nagaland (Deorani & Naithani 1995); Orchids of Nagaland (Hynniewta et al. 2000); Orchids of Nilgiris (2nd. ed., Joseph 1987); Orchids of Western Ghats (Kumar 1995); Flora of Hassan District Karnataka (Saldanha et al. 1976); The Orchids of Bombay (Santapau & Kapadia 1966); The Orchid Flora of NW-Himalaya (Deva & Naithani 1986); Monocotyledonous Plants of Uttar Pradesh: A Checklist (Uniyal et al. 1999)
more country list Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives) LDV 32 ++3421860
342All Species
186Indigenous Species
186Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
45 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
135 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
156 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plant Diversity of Lakshadweep Islands (C. S. Reddy & P. S. Roy 2012)
more country list Maldives MDV 298 o3601900
360All Species
190Indigenous Species
190Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
130 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
170 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

List of Addu vascular plants (Fosberg et al. 1966)
more country list Sri Lanka SRL 65.610 ++42753602888
4275All Species
3602Indigenous Species
3601Indigenous Species except Microspecies
888Endemic Species
888Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
332 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 37 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
110 Basal Angiosperms (of them 50 endemic)
723 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 95 endemic)
197 Orchids (of them 62 endemic)
2238 Dicotyledons (of them 643 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
673 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon (Dassayanake, ed., 1980-2006, 15 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon, vol. 15/1-2 (Shaffer-Fehre, ed., 2006); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); An annotated check-list of the Pteridophytes of Ceylon (Sledge 1982)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae, Apostasiaceae (Jayaweera). In: A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, Vol. 2 (Dassanayake, ed., 1981)
more country list Bangladesh BAN 147.570 o3267284432
3267All Species
2844Indigenous Species
2844Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
217 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
87 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
451 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
161 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1921 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
423 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bangladesh (Khan, ed., 1975 ff., partially published); Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, vols. 5-12 (Ahmed, ed., 2007-2009, complete) [only 5 of 8 volumes seen and included]

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, vol. 5 (2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Bangladesh, vol. ##
INDOCHINA (41)
more country list Andaman Isl. AND 6.496 +20181657150
2018All Species
1657Indigenous Species
1657Indigenous Species except Microspecies
150Endemic Species
150Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
79 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
92 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
293 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
97 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
1087 Dicotyledons (of them 86 endemic)
361 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Checklist, Dagar & Singh 1999); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Hajra et al., eds., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); Pteridophytes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dixit 2001)
more country list Nicobar Isl. NCB 1.800 +1465120564
1465All Species
1205Indigenous Species
1205Indigenous Species except Microspecies
64Endemic Species
64Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
94 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
61 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
227 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
59 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
757 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
260 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Checklist, Dagar & Singh 1999); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Hajra et al., eds., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); Pteridophytes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dixit 2001); Flora of Great Nicobar Island (Sinha 1999)
more country list Myanmar MYA 676.552 +1080099531126
10800All Species
9953Indigenous Species
9945Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1126Endemic Species
1124Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
747 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
41 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
378 Basal Angiosperms (of them 68 endemic)
1458 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 138 endemic)
1024 Orchids (of them 106 endemic)
6305 Dicotyledons (of them 803 endemic)
8 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
847 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar (Kress et al. 2003); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A Contribution Toward the Knowledge of Ferns and Lycophytes from Northern and Northwestern Myanmar (Khine et al. 2017); The ferns of Burma (Dickason 1946)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

An annotated checklist of Myanmar orchid flora (Aung et al. 2020)
more country list Thailand THA 513.115 +10787103661931
10787All Species
10366Indigenous Species
10366Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1931Endemic Species
1931Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
17.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
753 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 31 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
445 Basal Angiosperms (of them 135 endemic)
1939 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 411 endemic)
1221 Orchids (of them 168 endemic)
5971 Dicotyledons (of them 1180 endemic)
421 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Thailand (Smitinand et al., eds., 1981-2020, ca. 60% complete, to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Flora of Thailand, Vol. 3/1-4 (Tagawa & Iwatsuki 1979-1989); Pteridophytes in Thailand (Boonkeerd & Pollawatn 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Contributions to the Orchid Flora of Thailand / Orchid Genera in Thailand, 1-13 (Seidenfaden 1972-1998); A Field Guide to the Wild Orchids of Thailand (Vaddhanaphuti 2001); Flora of Thailand, Vol. 12/1 (Orchidaceae 1) (Pedersen et al. 2011); Flora of Thailand, Vol. 12/2 (Orchidaceae 2) (Pedersen et al. 2014)
more country list Laos LAO 236.800 +56555336308
5655All Species
5336Indigenous Species
5336Indigenous Species except Microspecies
308Endemic Species
308Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
287 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
34 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
219 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
876 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 93 endemic)
524 Orchids (of them 32 endemic)
3396 Dicotyledons (of them 170 endemic)
319 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of Plants in Lao PDR (Jin et al. 2016, very data deficient); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992)
more country list Cambodia CBD 181.035 +43504030129
4350All Species
4030Indigenous Species
4030Indigenous Species except Microspecies
129Endemic Species
129Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
204 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
170 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
686 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
297 Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
2656 Dicotyledons (of them 87 endemic)
320 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia (Cho et al. 2016); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992)
more country list Vietnam VIE 331.690 +11720109952480
11720All Species
10995Indigenous Species
10994Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2480Endemic Species
2480Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
872 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 65 endemic)
63 Gymnosperms (of them 16 endemic)
616 Basal Angiosperms (of them 175 endemic)
1546 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 490 endemic)
1083 Orchids (of them 293 endemic)
6815 Dicotyledons (of them 1441 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
725 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Câyco Viêtnam (Pham Hoàng Hô, 1991-1993, 6 vols., complete); Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951); Cay Co Vietnam (An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam), vol. 1 (Pham-Hoang Ho (1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992); Identification Guide to Vietnamese Orchids (Averyanov 1994); Preliminary List of the Vietnamese Orchids, Vol. 1-2 (Averyanov 1988); Updated Checklist of the Orchids of Vietnam (Averyanov & Averyanova 2004)
MALESIA (42)
more country list peninsular Malaysia (incl. Langkawi Isl.) MLY 132.246 +923789602018
9237All Species
8960Indigenous Species
8960Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2018Endemic Species
2018Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
691 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 45 endemic)
34 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
651 Basal Angiosperms (of them 192 endemic)
1365 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 330 endemic)
929 Orchids (of them 184 endemic)
5290 Dicotyledons (of them 1260 endemic)
277 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya (Turner 1995 publ. 1997); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of peninsular Malaysia (Parris, Kiew, eds., 2010 ff., 5 vols. published, to be continued); Flora Malesiana

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series I: Ferns and Lycophytes, Vol. 1 (2010), 2 (2013) (Parris et al., eds.) (to be continued); A revised Flora of Malaya II: Ferns of Malaya, ed. 2 (Holttum 1966)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992)
more country list Singapore SNG 710 ++2633218916
2633All Species
2189Indigenous Species
2189Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
171 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
179 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
320 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
224 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1287 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
444 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore (Chong et al. 2009)

