Species Count in
WorldPlants (might be incomplete)
Country or RegionCodeSurface Area (km²)Status ChecklistAll Species Indigenous Species Endemics
EUROPE (1)
NORTHERN EUROPE (10)
more country list Iceland ICE 103.000 ++803741255
803All Species
741Indigenous Species
439Indigenous Species except Microspecies
255Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
135 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
561 Dicotyledons (of them 253 endemic)
302 Microspecies (of them 249 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

A guide to the flowering plants and ferns of Iceland (Kristinsson 1998); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Jan Mayen Isl. JMY 380 ++57563
57All Species
56Indigenous Species
51Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
41 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

The flora of Jan Mayen (Lid 1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Svalbard (incl. Bjornoya) SVA 62.160 ++1981891
198All Species
189Indigenous Species
183Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
54 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
129 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
9 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Svalbards flora (Roenning 1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Faeroe Isl. FOR 1.399 ++3903699
390All Species
369Indigenous Species
337Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
102 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
239 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
32 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
21 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, Isle of Man, Orkney Isl., Shetland Isl., but excl. Channel Isl. and Northern Ireland) GRB 244.110 ++34962640690
3496All Species
2640Indigenous Species
1526Indigenous Species except Microspecies
690Endemic Species
66Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
80 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
365 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2139 Dicotyledons (of them 685 endemic)
1114 Microspecies (of them 624 endemic)
856 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

Flora of the British Isles (Clapham et al. 1962); New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002); Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Sell & Murrell 1997); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The illustrated field guide to ferns and allied plants of the British Iles (Jermy 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Wild Orchids of Scotland (Allan, Woods & Clarks 1993); Orchidaceae. In: Flora of Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, Vol. 5 (Sell & Murrell 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Ireland (incl. Northern Ireland) IRE 70.000 ++1536123324
1536All Species
1233Indigenous Species
987Indigenous Species except Microspecies
24Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
232 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
29 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
909 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
246 Microspecies (of them 18 endemic)
303 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

An Irish Flora (Webb et al. 1996); Flora of the British Isles (Clapham et al. 1962); New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (Preston et al. 200); Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Sell & Murrell 1997); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The illustrated field guide to ferns and allied plants of the British Iles (Jermy 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

British & Irish Orchids: a field guide (Ettlinger 1976); A Guide to the Wild Orchids of Great Britain and Ireland (Lang 1989); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Denmark DEN 43.094 +1976168663
1976All Species
1686Indigenous Species
1195Indigenous Species except Microspecies
63Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
46 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
285 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1310 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
491 Microspecies (of them 61 endemic)
290 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Dansk Flora (Frederiksen et al. 2006); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Dansk feltflora (Hansen 1981); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Norway NOR 385.639 ++424039102000
4240All Species
3910Indigenous Species
1334Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2000Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
73 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
336 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3454 Dicotyledons (of them 2000 endemic)
2576 Microspecies (of them 2000 endemic)
330 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Den Nya Nordiska Floran (Mossberg & Stenberg 2003); Norsk Flora (Lid et al. 2005); Norsk og svensk flora (Lid 1963); Flora Nordica, Vol. 1 (Jonsell, ed., 2000); Nordisk fjaellflora (Nilsson 1991); Flora över Dal (Andersson 1981); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed. von Gjaerevoll 1985); Orkideer i Norden (Nylen 1984); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sweden SWE 449.964 ++390635631235
3906All Species
3563Indigenous Species
1512Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1235Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
64 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
378 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
44 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3068 Dicotyledons (of them 1234 endemic)
2051 Microspecies (of them 1227 endemic)
343 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Mossberg & Stenberg (2003); Norsk Flora (Lid et al. 2005); Norsk og svensk flora (Lid 1963); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed. von Gjaerevoll 1985); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Orkideer i Norden (Nylen 1984); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Finland FIN 338.144 ++28112583763
2811All Species
2583Indigenous Species
1157Indigenous Species except Microspecies
763Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
309 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2176 Dicotyledons (of them 763 endemic)
1426 Microspecies (of them 760 endemic)
228 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland (Kurtto et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora Fennica, vol. 1-3 (Lönnrotin 2002); Field Flora of Finland (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998); Flora Nordica, vol. 1/2/6 (Jonsell, ed., 2000, 2001, 2010); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora (Lid, 5. ed., Gjaerevoll 1985); Orchids of Scandinavia (2. ed., Johnson 1997); Kaemmekaet - Suomen orkideat (Korhonen & Vuokko 1987); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
MIDDLE EUROPE (11)
more country list Netherlands NET 33.920 ++2055170448
2055All Species
1704Indigenous Species
1263Indigenous Species except Microspecies
48Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
298 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1311 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
441 Microspecies (of them 48 endemic)
351 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Heukels Flora van Nederland (23. Aufl., Mejden et al. 2005); De Nederlandse Oecologische Flora (5 vols., Weeda 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora van Nederland (21. ed.) (Heuckels & van der Meijden 1990); De orchideen van Nederland - ecologie - verspreiding - bedreiging - beheer (Kreutz & Dekker 2000); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Belgium BGM 30.688 ++2095168915
2095All Species
1689Indigenous Species
1401Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
317 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
51 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1260 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
288 Microspecies (of them 15 endemic)
406 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora (van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1972)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed.) (Lambinon & Verloove 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Orchidaceae Belgicae (Klopfenstein & Toussaint 1983-87); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Luxembourg LUX 2.586 ++132111814
1321All Species
1181Indigenous Species
1075Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
46 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
208 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
884 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
106 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
140 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora (van Rompaey & Delvosalle 1972); Red List of the Vascular Plants of Luxembourg (Colling 2005)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed., Lambinon & Verloove 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Online Atlas of the Pteridophytes of Luxembourg (www.pteridophytes.lu)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Luxemburgs (Mangen et al. 1993); Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Germany GER 356.970 ++44213705295
4421All Species
3705Indigenous Species
2494Indigenous Species except Microspecies
295Endemic Species
27Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
81 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
516 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
71 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
3021 Dicotyledons (of them 287 endemic)
1211 Microspecies (of them 268 endemic)
716 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Florenliste von Deutschland - Gefäßpflanzen. Version 11 (Hand et al. 2020, www.kp-buttler.de)

Most recent flora

Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed., many volumes); Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder (Schmeil/Fitschen) (92. Auflage 2003, ed. Senghas & Seybold); Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora, ed. 8 (Oberdorfer, Begr., 2001); Exkursionsflora von Deutschland (Rothmaler, Begr., 21. Aufl. 2017, ed. Jäger); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder (Schmeil/Fitschen), (89. Auflage 1993, ed. Senghas & Seybold); Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1995); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Switzerland SWI 41.285 ++3438303399
3438All Species
3033Indigenous Species
2496Indigenous Species except Microspecies
99Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
82 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
482 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
65 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2386 Dicotyledons (of them 97 endemic)
537 Microspecies (of them 92 endemic)
405 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora Helvetica Checklist 2017 (Juillerat et al. 2017)

Most recent flora

Flora Helvetica (5. Aufl., Lauber et al. 2012); Flora der Schweiz (3 vols., Hess et al. 1976-1980); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004); Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed., multiple volumes); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1994); Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Reinhard et al. 1991); Die Orchideen der Schweiz (Danesch 1984); Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Hess, Landolt & Hirzel 1967-1970); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Liechtenstein LIE 161 ++142413080
1424All Species
1308Indigenous Species
1275Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
241 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
973 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
33 Microspecies (of them endemic)
116 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora von Liechtenstein (Waldburger et al. 2003); Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1994); Die Orchideen der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Reinhard et al. 1991); Die Orchideen der Schweiz (Danesch 1984); Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete (Hess, Landolt & Hirzel 1967-1970); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Austria AUT 83.858 ++36153216101
3615All Species
3216Indigenous Species
2725Indigenous Species except Microspecies
101Endemic Species
34Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
74 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
525 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
2530 Dicotyledons (of them 94 endemic)
491 Microspecies (of them 67 endemic)
399 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, ed.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Exkursionsflora von Österreich (Fischer, ed., 1994); Die Orchideen Mitteleuropas und der Alpen (Presser 1995); Wildwachsende Orchideen in Österreich (Redl 1996); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Poland POL 312.684 ++2988267243
2988All Species
2672Indigenous Species
2033Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
66 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
423 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
46 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2123 Dicotyledons (of them 42 endemic)
639 Microspecies (of them 33 endemic)
316 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flowering Plants and Pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist (Mirez et al. 2002)

Most recent flora

Flora polska (Szafera, ed., 1919 - 1980, 14 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Poland (Szlachetko & Skakuj 1996); Storczyki Zachodniej Czesci Polskich Beskidow (Bernacki 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Atlas Flory Polskiej i Ziem Osciennych, Vol. 5, pt. 1 (Madalski 1971); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Czech Republic CZE 78.866 ++2700242646
2700All Species
2426Indigenous Species
1963Indigenous Species except Microspecies
46Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
69 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
415 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
55 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1872 Dicotyledons (of them 44 endemic)
463 Microspecies (of them 38 endemic)
274 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic (Danihelka et al. 2012)

Most recent flora

Klič ke Květeně České republiky (Kubát, ed., 2002); Květena České (Socialistické) republiky (Slavík & Hejný, ed., 1988-2005, 7 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideje nasi prirody (Prochazka & Velisek 1983); Orchid distribution and protection in Moravia and Silesia (Husak 1996); Verbreitung und Schutz der Orchideen in Mähren und Schlesien (Jatiova & Smitak 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Slovakia SLO 49.034 ++33092777107
3309All Species
2777Indigenous Species
2437Indigenous Species except Microspecies
107Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
469 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
57 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2167 Dicotyledons (of them 105 endemic)
340 Microspecies (of them 98 endemic)
532 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

http://ibot.sav.sk/checklist/index.php (Marhold & Hindak)