Most recent flora

The concise flora of Singapore (Keng, 2 vols., 1990, 1998); Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series I: Ferns and Lycophytes, Vol. 1 (2010), 2 (2013) (Parris et al., eds.) (to be continued); A Guide to the Ferns of Singapore (Wee 1987)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992); A Guide to the Orchids of Singapore (Tan & Sin 1995)
more country list Sumatera (incl. Mentawai, Enggano, Nias, Simeulue, Lingga Arch., Krakatau, Bangka, Belitung, Batu) SUM 425.150 o751273912023
7512All Species
7391Indigenous Species
7391Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2023Endemic Species
2023Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
748 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 135 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
441 Basal Angiosperms (of them 125 endemic)
919 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 279 endemic)
1165 Orchids (of them 481 endemic)
4081 Dicotyledons (of them 1001 endemic)
121 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sumatra (Comber 2001)
more country list South China Sea Isl. SCS 2 -40310
40All Species
31Indigenous Species
31Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
20 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
9 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
more country list Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan, incl. Natuna Isl., Riouw Arch., excl. Brunei) BOR 743.384 o12405122265370
12405All Species
12226Indigenous Species
12226Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5370Endemic Species
5370Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
43.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1010 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 264 endemic)
60 Gymnosperms (of them 18 endemic)
791 Basal Angiosperms (of them 293 endemic)
1678 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 938 endemic)
1721 Orchids (of them 931 endemic)
6966 Dicotyledons (of them 2926 endemic)
179 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Enumeratio Phanerogamarum Bornearum (Masamune 1942, 1945); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far); The plants of Mount Kinabalu (2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Plants of Mt. Kinabalu, vol. 1 (Ferns and Fern Allies) (Parris et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A Checklist of the Orchids of Borneo (Wood & Cribb 1994); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 1 (Chan et al. 1994); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 2 (Vermeulen 1991); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 3 (Wood 1997); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 4 (Wood 2003); Bulbophyllum of Borneo (Vermeulen, O'Byrne & Lamb 2015)
more country list Brunei BRN 5.765 +24982462103
2498All Species
2462Indigenous Species
2462Indigenous Species except Microspecies
103Endemic Species
103Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
285 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
167 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
225 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
1757 Dicotyledons (of them 58 endemic)
36 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam (Wong & Dransfield, ed., 1996)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Plants of Mt. Kinabalu, vol. 1 (Ferns and Fern Allies) (Parris et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Wood). In: A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam (Wong & Dransfield, ed., 1996)
more country list Sulawesi (Celebes) (incl. Selayar, Banggai, Sangihe, Kabaena) SUL 189.070 -504348731355
5043All Species
4873Indigenous Species
4873Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1355Endemic Species
1355Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
789 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 87 endemic)
33 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
200 Basal Angiosperms (of them 55 endemic)
632 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 208 endemic)
665 Orchids (of them 380 endemic)
2554 Dicotyledons (of them 624 endemic)
170 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of woody plants of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Keßler et al. 2002); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Hovenkamp, P. (2013 onwards): Ferns of Sulawesi - Checklist. sulawesiferns.myspecies.info

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Palawan (incl. Busuanga, Culion) PLW 14.649 o15191511221
1519All Species
1511Indigenous Species
1511Indigenous Species except Microspecies
221Endemic Species
221Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
232 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
81 Basal Angiosperms (of them 10 endemic)
220 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
943 Dicotyledons (of them 173 endemic)
8 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.philippineplants.org

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Checklist by J. F. Barcelona (pers. comm.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidiana Philippiniana (Valmayor 1984); The Orchids of the Philippines (Cootes 2001) (contains checklist)
more country list Philippines (excl. Palawan, Sulu Arch.) PHI 325.000 +948187914344
9481All Species
8791Indigenous Species
8791Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4344Endemic Species
4344Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
45.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1020 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 243 endemic)
38 Gymnosperms (of them 11 endemic)
400 Basal Angiosperms (of them 225 endemic)
1034 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 345 endemic)
1198 Orchids (of them 836 endemic)
5101 Dicotyledons (of them 2684 endemic)
690 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.philippineplants.org

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines (www.philippineplants.org); Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna, Vol. 2 (Zamora & Co 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidiana Philippiniana (Valmayor 1984); The Orchids of the Philippines (Cootes 2001) (contains checklist)
more country list Jawa (incl. Madura Isl., Kangean Arch., Bawean) JAW 130.520 o67945482797
6794All Species
5482Indigenous Species
5480Indigenous Species except Microspecies
797Endemic Species
796Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
556 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 45 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
227 Basal Angiosperms (of them 31 endemic)
797 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 99 endemic)
786 Orchids (of them 189 endemic)
3101 Dicotyledons (of them 433 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
1312 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Java (Backer & van den Brink, 1963-1968, outdated); Flora Malesiana (about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Java (Comber 1991)
more country list Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor, Alor, Wetar) [incl. East Timor] LSI 80.000 o29202727340
2920All Species
2727Indigenous Species
2727Indigenous Species except Microspecies
340Endemic Species
340Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
369 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
58 Basal Angiosperms (of them 11 endemic)
415 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 31 endemic)
205 Orchids (of them 50 endemic)
1665 Dicotyledons (of them 234 endemic)
193 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of Bali - a provisional checklist (van Balgooy et al. 2014) [not seen nor included]