Most recent flora

Klič ke Květeně České republiky (Kubát, ed., 2002); Květena České (Socialistické) republiky (Slavík & Hejný, ed., 1988-2005, 7 vols.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideje nasi prirody (Prochazka & Velisek 1983); Orchid distribution and protection in Moravia and Silesia (Husak 1996); Verbreitung und Schutz der Orchideen in Mähren und Schlesien (Jatiova & Smitak 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Hungary HUN 93.030 ++2465219574
2465All Species
2195Indigenous Species
2030Indigenous Species except Microspecies
74Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
420 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
57 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1652 Dicotyledons (of them 70 endemic)
165 Microspecies (of them 55 endemic)
270 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Vadon elo orchideak (Molnar, Sulyok & Videki 1995); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
SOUTH WESTERN EUROPE (12)
more country list Portugal (excl. Azores, Madeira) POR 89.357 ++2961253879
2961All Species
2538Indigenous Species
2487Indigenous Species except Microspecies
79Endemic Species
77Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
61 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
500 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1917 Dicotyledons (of them 67 endemic)
51 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
423 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011)

Most recent flora

Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); The Orchid Flora of Portugal (Tyteca 1997); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Spain (mainland, excl. Baleares, Canary Isl. and African exclaves) SPA 501.453 ++643658421224
6436All Species
5842Indigenous Species
5258Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1224Endemic Species
885Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
106 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
908 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 96 endemic)
83 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4716 Dicotyledons (of them 1122 endemic)
584 Microspecies (of them 339 endemic)
594 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Andorra ADO 468 ++9739404
973All Species
940Indigenous Species
883Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
82 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
835 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
57 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
33 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flowers of Andorra (Crozier & Matschke 1993); Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Gibraltar GIB 7 ++6655661
665All Species
566Indigenous Species
565Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
97 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
444 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
99 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

The flowers of Gibraltar (Linares et al. 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Baleares BAL 4.992 ++16271454119
1627All Species
1454Indigenous Species
1440Indigenous Species except Microspecies
119Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
253 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1122 Dicotyledons (of them 111 endemic)
14 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
173 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora de Mallorca (Vols. I-IV, Bonafe 1977-1980); Illustrated Flora of Mallorca (Beckett 1993); Flora Iberica (Castroviejo et al., eds., 1985 ff., 21 of 22 volumes published); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Guia de helechos de la Peninsula Iberica y Baleares (Tierra 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iberica, vol. 21 (2005); Orquidacies. - In: Flora de Mallorca, Vol. 2 (Barcelo 1978); Petita guia de las Orquidies de les Balears (Alomar 1994); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list France (mainland, excl. Corsica) FRA 535.285 ++60285236300
6028All Species
5236Indigenous Species
4414Indigenous Species except Microspecies
300Endemic Species
142Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
115 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
828 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
98 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4164 Dicotyledons (of them 268 endemic)
822 Microspecies (of them 158 endemic)
792 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index synonymique de la flore de France (Kerguélen 1993)

Most recent flora

Les quatres flores de France (4. ed., Fournier 1977); Flora Gallica (Tison & de Foucault 2014); Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines (6. ed.) (Lambinon et al. 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.); Flora alpina (Vol. 1-3, Aeschimann et al. 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidees de France, Belgique et Luxembourg (Bournerias et al. 1998); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Monaco MCO 2 -48420
48All Species
42Indigenous Species
42Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
6 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
more country list British Channel Isl. CIS 198 +15249274
1524All Species
927Indigenous Species
824Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
31 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
187 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
692 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
103 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
597 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vice-County Census Catalogue (Botanicalkeys.co.uk)

Most recent flora

Wildflowers of Alderney (Bonnard 2008); A flora of the Island of Jersey (Lester-Garland 1903)
more country list Corsica COR 8.680 ++2267210281
2267All Species
2102Indigenous Species
2057Indigenous Species except Microspecies
81Endemic Species
66Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
419 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1551 Dicotyledons (of them 70 endemic)
45 Microspecies (of them 15 endemic)
165 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Corsica (Jeanmonod & Gamisans 2007); Les quatres flores de France (4. ed., Fournier 1977); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sardinia SAR 23.318 ++21381992139
2138All Species
1992Indigenous Species
1974Indigenous Species except Microspecies
139Endemic Species
131Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
381 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1500 Dicotyledons (of them 132 endemic)
18 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
146 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora dell' Isola di Sardegna, Vol. 1-4 (Arrigoni 2006-2013); Flora Sarda / Piante Endemiche (Marras 2000); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna (Giotta & Picitto 1990); Orchidee spontanee della Sardegna (Scrugli 1991); Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982) Orchidee. Specie spontanee (Liverani 1991); Orchidacee d’Italia (Grünanger 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE (13)
more country list Italy (mainland) (incl. Elba Isl., Capri Isl.) ITA 203.856 ++60995502577
6099All Species
5502Indigenous Species
5032Indigenous Species except Microspecies
577Endemic Species
425Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
118 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
910 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 48 endemic)
119 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
4326 Dicotyledons (of them 507 endemic)
470 Microspecies (of them 152 endemic)
597 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-3 (Pignatti 1982); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4; Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol (3. Aufl., Fischer & Adler 2008); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982); Orchidee d’Italia (Sguazzini & Glerean 1981); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Sicily (incl. Isole Pelagie) SIC 25.426 ++26192388175
2619All Species
2388Indigenous Species
2366Indigenous Species except Microspecies
175Endemic Species
168Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
49 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
467 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1790 Dicotyledons (of them 151 endemic)
22 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
231 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily (Giardina et al. 2007); An updated checklist of the vascular flora native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-3 (Pignatti 1982); Pignatti, Guarino & la Rosa (2017-2019): Flora d'Italia, vol. 1-4; Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidee Spontanee d'Italia (Del Prete & Tosi 1988); Orchidaceae (Pignatti). In: Flora d'Italia (Rasetti 1982); Orchidee d’Italia (Sguazzini & Glerean 1981); A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily (GIARDINA et al. 2007); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Malta MLT 316 ++88679712
886All Species
797Indigenous Species
797Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
116 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
625 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
89 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

A Flora of the Maltese Islands (Haslam, Sell & Wolseley 1977); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Le Orchidaceae dell'archipelago maltese (Bartolo et al. 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list San Marino SMA 61 -220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent flora

Flora della repubblica di San Marino (Pampanini 1930) [not seen and not yet included, few newer publications neither seen nor included]

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Slovenia SLV 20.273 +3012275440
3012All Species
2754Indigenous Species
2625Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
520 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2085 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
129 Microspecies (of them 28 endemic)
258 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Register flore Slovenije (Trpin & Vres 1995)

Most recent flora

Flora of Slovenia (iFlora - Plant Guide Book 22) (Tackenberg); Mala flora Slovenije, kljuc za dolocanje praprotnic in semenk (Martinic et al. 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Croatia CRO 56.594 +4348384689
4348All Species
3846Indigenous Species
3726Indigenous Species except Microspecies
89Endemic Species
78Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
80 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
679 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
87 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2973 Dicotyledons (of them 77 endemic)
120 Microspecies (of them 11 endemic)
502 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Nikolić T. ed. (2015): Flora Croatica Database (http://hirc.botanic.hr/fcd)

Most recent flora

Flora Hrvatske (Domac 2002); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Bosnia & Hercegovina BIH 51.197 -2803262836
2803All Species
2628Indigenous Species
2559Indigenous Species except Microspecies
36Endemic Species
29Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
465 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
55 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2033 Dicotyledons (of them 34 endemic)
69 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
175 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Bosne i Hercegovine (Beck 1903-1921, 1927, Beck & Maly 1950, Bjelčić 1967-1983, incomplete); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Montenegro MNT 13.812 o2573249722
2573All Species
2497Indigenous Species
2442Indigenous Species except Microspecies
22Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
62 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
438 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1927 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
55 Microspecies (of them 6 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Katalog Vaskularne Flora Crne Gore, Tom. 1 (Stesevic & Cakovic 2013) [incomplete]

Most recent flora

Conspectus Florae Montenegrinae (Rohlena 1942); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideenflora Montenegros (Parolly 1991, in Mitt. Bl. AHO Bad.-Württ., Vol. 24); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Serbia SRB 77.474 o3127299332
3127All Species
2993Indigenous Species
2926Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
29Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
527 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
56 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2331 Dicotyledons (of them 28 endemic)
67 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
134 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An Annotated Checklist of Vascular Flora of Serbia, Vol. 1 (Niketic & Tomovic 2018) [incomplete]

Most recent flora

Flora SR Srbije (Josifović 1970-1976, 1977; Sarić & Diklić 1986); Flora Srbije (Saric et al., eds., 1992; Stevanovic et al., eds., 2012); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Kosovo KOS 10.877 -1391346
139All Species
134Indigenous Species
129Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
124 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
5 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Northern Macedonia NMA 25.713 o3012291582
3012All Species
2915Indigenous Species
2838Indigenous Species except Microspecies
82Endemic Species
75Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
446 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2340 Dicotyledons (of them 78 endemic)
77 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
97 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org) [incomplete because many species are only listed for "former Yugoslavia"]