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Ferns of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Posthumus 1944); On the Ferns of Sumba (Posthumus 1930); A preliminary Study on Pteridophytes of Lombok: List of the Species (Wardani & Jaenudin 2013)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Timor: checklist (Silveira et al. 2008); Flora of Bali - a provisional checklist (van Balgooy et al. 2014 [not seen nor included]); Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Moluccas [Maluku] (Tanimbar, Kei, Aru, Banda, Ambon, Seram, Buru, Obi, Bacan, Halmaheira, Ternate, Tidore, Morotai, Talaud, Sulu Arch.) MOL 74.500 o39963871674
3996All Species
3871Indigenous Species
3871Indigenous Species except Microspecies
674Endemic Species
674Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
691 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 92 endemic)
30 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
189 Basal Angiosperms (of them 43 endemic)
481 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 70 endemic)
442 Orchids (of them 173 endemic)
2038 Dicotyledons (of them 296 endemic)
125 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Taxonomic Studies of Pteridophytes of Ambon and Seram (Moluccas) (in 12 parts) (Kato 1988-2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Cocos (Keeling) Islands CKI 14 ++129740
129All Species
74Indigenous Species
74Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
21 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
52 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Christmas Isl. (Austr.) XMS 135 ++38021918
380All Species
219Indigenous Species
219Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
29 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
161 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
PAPUASIA (43)
more country list New Guinea (Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea, incl. d'Entrecasteaux Isl., Goodenough Isl., Louisiade Arch., Rennell, Yapen, Biak, Waigeu Islands etc.) NWG 800.000 -14329140329297
14329All Species
14032Indigenous Species
14032Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9297Endemic Species
9297Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
64.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1326 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 612 endemic)
64 Gymnosperms (of them 20 endemic)
810 Basal Angiosperms (of them 621 endemic)
1820 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 986 endemic)
2831 Orchids (of them 2375 endemic)
7181 Dicotyledons (of them 4683 endemic)
297 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far), Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea (3 vols. published, outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The ferns and fern-allies of Papua New Guinea (Johns & Bellamy, 1979 ff., in 12 parts); A Checklist of the Fern Allies, Ferns and Gymnosperms of the N. E. Kepala Burung (Vogelkop), Irian Jaya, Indonesia (Edwards, Johns & Kowalska 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of Papuasian Orchids (Ormerod 2017); A. Schuiteman & Ed de Vogel (2001-2010, CD-ROM): Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea: illustrated checklist and genera. Part 1: Checklist and genera (2001). Part 2: Genus Dendrobium and allied genera (2002). Part 3: Genera Acanthephippium to Hymenorchis (2005). Part 4: Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella (2006). Part 5: Genera Pachystoma to Zeuxine (2008). Part 6: Genus Bulbophyllum (2010).
more country list Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Admirality Isl., Manus Isl., Umboi, etc.) BIS 48.500 - -14611442271
1461All Species
1442Indigenous Species
1442Indigenous Species except Microspecies
271Endemic Species
271Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
260 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 17 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 14 endemic)
185 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 73 endemic)
259 Orchids (of them 52 endemic)
670 Dicotyledons (of them 115 endemic)
19 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far); Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists (Peekel 1947, reprint 1985, very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of Papuasian Orchids (Ormerod 2017); A. Schuiteman & Ed de Vogel (2001-2010, CD-ROM): Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea: illustrated checklist and genera. Part 1: Checklist and genera (2001). Part 2: Genus Dendrobium and allied genera (2002). Part 3: Genera Acanthephippium to Hymenorchis (2005). Part 4: Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella (2006). Part 5: Genera Pachystoma to Zeuxine (2008). Part 6: Genus Bulbophyllum (2010).
more country list Solomon Isl. (incl. Bougainville, excl. Santa Cruz Isl.) SOL 35.926 -19011876480
1901All Species
1876Indigenous Species
1876Indigenous Species except Microspecies
480Endemic Species
480Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
446 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 35 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
82 Basal Angiosperms (of them 38 endemic)
206 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 79 endemic)
310 Orchids (of them 41 endemic)
817 Dicotyledons (of them 285 endemic)
25 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Sol Amazing! (Lycophytes and Ferns of the Solomon Islands) (Chen et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainville (Lewis & Cribb 1991)
AUSTRALASIA (5)
AUSTRALIA (50)
more country list Australia (incl. Tasmania, excl. other islands) AUS 7.690.849 +233402116918045
23340All Species
21169Indigenous Species
21149Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18045Endemic Species
18045Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
77.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
454 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 151 endemic)
119 Gymnosperms (of them 103 endemic)
295 Basal Angiosperms (of them 226 endemic)
2909 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2135 endemic)
1507 Orchids (of them 1360 endemic)
15885 Dicotyledons (of them 14070 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them endemic)
2171 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Census of Australian Vascular Plants (Hnatiuk 1990); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia (1982 ff., 29 vols. published, about 60% complete); Flora of Victoria (1993-1999, complete); Flora of New South Wales (2000-2002, 2 vols. published); Flora of the Darwin region (Dunlop et al., 1995); Flora of South Eastern Queensland (1983-1989, 3 vols.); Flora of South Australia (1980-1986, 2 vols. published); The Student's Flora of Tasmania (5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Australia, Volume 48 (1998); Flora of South Australia (Jessop & Toelken 1986); The Ferns of Tasmania (Garrett 1997); Ferns and Allied Plants of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia (Duncan & Isaac 1994); Flora of Victoria, Vol. 2 (Walsh & Entwistle, ed., 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Catalogue of Australian Orchidaceae (Clements 1989); Native Orchids of Australia (Jones 1987); A Complete Guide to Native Orchids of Australia (Jones 2006); Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria (Bishop 1996); Flora of South Australia, pt. I (Black 1960); Orchids of South Australia (Bates & Weber 1990); Contributions to Tasmanian Orchidology (Jones 1998); The Orchids of Tasmania (Jones et al. 1999); Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria (Bishop 1996); The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995); Orchids of Western Australia (Dixon et al. 1989); Orchids of SW-Australia (3rd ed.) (Hoffmann & Brown 2001)
more country list Ashmore Reef & Cartier Isl. ASH 1 ++16150
16All Species
15Indigenous Species
15Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
12 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 49 (Oceanic Islands 1) (1994)
more country list Lord Howe Isl. LHI 154 ++49828284
498All Species
282Indigenous Species
282Indigenous Species except Microspecies
84Endemic Species
84Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
56 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
12 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
147 Dicotyledons (of them 50 endemic)
216 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Norfolk Isl. (incl. Philip Isl.) NFK 39 ++45219833
452All Species
198Indigenous Species
198Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
37 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
99 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
254 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
NEW ZEALAND (51)
more country list New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl., Three Kings Isl., Snares Isl., excl. remote islands) NZL 270.000 ++400622831508
4006All Species
2283Indigenous Species
2263Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1508Endemic Species
1507Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
37.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
191 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 31 endemic)
22 Gymnosperms (of them 21 endemic)
22 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
472 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 268 endemic)
120 Orchids (of them 53 endemic)
1456 Dicotyledons (of them 1122 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
1723 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete); The flora of the Snares Islands, New Zealand (Fineran 1969)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Kermadec Isl. KER 36 ++14510215
145All Species
102Indigenous Species
102Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
22 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Kermadec Islands Flora: An annotated checklist (Sykes 1977); New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands (Sykes & West 1996); Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands (Sykes & West 1996); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985); New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Chatham Isl. CTM 963 ++80441740
804All Species
417Indigenous Species
415Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
40Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
101 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
186 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
387 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants recorded from Chatham Islands (De Lange et al. 2011); Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey et al. 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Antipodes Isl. ATP 60 ++67675
67All Species
67Indigenous Species
67Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
22 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
27 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Auckland Isl. AUC 551 ++2481752
248All Species
175Indigenous Species
175Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
48 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
77 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
73 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
PACIFIC (6)
SOUTH WEST PACIFIC (60)
more country list Santa Cruz Isl. (Vanikoro, etc.) SCZ 815 -14013910
140All Species
139Indigenous Species
139Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
56 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Sol Amazing! (Lycophytes and Ferns of the Solomon Islands) (Chen et al. 2017)
more country list New Caledonia (incl. Ile des Pins, Loyalty Isl., Ile Art) NWC 19.058 o396834502614
3968All Species
3450Indigenous Species
3450Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2614Endemic Species
2614Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
65.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
282 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 113 endemic)
54 Gymnosperms (of them 48 endemic)
111 Basal Angiosperms (of them 101 endemic)
364 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 189 endemic)
217 Orchids (of them 109 endemic)
2422 Dicotyledons (of them 2054 endemic)
518 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.endemia.nc

Most recent flora

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie (1967-2014, 26 vols. published [approx. 40%], to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances, Vol. 3 (Brownlie 1969)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances, Vol. 8 (Hallé 1977); Orchidees Indigenes de Nouvelle-Caledonie (Société Néo-Caledonienne d’Orchidophilie 1995); Checklist of New Caledonian Orchidaceae (Clements & Jones 1999, in Orchadian 13)
more country list Vanuatu VAN 12.190 -887867190
887All Species
867Indigenous Species
867Indigenous Species except Microspecies
190Endemic Species
190Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
209 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 15 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
23 Basal Angiosperms (of them 10 endemic)
88 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 35 endemic)
183 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
358 Dicotyledons (of them 110 endemic)
20 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Vanuatu (Lewis & Cribb 1989)
more country list Rotuma Isl. ROT 43 +4972377
497All Species
237Indigenous Species
237Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
48 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
260 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Preliminary Checklist of the Flora of Rotuma with Rotuman Names (McClatchley et al. 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Rotuma Island, a Descriptive Manual (St. John 1954)
more country list Tonga TON 750 o78453731
784All Species
537Indigenous Species
537Indigenous Species except Microspecies
31Endemic Species
31Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
91 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
75 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
304 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
247 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plants of Tonga (Yuncker 1959); The vegetation of Late, Tonga (Sykes 1981); Rain forest vegetation of 'Eua Island (Drake et al. 1996); The rare plants of Tonga (Whistler 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Pteridophytes of 'Eua, Southern Tonga (Sykes 1978); New or noteworthy ferns from the Tongan Islands (Iwatsuki 1963)
more country list Niue Isl. NUE 264 o5672243
567All Species
224Indigenous Species
224Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
32 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
19 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
138 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
343 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The flora of Niue Island (Yuncker 1943); Contributions to the flora of Niue (Sykes 1970)
more country list Fiji FIJ 18.376 ++25221707794
2522All Species
1707Indigenous Species
1707Indigenous Species except Microspecies
794Endemic Species
794Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
31.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
308 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 50 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 5 endemic)
101 Basal Angiosperms (of them 77 endemic)
153 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 47 endemic)
175 Orchids (of them 46 endemic)
958 Dicotyledons (of them 569 endemic)
815 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Vitiensis nova (A.C. Smith, 1971-1996, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The pteridophyte flora of Fiji (Brownlie 1977); A revised Checklist of Fijian ferns and lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora vitiensis nova, Vol. 5 (Kores 1991)
more country list Wallis & Futuna WAL 177 +1601554
160All Species
155Indigenous Species
155Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
10 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
5 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The vascular plants of the Horne and Wallis Islands (St. John & Smith 1971)