Most recent flora

Flora na Republika Makedonija (Micevski et al. 1983-2006, Matevski 2010; 7 vols. published, incomplete); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen in Jugoslawien (Gölz & Reinhard 1986); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Albania ALB 28.748 +3380324259
3380All Species
3242Indigenous Species
3181Indigenous Species except Microspecies
59Endemic Species
46Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
18 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
578 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
62 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2522 Dicotyledons (of them 51 endemic)
61 Microspecies (of them 13 endemic)
138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Albania (Barina et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Illustrated Flora of Albania (Pils 2016); Flore de l'Albanie (1992-2000, vols. 2, 3, 4); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Illustrated Flora of Albania (Pils 2016); Die Orchideenflora Albaniens (Gölz & Reinhard 1984); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Romania ROM 237.500 ++34473169102
3447All Species
3169Indigenous Species
3011Indigenous Species except Microspecies
102Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
62 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
597 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
58 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2438 Dicotyledons (of them 99 endemic)
158 Microspecies (of them 45 endemic)
278 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Republicii Socialiste România (1952-1976); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora Romaniei, Vol. II (Beldie 1979); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Bulgaria BUL 110.994 ++38293634171
3829All Species
3634Indigenous Species
3489Indigenous Species except Microspecies
171Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
617 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
52 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2884 Dicotyledons (of them 153 endemic)
145 Microspecies (of them 45 endemic)
195 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus of the Bulgarian vascular flora (Assyov et al., 4th ed. 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora na Narodna Republika Bălgarija (Jordanov et al., 1963-1995, 10 vols.); Flora bulgarica (CD-ROM, 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora von Bulgarien (Stojanow & Stafanov 1948); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list European Turkey TUE 23.764 ++2048198713
2048All Species
1987Indigenous Species
1974Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
25 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
445 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1476 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
13 Microspecies (of them endemic)
61 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000, 9 vols. + 2 supplement volumes, complete); Flowers of Turkey - A photo guide (Pils 2006)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen der Türkei (Kreutz 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Greece (incl. Kikladhes, excl. Crete, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos and E-Aegaean) GRC 123.600 ++52174915739
5217All Species
4915Indigenous Species
4742Indigenous Species except Microspecies
739Endemic Species
661Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
12.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
894 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 110 endemic)
87 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
3834 Dicotyledons (of them 621 endemic)
173 Microspecies (of them 78 endemic)
302 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Greece. An Annotated Checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, with supplement 2015); Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016)

Most recent flora

Flora Hellenica (Strid & Kit Tan (eds., 1997 ff., 3 vols. published); Mountain Flora of Greece (Vol. 1/2, Strid, ed., 1989/1991); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Synopsis Flora Graecae: Orchidaceae (Diapulis 1995); The Orchids of Greece - Inventory and Review (Kalopissis 1988); Orchids of Greece (Lepper 1981); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Crete KRI 8.336 ++19831831166
1983All Species
1831Indigenous Species
1821Indigenous Species except Microspecies
166Endemic Species
165Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
35 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
371 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1370 Dicotyledons (of them 136 endemic)
10 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
152 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Greece. An Annotated Checklist (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, with supplement 2015); Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016)

Most recent flora

Exkursionsflora für Kreta (Jahn & Schönfelder 1995); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Die Orchideen von Kreta und Karpathos (Alibertis 1997) (engl. ed. 1998); Orchidaceae (Scheurer & Jahn). In: Exkursionsflora für Kreta (Jahn & Schönfelder 1995); Orchideen auf Kreta, Karpathos & Kasos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
EASTERN EUROPE (14)
more country list Estonia EST 45.339 ++1950142240
1950All Species
1422Indigenous Species
1135Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
266 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1062 Dicotyledons (of them 39 endemic)
287 Microspecies (of them 37 endemic)
528 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Eesti NSV Floora (Flora of Estonian SSR, Vol. 1-11, 1953-1984); Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Vascular Plant Flora of Estonia (Kukk 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Native orchids in Estonia (Kuusk 1996); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Latvia LAT 64.589 ++164113154
1641All Species
1315Indigenous Species
1133Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
279 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
30 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
953 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
182 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
326 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Flora of Latvian vascular taxa (Gavrilova & Sulcs 1999); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Diversity, state and protection of Orchidaceae species in Lithuania (Gudzinskas 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Lithuania LIT 65.300 ++153812432
1538All Species
1243Indigenous Species
1155Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
282 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
882 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
88 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
295 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Vascular plants of Lithuania (Gudzinskas 1999); Flora of the Baltic Countries (Laasimer et al. 1993, 1996, 2003); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Diversity, state and protection of Orchidaceae species in Lithuania (Gudzinskas 2001); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Belarus BLR 207.595 +187215135
1872All Species
1513Indigenous Species
1414Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
308 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1117 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
99 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
359 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Fedorov, ed., 11 vols., 1988-2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list European Russia (excl. Caucasus, incl. Kaliningrad region, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya) RUS 4.300.000 ++46944219401
4694All Species
4219Indigenous Species
3528Indigenous Species except Microspecies
401Endemic Species
152Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
74 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
734 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 30 endemic)
48 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3347 Dicotyledons (of them 371 endemic)
691 Microspecies (of them 249 endemic)
475 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions (Fedorov, ed., 11 vols., 1988-2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff.); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orkhidei nachei strany (Vakhrameeva et al. 1991)
more country list Moldova (incl. Transnistria) MLD 33.843 o6225502
622All Species
550Indigenous Species
511Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
15 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
519 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
39 Microspecies (of them endemic)
72 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Ukraine (excl. Crimea) UKR 577.720 ++32332985110
3233All Species
2985Indigenous Species
2789Indigenous Species except Microspecies
110Endemic Species
91Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
568 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2308 Dicotyledons (of them 94 endemic)
196 Microspecies (of them 19 endemic)
248 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of the Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist (Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk 1999); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Vasheka OV, Bezsmertna OO (2012). Ferns atlas of Ukrainian flora: monograf.

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Ukraine (Sobko 1989, in russian); Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Crimea KRY 26.080 ++2298212687
2298All Species
2126Indigenous Species
2052Indigenous Species except Microspecies
87Endemic Species
63Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
36 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
358 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1678 Dicotyledons (of them 76 endemic)
74 Microspecies (of them 24 endemic)
172 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of the Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist (Mosyakin & Fedoronchuk 1999); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Vasheka OV, Bezsmertna OO (2012). Ferns atlas of Ukrainian flora: monograf.

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of the Orchids of Crimea (Fateryga & Kreutz 2014); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
AFRICA (2)
NORTHERN AFRICA (20)
more country list Morocco MOR 453.730 ++43443922679
4344All Species
3922Indigenous Species
3894Indigenous Species except Microspecies
679Endemic Species
668Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
64 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
704 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 79 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3105 Dicotyledons (of them 596 endemic)
28 Microspecies (of them 11 endemic)
422 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore pratique du Maroc (Fennane et al. 1999-2015, 3 vols.); Fennane & Ibn Tattou (2005-2007): Flore vasculaire du Maroc, inventaire et chorologie

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flore pratique du Maroc, Vol. 1 (Salvo & Ouyahya 1999)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Les orchidées du Maroc (Raynaud 1985); Kompendium der Europäischen Orchideen - Catalogue of European Orchids (Kreutz 2005); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Western Sahara WSA 267.769 +2382361
238All Species
236Indigenous Species
236Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
40 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
192 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental (Lebrun 1998); CJB African Plant Database); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de Mauritanie, Vol. 2 (Barry & Celles 1991); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Algeria ALG 2.381.740 ++37483398188
3748All Species
3398Indigenous Species
3380Indigenous Species except Microspecies
188Endemic Species
185Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
615 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
46 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2661 Dicotyledons (of them 162 endemic)
18 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
350 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle Flore de l'Algerie (Quezel & Santa 1962, 2 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
more country list Tunisia TUN 164.418 ++2451225061
2451All Species
2250Indigenous Species
2242Indigenous Species except Microspecies
61Endemic Species
61Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
436 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1733 Dicotyledons (of them 56 endemic)
8 Microspecies (of them endemic)
201 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flore de Tunisie: Catalogue synonymique commente (Le Floc'h & Boulos 2008); Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de la Tunisie (Pottier-Alapetite, ed., 1979-1984, 3 vols. + Atlas, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidées de Tunisie (Valles & Valles-Lombard 1988)
more country list Libya LBY 1.757.000 ++1945176090
1945All Species
1760Indigenous Species
1757Indigenous Species except Microspecies
90Endemic Species
90Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
16 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
360 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1364 Dicotyledons (of them 75 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
185 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Libya (Ali & Jafri, eds., 1976-1990, 150 vols., almost complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Libya - Pteridophytes (1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidaceae (Flora Libia, Fasc. 119) (Hossain & El-Gadi 1985); Zur Kenntnis der Orchideenflora der Cyrenaika (Libyen) (Baumann & Baumann 2001)
more country list Egypt (excl. Sinai peninsula) EGY 878.000 ++1968182930
1968All Species
1829Indigenous Species
1822Indigenous Species except Microspecies
30Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
401 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
1411 Dicotyledons (of them 22 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them endemic)
139 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); CJB African Plant Database; EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Egypt (Boulos, ed., 1999-2005, 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Egypt, Vol. 1: Azollaceae - Oxalidaceae (Boulos 1999)
MACARONESIA (21)
more country list Azores AZO 2.247 ++95359458
953All Species
594Indigenous Species
589Indigenous Species except Microspecies
58Endemic Species
56Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
51 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
138 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
397 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
359 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993); Catalogo das plantas vasculares dos Acores (Palhina 1966)

Most recent flora

Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1993, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora Europaea, Vol. 5 (Soó 1980); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die Orchideen der Azoren (Frey 1977)
more country list Madeira MDR 741 ++1312773109
1312All Species
773Indigenous Species
766Indigenous Species except Microspecies
109Endemic Species
109Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
146 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
554 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them endemic)
539 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist da Flora de Portugal (Continental, Acores e Madeira) (Menezes de Sequeira et al. 2011); Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Madeira (Press et al. 1994) Die Farne und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras (Muer, Sauerbier & Calixto 2020)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Madeira (Press 1994); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Orchideen von Madeira (Rückbrodt & Rückbrodt 1990)
more country list Islas Selvagens (Salvajes Isl.) SEL 3 ++110973
110All Species
97Indigenous Species
97Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Menezes de Sequeira et al. (2011); CJB African Plant Database; Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Madeira (Press et al. 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Flora of Madeira (Press 1994); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Beitrag zur Kenntnis und Verbreitung der Orchideen von Madeira (Rückbrodt & Rückbrodt 1990)
more country list Canary Isl. CNY 7.273 ++21011567549
2101All Species
1567Indigenous Species
1562Indigenous Species except Microspecies
549Endemic Species
548Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
53 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
246 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1251 Dicotyledons (of them 514 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
534 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database; Index Synonymique Flora d'Afrique du Nord, Volume 1-5 (Dobignard & Chatelain 2010-2013); Flora of Macaronesia: checklist of vascular plants, 4. rev. ed. (Hansen & Sunding 1993)