Most recent flora

Contribution a la Connaissance de la Vegetation et de la Flore de Wallis et Futuna (Morat & Veillon 1985)
more country list American Samoa ASA 197 o68355918
683All Species
559Indigenous Species
559Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
152 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
22 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
62 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
254 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
124 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of Samoa (Christopherson 1935/1938); A study of the rare plants of American Samoa (Whistler 1998); Vegetation of Eastern Samoa (Whistler 1980); Plants of the Manua Islands (Yuncker 1945)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revision of the Pteridophyta of Samoa (Christensen 1943)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Samoa (Cribb & Whistler 1996)
more country list [Western] Samoa SAM 2.831 o1013880191
1013All Species
880Indigenous Species
880Indigenous Species except Microspecies
191Endemic Species
191Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
226 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
103 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
111 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
403 Dicotyledons (of them 121 endemic)
133 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of Samoa (Christopherson 1935/1938); Vegetation and Flora of the Aleipata Islands, Western Samoa (Whistler 1983); Plants of the Manua Islands (Yuncker 1945)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revision of the Pteridophyta of Samoa (Christensen 1943)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Samoa (Cribb & Whistler 1996)
more country list Tuvalu (Ellice Isl.) TUV 26 o83560
83All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
38 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
27 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation and Flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu (Woodroffe 1985)
more country list Tokelau Isl. (incl. Swains Isl.) TOK 14 +106560
106All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
29 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
50 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll (Parham 1971); The Flora and Vegetation of Swains Island (Whistler 1983)
more country list Phoenix Islands (Kiribati p. p.) PHX 42 +83410
83All Species
41Indigenous Species
41Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
28 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
42 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific (Fosberg & Stoddart 1994)
more country list Gilbert Islands (Kiribati p. p.) GIL 311 +213991
213All Species
99Indigenous Species
99Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
31 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
61 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
114 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, checklist (Fosberg & Sachet 1987); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands (Thaman 1992)
more country list Banaba (Ocean Isl., Kiribati p. p.) OCE 6 o28210
28All Species
21Indigenous Species
21Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
16 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)
more country list Nauru NRU 21 ++126510
126All Species
51Indigenous Species
51Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
35 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
75 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands (Thaman 1992); The Flora of Nauru (Thaman et al. 1994)
more country list Pacific Equatorial Sporades (incl. Howland Isl., Baker Isl.) HBI 5 -110
1All Species
1Indigenous Species
1Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
SOUTH CENTRAL PACIFIC (61)
more country list Line Isl. (Kiribati p. p., incl. Christmas Isl. = Kiritimati) LIN 757 +172603
172All Species
60Indigenous Species
60Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
112 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of the northern Line Islands (Wester 1985)

Most recent flora

Notes on the vascular flora and terrestrial vertebrates of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands (Clapp & Sibley 1971); Vegetation History of Washington Island (Teraina), Northern Line Islands (Wester et al. 1992); Plants of Christmas Island (Chock & Hamilton 1962)
more country list Cook Isl. (incl. Rarotonga Isl.) COO 230 +57128341
571All Species
283Indigenous Species
283Indigenous Species except Microspecies
41Endemic Species
41Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
53 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 18 endemic)
288 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Rarotonga (Wilder 1931); Flora of Cook Islands (2016)
more country list Marquesas Isl. MRQ 1.020 +633399177
633All Species
399Indigenous Species
399Indigenous Species except Microspecies
177Endemic Species
177Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
28% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
114 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 33 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
212 Dicotyledons (of them 114 endemic)
234 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Most recent flora

Flora of the Marquesas (M.-H. Sachet), 1 vol. published; Guide floristique - Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou (Butaud 2014); Guide floristique - Niva Oa, Tahuata, Fatuiva (Butaud 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1932)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Gambier Isl. (incl. Mangareva Isl.) GBI 450 +88506
88All Species
50Indigenous Species
50Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
38 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Census of the flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia (St. John 1988)

Most recent flora

La vegetation des iles Gambier (Huguenin 1974); Chock & Hamilton (1962); Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Gambier - Guide floristique (Butaud 2013)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1932)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Society Isl. (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Huahine, Bora Bora, Makatea, etc.) SCI 1.628 ++1242653238
1242All Species
653Indigenous Species
652Indigenous Species except Microspecies
238Endemic Species
238Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
197 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 52 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
68 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
35 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
332 Dicotyledons (of them 156 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
589 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Societensis (Welsh 1998); Botanique de l'ile de Tupai (Sachet 1983); Flora of Makatea (Wilder 1934); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Society Islands (Copeland 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Societensis (Welsh 1998)
more country list Tuamotu Arch. (excl. Gambier Isl.) TUA 450 +31514312
315All Species
143Indigenous Species
143Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
33 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
94 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)
172 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flora of Maupiti (Fosberg & Sachet 19??); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Guide floristique - Atolls soulevés des Tuamotu (Polynésie francaise) Butaud & Jacq 2009); Tuamotu de l'ouest - Guide floristique (Butaud 2013); Tuamotu du centre - Guide floristique (Butaud 2010); Tuamotu de l'est - Guide Floristique (Butaud 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Austral Isl. (Tubuai Isl., incl. Rapa Isl.) AUI 148 +607369102
607All Species
369Indigenous Species
369Indigenous Species except Microspecies
102Endemic Species
102Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
102 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
11 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
189 Dicotyledons (of them 71 endemic)
238 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Les Orchidees du Tubuai, suives d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des Iles Australes (Hallé 1980)

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Guide floristique - Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai, Raivavae (Australes) (Butaud 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les orchidees de Tubuai (Hallé 1980); Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Pitcairn Isl. (incl. Oeno Atoll) PIT 6 +846113
84All Species
61Indigenous Species
61Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
23 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island (St. John 1987); List of the flora of Oeno Atoll (St. John & Philipson 1960)

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The pteridophyte flora of Pitcairn Island (Brownlie 1961); Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)
more country list Henderson Isl. (incl. Ducie Atoll) HEN 37 ++61586
61All Species
58Indigenous Species
58Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
40 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
3 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Henderson Island (Southeast Polynesia): Summary of current knowledge (Fosberg et al. 1983); Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Ducie Atoll (Rehder & Rantall 1975)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Easter Island (Rapa Nui) EAS 180 o30269
30All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
30% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
13 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
5 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
4 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg 1998); Flowering Plants of Easter Island (Zizka 1991)
NORTH WEST PACIFIC (62)
more country list Minami-Torishima (Marcus Isl.) MCU 2 -2290
22All Species
9Indigenous Species
9Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

An Ecological Perspective of Marcus Island (Sakagami 1961)
more country list Palau Isl. (Republic of Palau, Western Carolines) PLU 516 o1098719139
1098All Species
719Indigenous Species
719Indigenous Species except Microspecies
139Endemic Species
139Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
12.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
122 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
165 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
350 Dicotyledons (of them 81 endemic)
379 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Palau with vernacular names (Fosberg et al. 1980); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Flora of Micronesia (Fosberg & Sachet, 5 vols. published, 1975-1993)
more country list Northern Marianas MRN 464 +67235620
672All Species
356Indigenous Species
356Indigenous Species except Microspecies
20Endemic Species
20Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
78 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
189 Dicotyledons (of them 16 endemic)
316 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vascular flora of the northern Mariana Islands (Fosberg et al. 1975-1980)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)
more country list Guam GUM 540 o103341412
1033All Species
414Indigenous Species
414Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
114 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
205 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
619 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

The Flora of Guam (Stone 1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)
more country list Federal States of Micronesia (Central and Eastern Carolines: Truk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae) MIC 702 +1208695127
1208All Species
695Indigenous Species
695Indigenous Species except Microspecies
127Endemic Species
127Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
143 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
146 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
328 Dicotyledons (of them 71 endemic)
513 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei (Herrera et al. 2010); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Flora of Micronesia (Fosberg & Sachet, 5 vols. published, 1975-1993); Flora of Ponape (Glassmann 1952)
more country list Marshall Isl. MRS 174 o3861280
386All Species
128Indigenous Species
128Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
32 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
258 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vascular Plants recorded from Jaluit Atoll (Fosberg & Sachet 1962); A review of the natural history of the Marshall Islands (Fosberg 1990); Vegetation of Bikini Atoll (Fosberg 1988)
more country list Wake Isl. WAK 8 o110341
110All Species
34Indigenous Species
34Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vegetation and flora of Wake Island (Fosberg 1959); Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963 (Fosberg & Sachet 1969)
NORTH CENTRAL PACIFIC (63)
more country list Hawaii (incl. Johnston Atoll, Midway Isl.) HAW 16.729 ++239112301062
2391All Species
1230Indigenous Species
1229Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1062Endemic Species
1062Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
169 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 121 endemic)
27 Basal Angiosperms (of them 24 endemic)
142 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 95 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
889 Dicotyledons (of them 819 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1161 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i (2., rev. ed., Wagner, Herbst & Sohmer 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Hawai’i (Valier 1995)
NORTH AMERICA (7)
ARCTIC NORTH AMERICA (70)
more country list Alaska (incl. Aleutes) ASK 1.530.000 ++1522132635
1522All Species
1326Indigenous Species
1323Indigenous Species except Microspecies
35Endemic Species
35Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
85 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
362 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
29 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
833 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
196 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories (Hulten 1968); Flora of the Aleutian Islands (Hulten 1960); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list Greenland GNL 2.175.600 ++52142511
521All Species
425Indigenous Species
419Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
147 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
236 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of Greenland (2nd ed., Holmen 1968); A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980)

Most recent flora

Flora of Canada (Scoggan, ed., 1978-1979); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
CANADA (70-72)
more country list Canada CDN 9.970.610 ++4961388072
4961All Species
3880Indigenous Species
3822Indigenous Species except Microspecies
72Endemic Species
59Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
173 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
21 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
968 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
75 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2606 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
58 Microspecies (of them 13 endemic)
1081 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

The flora of Canada (Scoggan 1978, 1979, 4 vols.); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Les fougeres et les plantes alliees du Canada (Cody & Britton 1989); Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list St. Pierre & Miquelon SPM 242 ++5144050
514All Species
405Indigenous Species
403Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
40 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
154 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
196 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
109 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Les plantes vasculaires des iles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (LeGallo 1954); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
USA (73-78)
more country list USA (Lower 48 States) USA 8.262.426 ++18904156307536
18904All Species
15630Indigenous Species
15322Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7536Endemic Species
7288Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
38.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
438 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 75 endemic)
117 Gymnosperms (of them 26 endemic)
96 Basal Angiosperms (of them 42 endemic)
2717 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1027 endemic)
203 Orchids (of them 51 endemic)
12059 Dicotyledons (of them 6315 endemic)
308 Microspecies (of them 248 endemic)
3274 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list Bermuda BER 53 +20913711
209All Species
137Indigenous Species
137Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
38 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
76 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
72 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bermuda (Britton 1918)
MEXICO (79)
more country list Mexico MEX 1.964.382 +249902393311990
24990All Species
23933Indigenous Species
23922Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11990Endemic Species
11986Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
48% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1044 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 195 endemic)
170 Gymnosperms (of them 91 endemic)
645 Basal Angiosperms (of them 328 endemic)
3378 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1501 endemic)
1323 Orchids (of them 582 endemic)
17373 Dicotyledons (of them 9293 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
1057 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico (Villasenor 2016); numerous state checklists

Most recent flora

Numerous state floras (and Flora Novo-Galiciana); Flora Mesoamericana (southern Mexico only, 12 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004); Flora Novo-Galiciana, Volume 17 (McVaugh 1992); Pteridophytes. Flora of Chiapas, part 2 (Smith 1981); Flora of Baja California (Wiggins 1980); Pteridophyte flora of Oaxaca, Mexico (Mickel & Beitel 1988); Ferns and fern allies of Chihuahua, Mexico (Knobloch & Correll 1962); Listados floristicos de Mexico. IX. Flora de Durango (Elizondo et al. 1991); Flora de Mexico, Volume 6, parts 1-3: Pteridophyta (1993-1995)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Listado Actualizado de las Orquideas de Mexico (Soto Arenas 1988); Icones Orchidacearum (Mexico), Fasc. 1-6 (Hagsater & Salazar 1990-2003)
more country list Isla Guadalupe GLP 244 ++19915123
199All Species
151Indigenous Species
151Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
15 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
124 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
48 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The Flora of Guadalupe Island, Mexico (Moran 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Listado Actualizado de las Orquideas de Mexico (Soto Arenas 1988)
more country list Revillagigedo Isl. (incl. Socorro Isl.) RGI 157 +18615226
186All Species
152Indigenous Species
152Indigenous Species except Microspecies
26Endemic Species
26Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
17 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
24 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
103 Dicotyledons (of them 17 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The vascular flora of Isla Socorro, Mexico (Lewin & Moran 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004)
TROPICAL AMERICA (8)
CENTRAL AMERICA (80)
more country list Guatemala GUA 108.889 o81687868640
8168All Species
7868Indigenous Species
7864Indigenous Species except Microspecies
640Endemic Species
640Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
719 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
30 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
321 Basal Angiosperms (of them 62 endemic)
1199 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 62 endemic)
945 Orchids (of them 190 endemic)
4654 Dicotyledons (of them 321 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
300 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts); Flora of Guatemala (Standley, ed., 1958-1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala, pt. 1-3 (Stolze 1976-83)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Orchids of Guatemala: A revised annotated checklist (Dix & Dix 2000); Orchids of Guatemala and Belize (Ames & Correll 1985); Guatemala y sus orquídeas (Behar & Tinschert 1998)
more country list Belize BLZ 22.965 +3625337963
3625All Species
3379Indigenous Species
3378Indigenous Species except Microspecies
63Endemic Species
63Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
261 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
127 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
621 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
297 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
2064 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
246 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize (Balick et al. 2000)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize (Balick, Nee & Atha 2000); Native Orchids of Belize (McLeish, Pearce & Adams 1995); Orchids of Guatemala and Belize (Ames & Correll 1985); Lista Comentada de las orquideas de Belice (Catling & Catling 1988)
more country list El Salvador ELS 21.041 o2944274443
2944All Species
2744Indigenous Species
2744Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
43Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
372 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
74 Basal Angiosperms (of them 7 endemic)
425 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
408 Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
1454 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
200 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); An Annotated Checklist of the Monilophytes (Ferns) and Lycophytes of El Salvador (Monterrosa & Monro 2008); Una guia taxonomica para helechos de El Salvador (Seiler 1980); Listado de la flora Salvadorensis / Pteridophyta (Pfeiffer-Berendsohn 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Las Orquideas de El Salvador (Hamer 1974-1981)
more country list Honduras HON 112.492 +75946653198
7594All Species
6653Indigenous Species
6653Indigenous Species except Microspecies
198Endemic Species
198Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
649 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
27 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
310 Basal Angiosperms (of them 20 endemic)
1118 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
615 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
3934 Dicotyledons (of them 134 endemic)
941 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de Honduras, espermatofitas (Nelson Sutherland et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Hondurensis Plantarum Vascularium Catalogus. Pteridophyta (Sutherland et al. 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft)
more country list Nicaragua NIC 129.494 ++6351590576
6351All Species
5905Indigenous Species
5904Indigenous Species except Microspecies
76Endemic Species
76Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
607 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
248 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
1022 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
632 Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
3386 Dicotyledons (of them 55 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
446 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts); Flora of Nicaragua (Stevens et al., eds.) (2001-2009, 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Flora of Nicaragua, Vol. 4 (Helechos) (Gomez & Arbelaez 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Orchids of Nicaragua, Pt. 1-6 (Hamer 1982-1985); Orchidaceae (Hamer). - In: Flora of Nicaragua, Vol. 2 (Stevens, ed., 2001)
more country list Costa Rica (except Isla del Coco) COS 51.060 ++10989103611770
10989All Species
10361Indigenous Species
10360Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1770Endemic Species
1770Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1152 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 109 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
769 Basal Angiosperms (of them 315 endemic)
1573 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 179 endemic)
1532 Orchids (of them 475 endemic)
5324 Dicotyledons (of them 689 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
628 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003-2020, 8 vols., complete); Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama (Dressler 1993); Flora Costaricensis, Family 39, part V (Maxillarieae and Oncidinae) (Atwood & de Retana 1999); Lista actualizada de las orquideas de Costa Rica (Mora-Retana & Garcia 1992); Catalogo revisado y anotado de las Orchidaceae de Costa Rica (Pupulin 2002); Orchidaceae (Dressler et al.) - In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, Vol. III (Hammel et al., ed., 2003)
more country list Isla del Coco (Cocos Isl.) COC 40 ++17215835
172All Species
158Indigenous Species
158Indigenous Species except Microspecies
35Endemic Species
35Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 17 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
26 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
65 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
14 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Preliminary List of Plants from Cocos Island (Fosberg & Klawe 1966)