Most recent flora

Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen der Kanarischen Inseln (Muer, Sauerbier & Calixto 2016); Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln (Hohenester & Weiss 1993)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005); Exkursionsflora für die Kanarischen Inseln (Hohenester & Weiss 1993); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986)
more country list Cape Verde Isl. CVI 4.033 ++772556105
772All Species
556Indigenous Species
556Indigenous Species except Microspecies
105Endemic Species
105Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
35 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
139 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
379 Dicotyledons (of them 91 endemic)
216 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora de Cabo Verde (Paiva et al., 1995-2002, 106 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Ferns and Fern-Allies (Pteridophyta) of the Cape Verde Islands (Lobin et al. 1998)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Guide des Orchidées d'Europe, d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient (3rd ed., Delforge 2005)
WEST TROPICAL AFRICA (22)
more country list Mauritania MTN 1.030.700 +8437823
843All Species
782Indigenous Species
780Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
225 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
542 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
61 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Mauritanie et du Sahara occidental (Lebrun 1998); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore de Mauritanie (2 vols., Barry & Celles 1991); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Senegal SEN 196.722 +1851177616
1851All Species
1776Indigenous Species
1776Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
547 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1134 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
75 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Enumeration des plantes vasculaires du Senegal (Lebrun 1973); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore illustrée du Sénégal (Berhaut, ed., 1971-1988, incomplete); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Orchidaceae (van den Berghen). - In: Flore Illustree du Senegal, Vol. 9 (Berhault 1988)
more country list Gambia GAM 11.295 -6746502
674All Species
650Indigenous Species
650Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
184 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
436 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
24 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Gambian Biodiversity: A Provisional Checklist of all Species Recorded within the Gambia (Emms & Brummitt 2005) [not seen]; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of the Gambia (Jones 1994); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Guinea-Bissau GNB 36.125 ++141213405
1412All Species
1340Indigenous Species
1340Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
22 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
24 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
331 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
932 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
72 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) (Catarino et al. 2008); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora da Guiné-Bissau / Jardim e museu agrícola do Ultramar .. (7 vol., 1971-1983, incomplete); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Guinea [Conakry] GUI 245.857 ++3067276496
3067All Species
2764Indigenous Species
2764Indigenous Species except Microspecies
96Endemic Species
96Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
168 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
44 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
633 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
128 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1791 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
303 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore de la République de Guinée (Lisowski 2009); Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée (Lisowski 2011); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Sierra Leone SIE 71.740 o2690256957
2690All Species
2569Indigenous Species
2569Indigenous Species except Microspecies
57Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
138 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
59 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
578 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
158 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
1636 Dicotyledons (of them 39 endemic)
121 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Liberia LBR 99.067 o2224216977
2224All Species
2169Indigenous Species
2168Indigenous Species except Microspecies
77Endemic Species
77Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
192 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
61 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
380 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
147 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1389 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Über die Farne Liberias (Westafrika), ihr Vorkommen und ihre Verbreitung (Kunkel 1962)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Mali MLI 1.240.192 o165315826
1653All Species
1582Indigenous Species
1581Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
445 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1076 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali (Boudet et al. 1986); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)
more country list Burkina Faso BKN 274.200 +203818091
2038All Species
1809Indigenous Species
1809Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
15 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
555 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1190 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
229 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso (Lebrun et al. 1991); Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso (Thiombiano et al. 2012); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Diversity, distribution and preliminary conservation status of the flora of Burkina Faso (Schmidt et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931);
more country list Ivory Coast IVO 322.462 +3520341770
3520All Species
3417Indigenous Species
3417Indigenous Species except Microspecies
70Endemic Species
70Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
158 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
93 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
706 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
216 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2244 Dicotyledons (of them 57 endemic)
103 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flore de la Cote d'Ivoire: Catalogue systematique, biogeographie et ecologie (Ake-Assi 2001-2002); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Les Orchidees de Cote d’Ivoire (Perez-Vera 2003)
more country list Ghana GHA 238.500 o3171303232
3171All Species
3032Indigenous Species
3032Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
158 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
67 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
684 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
154 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1968 Dicotyledons (of them 26 endemic)
139 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A list of the Gold Coast Pteridophyta (Adams & Alston 1955); Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Togo TOG 56.785 ++2158199013
2158All Species
1990Indigenous Species
1989Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
26 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
527 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
77 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1301 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
168 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore analytique du Togo (Brunel, ed., 1984); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Flore analytique du Togo (Brunel & Butzin 1985)
more country list Benin BEN 112.622 ++2661226911
2661All Species
2269Indigenous Species
2269Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
50 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
38 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
546 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1587 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
392 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Souza (1987); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Bénin (3 vols., Souza, ed., 2006-2009); Flore analytique du Benin (Akoegninou et al., eds., 2006); Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Flora of Benin, Vol. 1 (Souza 1987); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Niger NGR 1.267.000 o8137872
813All Species
787Indigenous Species
787Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
12 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
239 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
528 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
26 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger (Fabrègues & Lebrun 1976); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.); Flore et végétation du Sahara. 3. ed. (Ozenda 1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Nigeria NGA 923.768 o4688455984
4688All Species
4559Indigenous Species
4558Indigenous Species except Microspecies
84Endemic Species
84Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
191 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
113 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
915 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
283 Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
3054 Dicotyledons (of them 61 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
129 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of West Tropical Africa (Hutchinson & Dalziel, eds., 1954-1972, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Orchids of Nigeria (Segerbäck et al. 1983)
WEST CENTRAL TROPICAL AFRICA (23)
more country list Cameroon CMN 475.442 +71786747794
7178All Species
6747Indigenous Species
6747Indigenous Species except Microspecies
794Endemic Species
794Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
275 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
235 Basal Angiosperms (of them 37 endemic)
1032 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 84 endemic)
406 Orchids (of them 45 endemic)
4793 Dicotyledons (of them 622 endemic)
431 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist (Onana 2011); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Cameroun (1963 - 2014, 79 families covered, still incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 3 (Tardieu-Blot 1964); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953); The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist (Onana 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flore du Cameroun, Vol. 34-36: Orchidaceae 1-3 (Szlachetko & Olszewski 1998/2001)
more country list Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo) BIO 2.017 +1942174533
1942All Species
1745Indigenous Species
1745Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
212 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
59 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
262 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
134 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
1078 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
197 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Velayos, M. et al. (2013): Preliminary Checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Velayos, ed., 2008 ff., 5 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); The Pteridophyta of Bioko, Vol. 1-5 (Benl 1978-91)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931)
more country list Principe Isl. PRI 146 +52241319
522All Species
413Indigenous Species
413Indigenous Species except Microspecies
19Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
78 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
10 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
63 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
198 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
109 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated Catalogue of the flowering plants of Sao Tome and Principe (Figueiredo et al. 2011); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Catalogue of the vascular plants of S. Tome etc. (Exell 1944); Checklist of the ferns of Sao Tome and Principe (Internet)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Guide des Orchidees de Sao Tome et Principe (Stevart & de Oliveira (2000)
more country list Sao Tomé SAO 855 +112083578
1120All Species
835Indigenous Species
835Indigenous Species except Microspecies
78Endemic Species
78Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
146 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
108 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
98 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
464 Dicotyledons (of them 49 endemic)
285 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated Catalogue of the flowering plants of Sao Tome and Principe (Figueiredo et al. 2011); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and fern-allies of West Tropical Africa (Alston 1959); Checklist of the ferns of Sao Tome and Principe (Internet)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2 (Summerhayes 1931); Guide des Orchidees de Sao Tome et Principe (Stevart & de Oliveira (2000)
more country list Annobon Isl. ANN 17 +34027416
340All Species
274Indigenous Species
274Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
50 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
25 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
147 Dicotyledons (of them 10 endemic)
66 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Velayos, M. et al. (2016): Checklist of the Vascular plants of Annobon (Equatorial Guinea); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue of the vascular plants of Sao Tome (Exell 1944/1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Velayos, M. et al. (2014): Checklist of the Vascular plants of Annobon (Equatorial Guinea); Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial, Vol. 1 (Velayos et al. 2008)
more country list Equatorial Guinea (mainland [Rio Muni], excluding islands) EQG 24.500 -1816176843
1816All Species
1768Indigenous Species
1768Indigenous Species except Microspecies
43Endemic Species
43Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
136 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
68 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
300 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
160 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1102 Dicotyledons (of them 34 endemic)
48 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of Equatorial Guinean Flora (Royal Jardin Botanico Madrid, Internet); CJB African Plant Database; few checklists on family level

Most recent flora

Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial (Velayos, ed., 2008 ff., 5 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial, Vol. 1 (Velayos et al. 2008)
more country list Gabon GAB 267.667 +47244621504
4724All Species
4621Indigenous Species
4621Indigenous Species except Microspecies
504Endemic Species
504Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
174 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
199 Basal Angiosperms (of them 24 endemic)
594 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 46 endemic)
276 Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
3376 Dicotyledons (of them 412 endemic)
103 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Sosef et al. (2006): Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore du Gabon (Aubreville et al., eds., 1961 ff., 54 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore du Gabon, Vol. 8. Ptéridophytes (Tardieu-Blot 1964); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae 1 (Szlachetko & Olszewski 2000). In: Flore du Gabon (Morat, ed.)
more country list Congo [Brazzaville] CON 342.000 +4195405674
4195All Species
4056Indigenous Species
4056Indigenous Species except Microspecies
74Endemic Species
74Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
210 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
156 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
718 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
158 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2809 Dicotyledons (of them 51 endemic)
139 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo (Sita & Moutsambote 1988); Lachenaud (2009): La flore des plantes vascularies de la Republique du Congo: nouvelles donnees; CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Central African Republic CAF 622.436 +3538334889
3538All Species
3348Indigenous Species
3348Indigenous Species except Microspecies
89Endemic Species
89Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
115 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
586 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
154 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2394 Dicotyledons (of them 55 endemic)
190 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique (Boulevert 1977-1984, 3 vols.); CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Catalogue de la flore de Centrafrique (Boulevert 1977); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Central African Republic (Cribb & Fay 1987)
more country list Cabinda CAB 7.823 o47947842
479All Species
478Indigenous Species
478Indigenous Species except Microspecies
42Endemic Species
42Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
36 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
44 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
397 Dicotyledons (of them 30 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plants of Angola (Figueiredo & Smith 2008) [Checklist]; CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Conspectus florae angolensis: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A provisional checklist of the Orchidaceae of Angola (Schelpe 1976)
more country list D.R. Congo (Zaire) ZAI 2.344.885 o884786431333
8847All Species
8643Indigenous Species
8643Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1333Endemic Species
1333Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
331 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
172 Basal Angiosperms (of them 20 endemic)
1302 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 176 endemic)
547 Orchids (of them 50 endemic)
6280 Dicotyledons (of them 1073 endemic)
204 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete); Flora of Tropical East Africa (various volumes) - covers mountains in eastern part of the country