Most recent flora

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003-2020, 8 vols., complete); Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of ca. 10 volumes published, plus numerous drafts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); The ferns and fern-allies of Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Gomez 1975) [= Contribuciones a la pteridologia costarricense. VII. Pteridofita de la Isla de Cocos]
more country list Panama PAN 75.517 +1009396751453
10093All Species
9675Indigenous Species
9674Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1453Endemic Species
1453Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
946 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 42 endemic)
22 Gymnosperms (of them 11 endemic)
623 Basal Angiosperms (of them 115 endemic)
1620 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 295 endemic)
1385 Orchids (of them 338 endemic)
5079 Dicotyledons (of them 652 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
418 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of Panama, vol. 1: The introduction and checklist (d'Arcy 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Flora of Panama: Checklist and index (D'Arcy 1987); The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

An updated checklist of the Orchidaceae of Panama (Bogarin et al. 2014); Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama (Dressler 1993); Flora of Panama: Checklist and index (D'Arcy 1987); Checklist of the Orchids of Panama (Dressler 1980)
more country list Clipperton Isl. CLI 30 +28150
28All Species
15Indigenous Species
15Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora and vegetation of Clipperton Island (Sachet 1962)
more country list Isla Malpelo MAL 1 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent flora

Flora terreste de la isla Malpelo (Colombia) (Gonzalez-Roman et al. 2014); The biological investigation of Malpelo Island (Graham 1975)
CARIBBEAN (81)
more country list Bahamas BAH 13.939 +1327106351
1327All Species
1063Indigenous Species
1062Indigenous Species except Microspecies
51Endemic Species
51Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
41 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
216 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
53 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
734 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
264 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bahamian Archipelago (Correll & Correll 1982); Endemic Seed Plants in the Bahamian Archipelago (Freid et al. 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Sauleda & Adams). - In: Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Correll & Correll 1982)
more country list Turks & Caicos Isl. TCI 430 +4173647
417All Species
364Indigenous Species
364Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
80 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
268 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
53 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Sauleda & Adams 197
more country list Cuba CUB 114.525 +691360472817
6913All Species
6047Indigenous Species
6047Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2817Endemic Species
2817Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
40.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
550 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 91 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 5 endemic)
160 Basal Angiosperms (of them 73 endemic)
919 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 246 endemic)
316 Orchids (of them 103 endemic)
4090 Dicotyledons (of them 2299 endemic)
866 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Base de datos de especímenes de la flora de Cuba : con mapas de distribución, Versión 4.0 - 2008

Most recent flora

Flora de la Republica de Cuba (1998 ff., 16 vols. published); Flora de Cuba (Leon & Alain 1946-1962, outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lista de los helechos y licofitos de Cuba (Sanchez 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Las orquideas nativas de Cuba (Diaz 1988); Iconografia de orquídeas Cubanas (Marquez & Bocourt Vigli 1997); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Cayman Isl. CAY 262 +70354319
703All Species
543Indigenous Species
543Indigenous Species except Microspecies
19Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
101 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
382 Dicotyledons (of them 13 endemic)
160 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Cayman Islands (Proctor 1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Cayman Islands (Proctor 1984); Orquideas de las Islas Cayman (Adams 1971)
more country list Jamaica JAM 10.991 +37133007793
3713All Species
3007Indigenous Species
3007Indigenous Species except Microspecies
793Endemic Species
793Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
558 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 63 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 28 endemic)
450 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 41 endemic)
207 Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
1694 Dicotyledons (of them 603 endemic)
706 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flowering plants of Jamaica (Adams 1972); Flora of Jamaica (Warner 2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Jamaica (Proctor 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchids of Jamaica (Gloudon & Tobisch 1995); A Checklist of the Orchids of Jamaica (Adams 1966); Orchidaceae (Adams, Proctor & Read). In: Flowering Plants of Jamaica (1972); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Hispaniola (Dominican Republic & Haiti) HIS 76.200 +589149261850
5891All Species
4926Indigenous Species
4926Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1850Endemic Species
1850Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
31.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
592 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 65 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
176 Basal Angiosperms (of them 83 endemic)
599 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 57 endemic)
360 Orchids (of them 160 endemic)
3192 Dicotyledons (of them 1483 endemic)
965 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Hispaniola (Liogier, ed.) (1981 ff., 9 vols. published, mostly complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Navassa Isl. NAV 5 +1381053
138All Species
105Indigenous Species
105Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
80 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
33 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Navassa Island and its flora. 2. Checklist of the vascular plants (Zanoni & Buck 1999)
more country list Puerto Rico (incl. Mona Isl., Desecheo Isl., Culebra Isl., Vieques Isl.) PUE 8.959 +32932345240
3293All Species
2345Indigenous Species
2344Indigenous Species except Microspecies
240Endemic Species
240Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
361 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 22 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
86 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
412 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
135 Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
1347 Dicotyledons (of them 180 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
948 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Liogier (1982)

Most recent flora

Flora of Puerto Rico (Liogier, ed., 1985-1997, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman & Del Mayda 1995); An orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman 1995); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Virgin Islands (U.S. Virgin Islands & British Virgin Islands) VIR 495 +1562106218
1562All Species
1062Indigenous Species
1061Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
193 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
747 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
500 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola (d'Arcy 1967))

Most recent flora

Flora of Virgin Gorda (Little et al. 1971); The flora of the American Virgin Islands (Britton 1918); Flora of St. John (Proctor in Acevedo-Rodriguez et al. 1996); The island of Anegada and its flora (D'Arcy 1971)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); An Orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackermann 1995)
more country list Anguilla AGU 70 ++3392602
339All Species
260Indigenous Species
260Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
44 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
212 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
79 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Maarten (St. Martin) STM 86 ++4663662
466All Species
366Indigenous Species
366Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
14 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
64 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
274 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
100 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Barthelemy (St. Barts) SBA 21 ++4423500
442All Species
350Indigenous Species
350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
19 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
309 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
92 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