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of the Upper Katanga (Kornas et al. 2000); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
more country list Rwanda RWA 26.338 o2147210557
2147All Species
2105Indigenous Species
2105Indigenous Species except Microspecies
57Endemic Species
57Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
174 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
24 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
391 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
202 Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
1314 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
42 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985); Flora of Tropical East Africa (various volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
more country list Burundi BUR 27.834 o2038200437
2038All Species
2004Indigenous Species
2004Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
180 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
363 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
180 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1263 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flore d'Afrique Centrale (1948 onwards, over 60% complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Pteridophytes of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire), pts. I - II (Pichi Sermolli 1983, 1985))

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flore de l'Afrique Centrale (Geerinck 1984/1992)
NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA (24)
more country list Chad CHA 1.284.000 ++1819165514
1819All Species
1655Indigenous Species
1655Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
38 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
14 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
385 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1190 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
164 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis (Brundu 2013); CJB African Plant Database; Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Tchad meridional (Lebrun et al. 1972, with supplements 1976, 1977, 1986)

Most recent flora

Flore illustrée du Chad (César & Chatelain 2019)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Sudan SUD 1.886.068 +2128200028
2128All Species
2000Indigenous Species
2000Indigenous Species except Microspecies
28Endemic Species
28Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
170 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
524 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
17 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1279 Dicotyledons (of them 18 endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Sudan and South Sudan (Darbyshire et al. 2015); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan (Andrews 1950-1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and the fern-allies of the Sudan (Macleay 1953); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list South Sudan SSU 619.745 +2791269540
2791All Species
2695Indigenous Species
2695Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
40Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
36 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
653 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1932 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Sudan and South Sudan (Darbyshire et al. 2015); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

The flowering plants of the anglo-aegyptian Sudan (Andrews 1950-1956)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); The ferns and the fern-allies of the Sudan (Macleay 1953); Les Pteridophytes de l'Afrique Intertropicale Francaise (Tardieu-Blot 1953)
more country list Ethiopia ETH 1.133.380 ++50624855567
5062All Species
4855Indigenous Species
4855Indigenous Species except Microspecies
567Endemic Species
567Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
177 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1061 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 104 endemic)
165 Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
3431 Dicotyledons (of them 435 endemic)
207 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989 - 2006, 8 vols., complete except Ferns)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 6 (Cribb & Thomas 1997)
more country list Eritrea ERI 121.144 ++1557150825
1557All Species
1508Indigenous Species
1508Indigenous Species except Microspecies
25Endemic Species
25Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
28 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
414 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1034 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
49 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (1989 - 2006, 8 vols., complete except Ferns)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 6 (Cribb & Thomas 1997)
more country list Djibouti DJI 23.200 +62759310
627All Species
593Indigenous Species
593Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
13 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
444 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la République de Djibouti (Lebrun et al. 1990); CJB African Plant Database

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae (Pichi-Sermolli 1954 ff.)
more country list Somalia SOM 637.700 ++29712911717
2971All Species
2911Indigenous Species
2911Indigenous Species except Microspecies
717Endemic Species
717Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
24.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
15 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
558 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 102 endemic)
11 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2284 Dicotyledons (of them 614 endemic)
60 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The plants of Somalia: an overview and checklist (Kuchar 1986); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Somalia (Thulin, ed., 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1 (Thulin, ed., 1993)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Pettersson). - In: Flora of Somalia, Vol. 4 (Thulin 1995)
more country list Soqotra (incl. Abd-al-Kuri Isl., Samha Isl.) SOC 3.579 ++819783304
819All Species
783Indigenous Species
782Indigenous Species except Microspecies
304Endemic Species
303Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
37% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
162 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
587 Dicotyledons (of them 276 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
36 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Ethnoflora of Soqotra (Miller & Morris 2004)
EAST TROPICAL AFRICA (25)
more country list Uganda UGA 241.038 ++4536437668
4536All Species
4376Indigenous Species
4375Indigenous Species except Microspecies
68Endemic Species
68Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
269 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
51 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
948 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
291 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
2812 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
160 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae: in Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989)
more country list Kenya KEN 582.646 ++62816038476
6281All Species
6038Indigenous Species
6038Indigenous Species except Microspecies
476Endemic Species
476Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
278 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
62 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
1260 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 87 endemic)
259 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
4173 Dicotyledons (of them 366 endemic)
243 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989); Orchids of Kenya (Stewart 1996)
more country list Tanzania (incl. Pemba Isl., Zanzibar) TAN 945.268 ++948592071558
9485All Species
9207Indigenous Species
9207Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1558Endemic Species
1558Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
402 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 24 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
125 Basal Angiosperms (of them 41 endemic)
1752 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 178 endemic)
551 Orchids (of them 91 endemic)
6369 Dicotyledons (of them 1221 endemic)
278 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Tropical East Africa (complete in many volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Pteridophytes of Tropical East Africa (Johns 1991, Checklist)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora of Tropical East Africa (Summerhayes 1968, Cribb 1984, 1989)
SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA (26)
more country list Angola (excl. Cabinda) ANG 1.238.877 +641661711152
6416All Species
6171Indigenous Species
6171Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1152Endemic Species
1152Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
202 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
73 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
1193 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 161 endemic)
216 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
4482 Dicotyledons (of them 965 endemic)
245 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plants of Angola (Figueiredo & Smith 2008) [Checklist]; CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Conspectus florae Angolensis (Fernandes et al., eds., 1937-1993, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A provisional checklist of the Orchidaceae of Angola (Schelpe 1976)
more country list Zambia ZAM 752.614 ++60155806386
6015All Species
5806Indigenous Species
5806Indigenous Species except Microspecies
386Endemic Species
386Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
175 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
1119 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 112 endemic)
410 Orchids (of them 24 endemic)
4048 Dicotyledons (of them 248 endemic)
209 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of Zambian vascular plants (Phiri 2005); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970); Distribution and ecology of the Pteridophytes in Zambia (Kornas 1978)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in: Flora Zambesiaca (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98)
more country list Malawi MLW 118.484 ++42984200153
4298All Species
4200Indigenous Species
4200Indigenous Species except Microspecies
153Endemic Species
153Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
235 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
31 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
751 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 36 endemic)
406 Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
2774 Dicotyledons (of them 99 endemic)
98 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae in Flora Zambesiaca (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98)
more country list Zimbabwe ZIM 390.759 ++54885042218
5488All Species
5042Indigenous Species
5041Indigenous Species except Microspecies
218Endemic Species
218Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
272 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
38 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
907 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
350 Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
3468 Dicotyledons (of them 160 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
446 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants (Mapaura 2004); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Zambesiaca: Orchidaceae (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98); A list of orchids indigenous in Rhodesia (Grosvenor 1976)
more country list Mozambique MOZ 799.380 ++54555027274
5455All Species
5027Indigenous Species
5027Indigenous Species except Microspecies
274Endemic Species
274Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
225 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
54 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
757 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 32 endemic)
203 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
3769 Dicotyledons (of them 227 endemic)
428 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique (da Silva et al. 2004); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A Provisional Check-List of the Orchidaceae of Mozambique (Schelpe 1976)
SOUTH AFRICA (27)
more country list Namibia (incl. Caprivi Strip) NAM 824.269 ++40543863632
4054All Species
3863Indigenous Species
3863Indigenous Species except Microspecies
632Endemic Species
632Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
925 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 122 endemic)
19 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2846 Dicotyledons (of them 508 endemic)
191 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of Namibian Indigenous and Naturalised Plants (Klaassen & Kwembeya 2013); List of Namibian Plant Species (Kolberg et al. 1992); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrica (Merxmüller 1966-1972, very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Prodromus einer Flora von Südwestafrika, Lfg. 26 (Merxmüller, ed., 1969)
more country list Botswana BOT 581.730 ++2603248514
2603All Species
2485Indigenous Species
2485Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
49 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
651 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
27 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1745 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
118 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana (Setshogo 2005); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora Zambesiaca (Exell et al., eds., 1960-today, 48 of 50 parts published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flora Zambesiaca: Pteridophyta (Schelpe 1970); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Zambesiaca: Orchidaceae (La Croix & Cribb 1995/98); Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list South Africa SAF 1.219.090 +204541949812770
20454All Species
19498Indigenous Species
19484Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12770Endemic Species
12770Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
62.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
270 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 32 endemic)
46 Gymnosperms (of them 31 endemic)
40 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
4623 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3043 endemic)
470 Orchids (of them 255 endemic)
14049 Dicotyledons (of them 9403 endemic)
14 Microspecies (of them endemic)
956 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list Lesotho LES 30.355 +1782163237
1782All Species
1632Indigenous Species
1630Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
87 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
435 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
60 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1048 Dicotyledons (of them 27 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
150 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of Lesotho (Basutoland) (Guillarmod 1971); Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Africa (Linder & Kurzweil 1999)
more country list Eswatini [Swaziland] SWZ 17.363 +2797265337
2797All Species
2653Indigenous Species
2653Indigenous Species except Microspecies
37Endemic Species
37Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
108 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
17 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
647 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
90 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1779 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
144 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of South African Plants (Germishuizen et al. 2006); Plants of southern Africa. An annotated checklist (Roux 2003); Vascular Plants of Southern Africa: Names and Distribution (Arnold & de Wet 1993); CJB African Plant Database