The flora of the island of St. Bartholomew and its origin (Questel 1941); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Saba SAB 13 ++5524260
552All Species
426Indigenous Species
426Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
59 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
284 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
126 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Eustatius STE 21 ++4493531
449All Species
353Indigenous Species
353Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
32 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
36 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
256 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Kitts & Nevis STK 269 ++8066612
806All Species
661Indigenous Species
661Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
131 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
25 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
380 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
145 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977); A revised list of pteridophytes from St. Kitts (Proctor 1962)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Antigua and Barbuda (incl. Redonda Isl.) ABA 441 ++9727651
972All Species
765Indigenous Species
765Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
18 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
553 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
207 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Montserrat MTS 102 ++8997084
899All Species
708Indigenous Species
708Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
119 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
35 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
16 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
458 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
191 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Guadeloupe (incl. Marie Galante, La Désirade, Les Saintes) GDL 1.600 ++2051164126
2051All Species
1641Indigenous Species
1641Indigenous Species except Microspecies
26Endemic Species
26Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
287 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
64 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
270 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
107 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
912 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
410 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Fournet 1978); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Orchidaceae (Fournet). - In: Flore illustrée des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (1978); Atlas des Orchidées sauvages de Gouadeloupe (Feldmann & Barré 2001)
more country list Dominica DOM 750 ++1449120215
1449All Species
1202Indigenous Species
1201Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
196 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
45 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
179 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
90 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
691 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
247 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Dominica (Hodge 1954, Nicolson 1991); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Flora of Dominica, Pt. 1 (Orchidaceae) (Hodge 1954)
more country list Martinique MAR 1.102 ++1885147232
1885All Species
1472Indigenous Species
1472Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
224 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
57 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
242 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
83 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
865 Dicotyledons (of them 20 endemic)
413 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Fournet 1978); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Lucia STL 616 ++1451113910
1451All Species
1139Indigenous Species
1139Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
121 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
47 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
189 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
58 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
722 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
312 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Vincent and the Grenadines STV 389 ++1353111112
1353All Species
1111Indigenous Species
1111Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
168 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
48 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
59 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
706 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
242 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Grenada GRE 344 ++10979256
1097All Species
925Indigenous Species
925Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
153 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
27 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
131 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
70 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
544 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
172 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); The Orchids of the Islands of Grenada, British West Indies (Schultes 1956, in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 25)
more country list Barbados BBD 430 ++8485805
848All Species
580Indigenous Species
580Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
103 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
421 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
268 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Barbados (Gooding et al., 1965); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Barbados (Gooding, Loveless & Proctor 1965)
more country list Trinidad & Tobago TRT 5.048 +3474234083
3474All Species
2340Indigenous Species
2339Indigenous Species except Microspecies
83Endemic Species
83Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
291 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 10 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
77 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
462 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
185 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1323 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1134 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago (Baksh-Comeau et al. 2016)

Most recent flora

Flora of Trinidad & Tobago - Williams, R. O. et al. (1928-1979, plus additional volumes up to 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Checklist of the pteridophytes of Trinidad & Tobago (Baksh-Comeau 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Native Orchids of Trinidad and Tobago (Schultes 1960)
more country list Aruba ARU 179 +3332712
333All Species
271Indigenous Species
271Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
210 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list Bonaire BON 288 +3703013
370All Species
301Indigenous Species
301Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
65 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
228 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
69 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list Curacao CUR 444 +5174316
517All Species
431Indigenous Species
431Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
96 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
318 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
86 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list San Andres y Providencia SWC 43 o3002960
300All Species
296Indigenous Species
296Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
222 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
4 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA (82)
more country list Colombia CLM 1.141.748 +25437243677438
25437All Species
24367Indigenous Species
24366Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7438Endemic Species
7438Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1710 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 196 endemic)
35 Gymnosperms (of them 13 endemic)
1433 Basal Angiosperms (of them 439 endemic)
3610 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 916 endemic)
4198 Orchids (of them 2111 endemic)
13381 Dicotyledons (of them 3763 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1070 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia (Bernal, Gradstein & Celis, eds., 2015)

Most recent flora

Flora de Colombia (1983 ff., 26 vols. published, very incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989); Helechos y plantas afines de Colombia (Murillo-Pulido 1990); Flora de Colombia, Vol. 9: Pteridophyta 1 (Murillo-Pulido 1988)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Native Colombian Orchids, Vol. 1-6 (Escobar 1990-98); Orquideas de Colombia (Ortiz 1995) [contains checklist]; Lista de especies de Orquídeas registradas para Colombia: Adiciones y correcciones (Ortiz 2000, in Orquideologia 21)
more country list Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita) VEN 912.050 +16546159273649
16546All Species
15927Indigenous Species
15926Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3649Endemic Species
3649Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
22.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1240 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 138 endemic)
29 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
732 Basal Angiosperms (of them 177 endemic)
2640 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 617 endemic)
1508 Orchids (of them 296 endemic)
9778 Dicotyledons (of them 2418 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
619 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Nuevo Catalogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela (Hokche, Berry & Huber, eds., 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et al., eds., 9 vols., complete); Flora of Venezuela (Lasser et al., eds., 1968-1989, 21 vols.(?) published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora de Venezuela, Vol. 1 + 2 (Helechos) (Vareschi 1968-69); Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 2 (1995)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Venezuelan orchids illustrated (Dunsterville & Garay 1959-1976, 6 vols.) (reprint as Orchids of Venezuela - An Illustrated Field Guide, 1979, 2nd ed. as Illustrated Field Guide of Orchids of Venezuela, Romero & Carnevali 2000, 3 Vols.); Flora de Venezuela, Vol. XV, pt. 1-5 (Foldats 1969-70); Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 7 (2003)
more country list Guyana (British Guyana) GUY 214.969 +64286185453
6428All Species
6185Indigenous Species
6185Indigenous Species except Microspecies
453Endemic Species
453Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
527 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 26 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
300 Basal Angiosperms (of them 27 endemic)
1041 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
573 Orchids (of them 38 endemic)
3740 Dicotyledons (of them 306 endemic)
243 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et al., eds., 9 vols., complete); Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana: Orchidaceae (Christensen in Mori et al. 1997)
more country list Surinam SUR 163.265 +46444421133
4644All Species
4421Indigenous Species
4421Indigenous Species except Microspecies
133Endemic Species
133Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
323 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
241 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
824 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 25 endemic)
396 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2635 Dicotyledons (of them 87 endemic)
223 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Pteridophytes of Suriname (Kramer 1978)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Orchideeen van Suriname (Werkhoven 1986)
more country list French Guiana FRG 83.534 +50734875345
5073All Species
4875Indigenous Species
4875Indigenous Species except Microspecies
345Endemic Species
345Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
333 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
289 Basal Angiosperms (of them 30 endemic)
806 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 48 endemic)
436 Orchids (of them 49 endemic)
3008 Dicotyledons (of them 205 endemic)
198 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana (Mori 1997, 2 vols.); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana: Orchidaceae (Christensen in Mori et al. 1997)
more country list Ecuador ECU 272.045 +18918182535554
18918All Species
18253Indigenous Species
18250Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5554Endemic Species
5553Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1483 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 183 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
988 Basal Angiosperms (of them 240 endemic)
2570 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 754 endemic)
4226 Orchids (of them 2232 endemic)
8971 Dicotyledons (of them 2144 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
665 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador (Moeller-Jorgensen ed., 1999); Ulloa Ulloa & Neill (2005); Neill & Ulloa Ulloa (2011)