Most recent flora

Flora of southern Africa (1966 ff., very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Ferns of Southern Africa (Crouch et al. 2012); Flora of Southern Africa: Pteridophyta (Schelpe & Anthony 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Flora of Swaziland: Orchidaceae (Compton 1976)
MIDDLE ATLANTIC OCEAN (28)
more country list Ascension Isl. ASC 88 +403413
40All Species
34Indigenous Species
34Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
32.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
15 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
7 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
6 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Fairhurst, W. (2004) Flowering plants of Ascension Island; A plan for the conservation of endemic and native flora of Ascension Island (Lambdon et al. 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
more country list St. Helena STH 122 ++1028251
102All Species
82Indigenous Species
82Indigenous Species except Microspecies
51Endemic Species
51Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
50% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
29 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 30 endemic)
20 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

St. Helena: Checklist of endemic & indigenous plants (Clifton 1996)

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants & Ferns of St. Helena (Lambdon 2013); The Endemic Flora of St. Helena (Cronk 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
INDIAN OCEAN (29)
more country list Madagascar MDG 587.041 +11915115099431
11915All Species
11509Indigenous Species
11509Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9431Endemic Species
9431Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
79.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
689 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 347 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
348 Basal Angiosperms (of them 330 endemic)
1558 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1022 endemic)
931 Orchids (of them 757 endemic)
7974 Dicotyledons (of them 6968 endemic)
406 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar (www.tropicos.org)

Most recent flora

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (H. Humbert, ed., 1937 ff., almost complete, but partially outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of Madagascar: annotated checklist (Du Puy et al. 1999); Orchids of Madagascar, ed. 2 (Hermans 2007)
more country list Comores (incl. Mayotte) COM 1.862 o1047997205
1047All Species
997Indigenous Species
997Indigenous Species except Microspecies
205Endemic Species
205Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
162 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 11 endemic)
167 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
93 Orchids (of them 33 endemic)
554 Dicotyledons (of them 130 endemic)
50 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (H. Humbert, ed., 1937 ff., almost complete, but partially outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of Madagascar: annotated checklist (Du Puy et al. 1999); Orchids of Madagascar, ed. 2 (Hermans 2007)
more country list Mozambique Channel Isl. (Iles Eparses p. p., incl. Ile Europa, Juan de Nova Isl.) MCI 36 +170830
170All Species
83Indigenous Species
81Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
61 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
87 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated account of the vascular flora of the Iles Eparses (Boullet et al. 2018)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, pt. 1-11,13 (Tardieu-Blot 1958-71), pt. 14 (Stefanovic et al. 1997)
more country list Mauritius (incl. Tromelin Isl.) MAU 2.040 ++19471027275
1947All Species
1027Indigenous Species
1027Indigenous Species except Microspecies
275Endemic Species
275Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
202 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
25 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
223 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 34 endemic)
97 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
479 Dicotyledons (of them 198 endemic)
920 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list La Reunion REU 2.503 ++18521083259
1852All Species
1083Indigenous Species
1083Indigenous Species except Microspecies
259Endemic Species
259Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
249 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 19 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
211 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
230 Orchids (of them 83 endemic)
369 Dicotyledons (of them 125 endemic)
769 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list Rodrigues Isl. ROD 109 ++42622344
426All Species
223Indigenous Species
223Indigenous Species except Microspecies
44Endemic Species
44Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
72 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
5 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
115 Dicotyledons (of them 35 endemic)
203 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Mascareignes (Bosser et al., eds., 1980 ff., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Guide des Fougères et planes alliées des Mascareignes (Grangeaud 2010); Flore des Mascareignes, Pteridophytes. 1. Psilotacees - 26. Marsileacees. (Bosser, Badre & Gueho, eds., 2008)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les Orchidées des Mascareignes (Szelengowicz & Tamon 2013)
more country list Iles Glorieuses (Iles Eparses p. p.) IGL 7 +128630
128All Species
63Indigenous Species
61Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
38 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
65 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An updated account of the vascular flora of the Iles Eparses (Boullet et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Agalega Isl. AGA 24 -110
1All Species
1Indigenous Species
1Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega (Fosberg et al. 1983, only historical records, no recent data) [not seen or included]

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Aldabra ALD 155 +11410121
114All Species
101Indigenous Species
100Indigenous Species except Microspecies
21Endemic Species
21Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
43 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989); Flora of Aldabra (Hemsley 1919)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Seychelles SEY 300 +81740673
817All Species
406Indigenous Species
406Indigenous Species except Microspecies
73Endemic Species
73Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
86 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
123 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
22 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
169 Dicotyledons (of them 41 endemic)
411 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flore des Seychelles: dicotyledones (Friedmann 1994); Flowering Plants of Seychelles (Robertson 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009); Les Fougères des Mascareignes et des Seychelles (Tardieu-Blot 1960)
more country list Chagos Arch. (Diego Garcia) CGS 30 ++179801
179All Species
80Indigenous Species
80Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
17 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
53 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
99 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia (Topp 1988)
TEMPERATE ASIA (3)
SIBERIA (30)
more country list Siberia (incl. Altay, Sayan, Tuva, Krasnoyarsk, Buryatia, Chita, Transbaikalia, Yakutia, Irkutsk, NE-Siberia) SIB 10.600.000 +46164539564
4616All Species
4539Indigenous Species
4341Indigenous Species except Microspecies
564Endemic Species
483Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
97 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
24 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
924 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 103 endemic)
43 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3446 Dicotyledons (of them 456 endemic)
198 Microspecies (of them 81 endemic)
77 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR / chief ed. V. L. Komarov (30 vols., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff., 3 vols. published); Flora of Siberia (Malychev, ed., 2000 ff., 14 vols., to be continued); Vascular Plants of the Russian Far East (Kharkevich, ed., 2003 ff., 1 vol. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968)
RUSSIAN FAR EAST (31)
more country list Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Amur, Ussuri, Okhotsk, Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Commander Isl., Primorye, Khabarovsk, Magadan) RFE 2.500.000 +38673574598
3867All Species
3574Indigenous Species
3456Indigenous Species except Microspecies
598Endemic Species
521Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
138 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
911 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 139 endemic)
65 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2430 Dicotyledons (of them 450 endemic)
118 Microspecies (of them 77 endemic)
293 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR / chief ed. V. L. Komarov (30 vols., 1934-1964); Flora of the Russian Arctic (Tolmachev & Yurtsev, eds., 1995 ff., 3 vols. published); Flora of Siberia (Malychev, ed., 2000 ff., 14 vols., to be continued); Vascular Plants of the Russian Far East (Kharkevich, ed., 2003 ff., 1 vol. published); Flora murmanskoj oblasti (Kirova, 5 vols., 1953-1966); Flora i paleogeografija Komandoskikh ostrovov (Vasil'ev 1957)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968)
MIDDLE ASIA (32)
more country list Kazakhstan KAZ 2.717.300 +53495161504
5349All Species
5161Indigenous Species
5030Indigenous Species except Microspecies
504Endemic Species
478Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
880 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 67 endemic)
27 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4170 Dicotyledons (of them 437 endemic)
131 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
188 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Kazakhstan (Abdulina 1999)

Most recent flora

Flora Kazakhstana (Pavlov, etc., 1956-1966, 9 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Kazakhstan SSR (Kuznetzov & Pavlov 1958); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Turkmenistan TKM 488.100 +29812848203
2981All Species
2848Indigenous Species
2828Indigenous Species except Microspecies
203Endemic Species
199Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
542 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
14 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2261 Dicotyledons (of them 173 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
133 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published); Flora Turkmenii (Fedtschenko et al., eds., 1932-60); Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Opredelitelja Rastenii Turkmenistana (Key to the Plants of Turkmenistan) (Nikitin & Geldichanov 1988)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) (Kopet Dagh only)
more country list Uzbekistan UZB 447.700 o41703792259
4170All Species
3792Indigenous Species
3754Indigenous Species except Microspecies
259Endemic Species
255Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
666 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3082 Dicotyledons (of them 203 endemic)
38 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
378 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Sennikov et al. (Checklist, in prep.)

Most recent flora

Flora Uzbekistana (Schreder et al., eds., 1953-62, 6 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Uzbekistana, Vol. 1 (Schreder et al. 1953)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae (Czerniakowska). - In: Flora Uzbekistanica I (Schreiber, ed., 1941); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Kyrgyzstan (Kirgisia) KGZ 198.500 +37323654334
3732All Species
3654Indigenous Species
3549Indigenous Species except Microspecies
334Endemic Species
320Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
615 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 57 endemic)
12 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2989 Dicotyledons (of them 277 endemic)
105 Microspecies (of them 14 endemic)
78 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan (Lazkov & Sultanova 2011)

Most recent flora

Flora Kirghiszkoj SSR (Vykhotsev 1967-70, incomplete); Nikitina (1995); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff., 14 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Kirgistan III (Shishkin & Vvedensky 1951); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
more country list Tajikistan TZK 143.100 o46964452527
4696All Species
4452Indigenous Species
4368Indigenous Species except Microspecies
527Endemic Species
501Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
28 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
746 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 68 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3656 Dicotyledons (of them 458 endemic)
84 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
244 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas (Nowak & Nobis 2020, only about 30% covered); Flora Tadzikskoj SSR (Ovchinnikov et al., ed., 1957 - 1991, 10 vols.); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Plants of Central Asia (Grubov, ed., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Tadjikskoj SSSR, Vol. 1 (Ovchinnikov 1957)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Tadshikistan (Ovchinnikov 1963); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 7 (2003) (Grubov, ed.)
CAUCASUS (33)
more country list Northern Caucasus (incl. Chechnya, Daghestan, etc.) NCS 200.000 +41523913352
4152All Species
3913Indigenous Species
3811Indigenous Species except Microspecies
352Endemic Species
316Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
751 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 40 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
3033 Dicotyledons (of them 311 endemic)
102 Microspecies (of them 36 endemic)
239 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007, Checklist); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Russia (Tatarenko 1996); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (Czerepanov 2007); Orchidaceae (Smoljaninova 1976). In: Flora of Russia, Vol. II (Fedorov, ed., engl. ed. 1999); Orkhidei nachei strany (Vakhrameeva et al. 1991)
more country list Gruziya [Georgia - Caucasus] (incl. Abkhazia, Adzharia) GEO 69.700 +40083739215
4008All Species
3739Indigenous Species
3625Indigenous Species except Microspecies
215Endemic Species
184Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
75 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
691 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 17 endemic)
47 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2910 Dicotyledons (of them 197 endemic)
114 Microspecies (of them 31 endemic)
269 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Georgia - A Nomenclatural Checklist (Gagnidze 2005); Conspectus Flora Kavkaza (Takhtajan 2003-2012, 4 of 5 vols. published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Georgia (in Georgian), Vol. 1 (1971), Vol. 2 (2007); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964); Illustrated Field Guide to the Flora of Georgia (South Caucasus) (Fischer et al. 2018)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Vascular Plants of Georgia - A Nomenclatural Checklist (Gagnidze 2005)
more country list Armenia ARM 29.800 +35303450148
3530All Species
3450Indigenous Species
3377Indigenous Species except Microspecies
148Endemic Species
132Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
44 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
663 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
40 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2691 Dicotyledons (of them 128 endemic)
73 Microspecies (of them 16 endemic)
80 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Flora of Armenia (Saghatelyan, unpubl.); Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Armenii (ed. A. L. Tahtadzjiana) (11 vols., 1954-2011); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [S-Aserbaidshan, Talysh-Region]
more country list Azerbaijan (incl. Talysh, incl. Nakhichevan) AZE 81.100 +37113564134
3711All Species
3564Indigenous Species
3509Indigenous Species except Microspecies
134Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
752 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
37 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2706 Dicotyledons (of them 112 endemic)
55 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
147 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Caucasian Flora Conspectus (Takhtajan 2003-2012) (4 of 5 volumes published); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Azerbaidzana (2 vols. published, 1953-1957); Flora of the USSR (Komarov et al., 1934-1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the U.S.S.R., Bd. IV (Nevskii 1935/1968); Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [Talysh region only]; Orchidaceae (Karjagin). - In: Flora of Aserbaidshan II (1952)
WESTERN ASIA (34)
more country list Eastern Aegaean Islands (Karpathos, Kasos, Rhodos, Kos, Symi, Samos, Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Limnos etc.) EAI 7.000 ++2405225075
2405All Species
2250Indigenous Species
2235Indigenous Species except Microspecies
75Endemic Species
75Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
468 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
54 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1677 Dicotyledons (of them 59 endemic)
15 Microspecies (of them endemic)
155 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Atlas of the Aegaean Flora (Strid 2016); Dimopoulos et al. (2013, 2016); Checklist updating and analysis of the flora of Symi island and of the nearby island of Seskli (Cattaneo & Grano 2019); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Hellenica (Strid & Kit Tan, eds., 1997 ff.); Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000); Flora von Rhodos and Chalki (Kleinsteuber et al., 2016 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen von Kreta und Karpathos (Alibertis 1997); Orchideen auf Rhodos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001); Orchideen auf Kreta, Karpathos & Kasos (Kretzschmar & Eccarius 2001)
more country list Turkey (excl. European Turkey) TUR 756.816 ++986997043399
9869All Species
9704Indigenous Species
9527Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3399Endemic Species
3327Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
33.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
98 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
33 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
1595 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 511 endemic)
91 Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
7866 Dicotyledons (of them 2861 endemic)
177 Microspecies (of them 72 endemic)
165 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean Islands (Davis et al., eds., 1965-2000, 9 vols. + 2 supplement volumes, complete); Flowers of Turkey - A photo guide (Pils 2006)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey and the east Aegaean Islands, Vol. 8 (Renz & Taubenheim 1984); Die Orchideen der Türkei (Kreutz 1999); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Turkey, Vol. 11 (Supplement (Kreutz 2000); Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982)
more country list Iraq IRQ 438.317 +30142969177
3014All Species
2969Indigenous Species
2950Indigenous Species except Microspecies
177Endemic Species
174Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
557 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
23 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2362 Dicotyledons (of them 164 endemic)
19 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
45 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Iraq (1966-1980, incomplete); Flora of Lowland Iraq (Rechinger, ed., 1964)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Iraq, Vol. 8 (Wood 1985)
more country list Iran IRN 1.648.000 ++795178802618
7951All Species
7880Indigenous Species
7798Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2618Endemic Species
2592Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
32.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
59 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
5 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
1042 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 173 endemic)
43 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6712 Dicotyledons (of them 2439 endemic)
82 Microspecies (of them 26 endemic)
71 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010, 178 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978)
more country list Afghanistan AFG 652.225 ++43844277885
4384All Species
4277Indigenous Species
4228Indigenous Species except Microspecies
885Endemic Species
878Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
715 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 63 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3480 Dicotyledons (of them 822 endemic)
49 Microspecies (of them 7 endemic)
107 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular plants of Afghanistan: an augmented checklist (Breckle et al. 2013); Checklist of the Flowering plants of Afghanistan (Podlech 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora Iranica (Rechinger, ed., 1963-2010, 178 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978)
more country list Cyprus CYP 9.251 ++17081621113
1708All Species
1621Indigenous Species
1610Indigenous Species except Microspecies
113Endemic Species
110Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
23 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
325 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 25 endemic)
38 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1222 Dicotyledons (of them 85 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
87 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 1/2 (Meikle 1977, 1985); An Illustrated Flora of North Cyprus, Vol. 2 (Viney 1996); Illustrated Flora of Cyprus (Christofides 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Orchidaceae (J. J. Wood). - In: Flora of Cyprus, Vol. 2 (Meikle 1985); Orchids of Cyprus (Morschek & Morschek 1996)
more country list Lebanon LEB 10.230 +26992632119
2699All Species
2632Indigenous Species
2619Indigenous Species except Microspecies
119Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
32 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
472 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2075 Dicotyledons (of them 98 endemic)
13 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
67 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie (Mouterde, 1966/1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie I (Mouterde 1966); Die Orchideen der Levante (Fragman & Kretzschmar, in prep.)
more country list Syria SYR 185.180 +2872282990
2872All Species
2829Indigenous Species
2819Indigenous Species except Microspecies
90Endemic Species
90Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
16 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
478 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2281 Dicotyledons (of them 62 endemic)
10 Microspecies (of them endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie (Mouterde, 1966/1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, Vol. I (Mouterde 1966); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982)
more country list Israel + Palestine ISR 21.946 +2461235361
2461All Species
2353Indigenous Species
2350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
61Endemic Species
61Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
478 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1813 Dicotyledons (of them 43 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
108 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.); EURO + MED PLANTBASE (www.emplantbase.org)

Most recent flora

Flora Palaestina (4 + 4 vols., 1966-1987, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Annotated List of the Orchids of Israel (Dafni et al. 1986); Orchids of Israel (Dafni 1981); Flora Palestina, pt. IV (Feinbrun-Dothan 1986)
more country list Sinai peninsula SIN 61.000 +1336129931
1336All Species
1299Indigenous Species
1299Indigenous Species except Microspecies
31Endemic Species
31Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
264 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1019 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
37 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Egypt (Boulos, ed., 1999-2005)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchideen - Die wildwachsenden Arten und Unterarten Europas, Vorderasiens und Nordafrikas (Buttler 1986); Die wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas (Baumann & Künkele 1982); Flora of Egypt, Vol. 1: Azollaceae - Oxalidaceae (Boulos 1999)
more country list Jordania JOR 89.556 +1625159429
1625All Species
1594Indigenous Species
1590Indigenous Species except Microspecies
29Endemic Species
29Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
274 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1294 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
31 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Jordan (Al-Eisawi 1986)
ARABIAN PENINSULA (35)
more country list Saudi Arabia SAU 2.240.000 +2119203985
2119All Species
2039Indigenous Species
2039Indigenous Species except Microspecies
85Endemic Species
85Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
26 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
411 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1584 Dicotyledons (of them 62 endemic)
80 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Saudi-Arabia (3 vols., 3rd ed., Migahid 1988-1989); Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Chaudhary, ed., 2001 ff.); Flora of Eastern Saudi-Arabia (Mandaville 1990)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986); Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.), Vol. 6 (Heller & Heyn 1991); Flora of Eastern Saudi-Arabia (MANDAVILLE 1990); Orchidaceae, in: Flora of Saudi-Arabia, 3. Aufl. (MIGAHID 1989)
more country list Kuwait KUW 17.820 ++3983911
398All Species
391Indigenous Species
391Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
90 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
298 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of Kuwait (2 vols., 1985-1987, complete); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)
more country list Bahrain BAR 707 +2782680
278All Species
268Indigenous Species
268Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
57 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
207 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Qatar QAT 11.427 ++3973150
397All Species
315Indigenous Species
315Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
74 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
239 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
82 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

The Flora of Qatar (2 vols., Abd el Bary & Ekhlas 2012); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list United Arab Emirates (incl. Dubai, Abu Dhabi) UAE 83.600 +3793621
379All Species
362Indigenous Species
362Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
107 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
251 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
17 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Oman OMA 309.500 ++11031062104
1103All Species
1062Indigenous Species
1062Indigenous Species except Microspecies
104Endemic Species
104Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
9.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
221 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 12 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
807 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
41 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman (Ghazanfar 1992)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Sultanate of Oman (Ghazanfar et al., 4 vols. 2003-2018, complete); Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
more country list Yemen (excl. Soqotra) YEM 527.970 +20751981212
2075All Species
1981Indigenous Species
1981Indigenous Species except Microspecies
212Endemic Species
212Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
438 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 26 endemic)
18 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1469 Dicotyledons (of them 186 endemic)
94 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus Florae Orientalis (Zohary et al., 1980-1994, 9 vols.)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra (Miller & Cope, 2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Arabia (Cribb 1979, in Kew Bull. 33); New records of Orchidaceae for Arabia (Cribb 1986)
CHINA (36)
more country list China (incl. Hongkong, Macao and Hainan; excl. Tibet, Taiwan and South China Sea Isl.) CHI 8.351.300 ++310472998814222
31047All Species
29988Indigenous Species
29686Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14222Endemic Species
14002Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
45.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1919 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 608 endemic)
172 Gymnosperms (of them 52 endemic)
950 Basal Angiosperms (of them 545 endemic)
4361 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1959 endemic)
1335 Orchids (of them 470 endemic)
21251 Dicotyledons (of them 10588 endemic)
302 Microspecies (of them 220 endemic)
1059 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete, plus many picture volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 2-6); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999])