Most recent flora

Flora of Ecuador (1973 ff., 96 vols. published, still incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 9 (Garay 1979); Native Ecuadorian orchids (Dodson & Escobar 1994, Dodson 2001); Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2009): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 76: Orchidaceae. Genera Aa - Cyrtidiorchis.; Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2009): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 84: Orchidaceae. Masdevallia and Affiliates.; Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2010): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 87: Orchidaceae. Genera Cyrtochiloides - Epibator.
more country list Galapagos Isl. GAL 7.844 +785657173
785All Species
657Indigenous Species
657Indigenous Species except Microspecies
173Endemic Species
173Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
22% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
118 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 11 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
415 Dicotyledons (of them 142 endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador (Moeller-Jorgensen ed., 1999)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Galapagos Islands (Wiggins & Porter 1971)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of the Galapagos Islands (Luer 1972)
WEST CENTRAL SOUTH AMERICA (83)
more country list Peru PER 1.280.000 +20743201657144
20743All Species
20165Indigenous Species
20163Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7144Endemic Species
7144Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
34.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1252 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 145 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
1458 Basal Angiosperms (of them 739 endemic)
2646 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 850 endemic)
2408 Orchids (of them 1068 endemic)
12381 Dicotyledons (of them 4340 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
578 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru (Brako & Zarucchi 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Peru (1936 - 1995, 26 (?) vols. published); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta of Peru, pt. 1-6 (Tryon & Stolze 1989-94)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Icones Orchidacearum Peruvianum (Bennett & Christenson 1995-2000, Vol. 1-8, ongoing series); Orchids of Peru, Vol. I-IV (Schweinfurth 1959-1961, in Fieldiana Bot.)
more country list Bolivia BOL 1.098.581 +15452145852951
15452All Species
14585Indigenous Species
14585Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2951Endemic Species
2951Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1182 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 139 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
558 Basal Angiosperms (of them 122 endemic)
2260 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 387 endemic)
1385 Orchids (of them 562 endemic)
9183 Dicotyledons (of them 1738 endemic)
867 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia (Jorgensen et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Prodromus of a Fern Flora of Bolivia (Smith & Kessler 2016 ff., over 30 parts, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orquideas de Bolivia, Vol. 1 (Vasquez & Ibisch 2000); Orquideas de Bolivia, Vol. 2 (Vasquez & Ibisch 2003); Index Orchidacearum Bolivianum (Hashimoto 1993)
BRAZIL (84)
more country list Brazil BRA 8.547.404 +367533616820934
36753All Species
36168Indigenous Species
36167Indigenous Species except Microspecies
20934Endemic Species
20934Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
57% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1362 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 498 endemic)
25 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
1598 Basal Angiosperms (of them 833 endemic)
6815 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4307 endemic)
2784 Orchids (of them 1810 endemic)
23584 Dicotyledons (of them 13482 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
585 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil (floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br)

Most recent flora

various regional floras (all incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Brasileira: Orquideas 1 (A-L), 2 (M-Z) (CD-ROM, Campacci 2000); Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil (floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br); Orchidaceae Brasilienses (Pabst & Dungs 1975-77); Icones Orchidacearum Brasilienses (Castro & Campacci, Vol. 1, 2001)
more country list Fernando Noronha Isl. FNI 26 -272612
27All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
22 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Terrestrial vascular floras of Brazil's Oceanic Archipelagos (Alves 2006) [not seen and not included]
more country list Ilha da Trindade ITR 11 -161614
16All Species
16Indigenous Species
16Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
87.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)

Most recent flora

Terrestrial vascular floras of Brazil's Oceanic Archipelagos (Alves 2006) [not seen and not included]
TEMPERATE SOUTH AMERICA (85)
more country list Paraguay PAR 406.752 +51635002420
5163All Species
5002Indigenous Species
5002Indigenous Species except Microspecies
420Endemic Species
420Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
243 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
102 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
910 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 51 endemic)
167 Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
3579 Dicotyledons (of them 337 endemic)
161 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora de Paraguay (1983 ff., 39 vols. published, still incomplete)
more country list Uruguay URU 176.215 +28042475129
2804All Species
2475Indigenous Species
2475Indigenous Species except Microspecies
129Endemic Species
129Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
103 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
26 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
679 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
49 Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
1617 Dicotyledons (of them 81 endemic)
329 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora del Uruguay (1958 ff., only 4 vols. published?)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora de Uruguay, Vol. 1 Pteridophyta (Legrand & Lombardo 1958)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora del Uruguay (Herter 1949)
more country list Argentina ARG 2.780.400 +1010892581868
10108All Species
9258Indigenous Species
9255Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1868Endemic Species
1865Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
372 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 19 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
106 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
1970 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 396 endemic)
268 Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
6522 Dicotyledons (of them 1414 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
850 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008); Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de la Republica Argentina (2 vols., Zuloaga et al. 1996)
more country list Chile (excl. Juan Fdz. Isl.) CLE 756.626 +497844201937
4978All Species
4420Indigenous Species
4414Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1937Endemic Species
1937Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
38.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
120 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 16 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
917 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 354 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 36 endemic)
3288 Dicotyledons (of them 1516 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them endemic)
558 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008); Catalogo de la flora vascular de Chile (Marticorena 1984)

Most recent flora

Flora de Chile (1995-2005, ongoing, 4 vols. published)
more country list Desventuradas Isl. DSV 30 +463613
46All Species
36Indigenous Species
36Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
28.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
29 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

The flora of San Felix Island (Johnston 1931); Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg 1998)
more country list Juan Fernandez Isl. JNF 181 +400259117
400All Species
259Indigenous Species
259Indigenous Species except Microspecies
117Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 21 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
54 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
150 Dicotyledons (of them 75 endemic)
141 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Vascular flora of the Robinson Crusoe Islands (Marticorena et al. 1998)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Helechos de Juan Fernandez (Barrera Moscoso 1997)
ANTARCTIC (9)
ANTARCTIC CONTINENT (90)
more country list Antarctic continent ANT 13.200.000 +220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
SUBANTARCTIC ISLANDS (91)
more country list Macquarie Isl. MAQ 123 ++55483
55All Species
48Indigenous Species
48Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
26 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Campbell Isl. CMP 137 ++1361242
136All Species
124Indigenous Species
124Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
39 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
5 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
60 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Heard & McDonald Isl. HMD 372 +13120
13All Species
12Indigenous Species
12Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Marion & Prince Edward Isl. MPE 335 +37252
37All Species
25Indigenous Species
25Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
11 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Ile Amsterdam & St. Paul Isl. ASP 67 +26269
26All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
34.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Iles Crozet CRZ 300 +20200
20All Species
20Indigenous Species
20Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Iles Kerguélen KEG 6.993 +40291
40All Species
29Indigenous Species
29Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
15 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
11 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Falkland Isl. FAL 12.173 +25616515
256All Species
165Indigenous Species
165Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
21 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
45 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
95 Dicotyledons (of them 14 endemic)
91 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of the Falkland Islands (Woods 2000); The vascular flora of the Falkland Islands (Moore 1968)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The current status and distribution of the Falkland islands pteridophyte flora (Broughton & MacAdam 2003)
more country list Tristan da Cunha (incl. Gough Island, Nightingale Isl., Inaccessible Island) TDC 202 o17910347
179All Species
103Indigenous Species
103Indigenous Species except Microspecies
47Endemic Species
47Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
40 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
35 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
27 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vegetation and Checklist of Inaccessible Island (Roux et al. 1992)

Most recent flora

The terrestrial botany of the Tristan da Cunha Islands (Wace & Dixon 1965); Vegetation and Checklist of Inaccessible Island (Roux et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
more country list South Georgia Isl. SGE 3.756 ++78250
78All Species
25Indigenous Species
24Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
53 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

The Vascular Flora of South Georgia (Greene 1964); Survey for baseline information on introduced vascular plants: South Georgia (Osborne et al. 2009)
more country list South Sandwich Isl. SSA 310 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
more country list South Orkney Isl. SOI 622 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
more country list South Shetland Isl. SSI 4.700 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)