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Native Orchids of China in Colour (Singchi = Xinqi et al. 1998)
more country list Tibet [Xizang] TIB 1.220.000 ++684967981011
6849All Species
6798Indigenous Species
6731Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1011Endemic Species
991Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
496 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
51 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
94 Basal Angiosperms (of them 18 endemic)
847 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 76 endemic)
288 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
5022 Dicotyledons (of them 883 endemic)
67 Microspecies (of them 20 endemic)
51 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete, plus many picture volumes)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 2-6); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999])

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Native Orchids of China in Colour (Singchi = Xinqi et al. 1998)
MONGOLIA (37)
more country list Mongolia MON 1.566.500 ++28522812148
2852All Species
2812Indigenous Species
2743Indigenous Species except Microspecies
148Endemic Species
138Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
50 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
523 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
25 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2191 Dicotyledons (of them 139 endemic)
69 Microspecies (of them 10 endemic)
40 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Conspectus of the vascular plants of Mongolia (Urgamal et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia (Grubov 1982); Plants of Central Asia, Vol. 1 (Grubov 1963 [transl. 1999]); Flowers of Mongolia (Hauck & Solongo 2010)
EASTERN ASIA (38)
more country list North Korea NKO 120.500 ++1901189823
1901All Species
1898Indigenous Species
1896Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
103 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
500 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1226 Dicotyledons (of them 16 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
3 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF) (Chang et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Illustrated flora of Korea (Lee 1979, 2 vols.); Flora of Korea (No Lee 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee 1985)
more country list South Korea (incl. Cheju Do Isl.) KOR 99.300 ++29902357129
2990All Species
2357Indigenous Species
2352Indigenous Species except Microspecies
129Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
274 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
536 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
85 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1408 Dicotyledons (of them 90 endemic)
5 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
633 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF) (Chang et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Illustrated flora of Korea (Lee 1979, 2 vols.); Flora of Korea (No Lee 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee 1985)
more country list Japan (incl. Izu Isl., Yakushima Isl., excl. Ryukyu Isl. and Bonin Isl.) JAP 372.769 ++526848251348
5268All Species
4825Indigenous Species
4808Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1348Endemic Species
1340Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
672 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 106 endemic)
41 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
101 Basal Angiosperms (of them 53 endemic)
1099 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 287 endemic)
196 Orchids (of them 37 endemic)
2716 Dicotyledons (of them 858 endemic)
17 Microspecies (of them 8 endemic)
443 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Japan (revised edition, Iwatsuki et al., eds., 1995 ff., 7 of 8 parts published, last part planned for 2020)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Japan (Ohwi 1965)
more country list Ryukyu Isl. (Nansei Shoto) (incl. Osumi Isl., Tokara Isl., Amami Isl., Okinawa Isl., Daito Isl., Sakishima Isl.) NNS 4.700 ++20521813117
2052All Species
1813Indigenous Species
1811Indigenous Species except Microspecies
117Endemic Species
117Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
310 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 11 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
48 Basal Angiosperms (of them 14 endemic)
398 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
130 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
919 Dicotyledons (of them 67 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
239 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Okinawa and the Southern Ryukyu Islands (Walker 1976)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Southern Ryukyu Islands (Garay & Sweet 1974) [incl. checklist of northern Ryukyu Isl.]
more country list Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Isl.) OGA 73 ++48335073
483All Species
350Indigenous Species
350Indigenous Species except Microspecies
73Endemic Species
73Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
15.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
71 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
173 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
133 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands (Kobayashi & Ono 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bonin Islands (Toyoda 1981)
more country list Kazan-Retto (Volcano Isl., Iwo-jima) KZN 30 ++2501888
250All Species
188Indigenous Species
188Indigenous Species except Microspecies
8Endemic Species
8Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
55 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
46 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
77 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A revised list of vascular plants indigenous and introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands (Kobayashi & Ono 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bonin Islands (Toyoda 1981)
more country list Taiwan (incl. Lan Yu Isl.) TAI 36.000 ++53724329927
5372All Species
4329Indigenous Species
4318Indigenous Species except Microspecies
927Endemic Species
917Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
17.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
752 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 81 endemic)
26 Gymnosperms (of them 8 endemic)
113 Basal Angiosperms (of them 40 endemic)
701 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
409 Orchids (of them 144 endemic)
2328 Dicotyledons (of them 557 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 10 endemic)
1043 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Taiwan (Li et al., eds., 1975-2003); Flora of China (Zheng-Yi & Raven, eds., 1994-2013, 25 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Updating Taiwanese pteridophyte checklist (Taiwan Pteridophyte Group 2019); Index to Ferns and Fern Allies of Taiwan (Knapp 2014); Ferns of Taiwan (Ralf Knapp 2010, with supplement 2013); Flora of China, vol. 2/3 (2013); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 1-6, 1990 ff.); Flora of Taiwan, Vol. 1 (2nd. ed., 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of China, Vol. 25 (Orchidaceae) (Xinqi et al.); Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (Vol. 17-19, 1999); Flora of Taiwan (Li et al., 1975-79); Native Orchids of Taiwan (Lin 1975-1987, 3 vols.)
TROPICAL ASIA (4)
INDIAN SUBCONTINENT (40)
more country list Pakistan PAK 796.095 +53244722316
5324All Species
4722Indigenous Species
4652Indigenous Species except Microspecies
316Endemic Species
293Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
141 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
23 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
884 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 22 endemic)
41 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
3621 Dicotyledons (of them 293 endemic)
70 Microspecies (of them 23 endemic)
602 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir (Stewart 1972)

Most recent flora

Flora of West Pakistan (Nasir, ed., 1970 ff., 217 vols., mostly complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Iranica, Vol. 126 (Renz 1978) [only northern and western part]; Flora of Pakistan, no. 164 (Renz 1984)
more country list Nepal NEP 147.181 +62805905370
6280All Species
5905Indigenous Species
5861Indigenous Species except Microspecies
370Endemic Species
366Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
562 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
919 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 44 endemic)
393 Orchids (of them 25 endemic)
3915 Dicotyledons (of them 295 endemic)
44 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
375 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Nepalese Flowering Plants (3 vols., Rajbhandari et al. 2012, plus supplement 2015)

Most recent flora

Flora of Nepal (publication ongoing, only vol. 3 published [Watson et al., ed., 2011]; Handbook of Flowering Plants of Nepal (Vol. 1 of 2, Shrestha et al. 2018); Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, 3 of 50 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Fraser-Jenkins et al. (2015-2020): Ferns and Fern-allies of Nepal, Volume 1-3 (complete); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997); An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal (Press, Shrestha & Sutton 2001); The Orchids of Nepal Himalaya (Banerji & Pradhan 1984); Orchids of Nepal (Banerji 1978)
more country list Bhutan BHU 47.000 ++49814702156
4981All Species
4702Indigenous Species
4685Indigenous Species except Microspecies
156Endemic Species
154Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
537 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
19 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
105 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
678 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
383 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
2980 Dicotyledons (of them 127 endemic)
17 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
279 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bhutan (Grierson & Long, eds., 1983-2002, 9 vols., complete); Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, few volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Bhutan (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2009); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Bhutan, Vol. 3.3 (Orchidaceae) (2001)
more country list India (incl. Assam, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Chumbi, Jammu & Kashmir, excl. Andaman and Nicobar Isl., excl. Lakshadweep Isl.) IND 3.279.173 o17894167424591
17894All Species
16742Indigenous Species
16544Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4591Endemic Species
4483Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1032 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 46 endemic)
62 Gymnosperms (of them 20 endemic)
497 Basal Angiosperms (of them 231 endemic)
3045 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 979 endemic)
1227 Orchids (of them 371 endemic)
10879 Dicotyledons (of them 2944 endemic)
198 Microspecies (of them 108 endemic)
1152 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flowering Plants of India (Checklist, Karthikeyan et al. 2009, 1 of ca. 10 vols. published); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of India (Sharma et al., eds., 1993 ff., 8 of 23 vols. published); Fascicles of Flora of India (1978 ff., 26 vols. published); numerous regional floras in India; Flora of the Pan-Himalayas (just started, few volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018), Part III (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2020); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); New Species Syndrome in Indian Pteridology and the ferns of Nepal (Fraser-Jenkins 1997); Illustrated Manual of Ferns of Assam (Borthakur et al. 2000); The Ferns of India: Enumeration, Synonyms and Distribution (Chandra 2000); Fern flora of South India (Nampy & Madhusoodanan 1998); An illustrated fern flora of West Himalaya. Vol. 1-2 (Khullar 1994/2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A catalogue of Indian Orchids (Sathish Kumar & Manilal 1994); Orchid flora of Arunachal Pradesh (Chowdhery 1998); Orchids of India (2nd ed.) (Bose et al. 1999); Orchids of Kumaon Himalaya (Pangtey et al. 1991); Orchids of Meghalaya (Kataki 1986); Orchids of Mussoorie (Raizada et al. 1981); Orchids of Nagaland (Deorani & Naithani 1995); Orchids of Nagaland (Hynniewta et al. 2000); Orchids of Nilgiris (2nd. ed., Joseph 1987); Orchids of Western Ghats (Kumar 1995); Flora of Hassan District Karnataka (Saldanha et al. 1976); The Orchids of Bombay (Santapau & Kapadia 1966); The Orchid Flora of NW-Himalaya (Deva & Naithani 1986); Monocotyledonous Plants of Uttar Pradesh: A Checklist (Uniyal et al. 1999)
more country list Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives) LDV 32 ++3431870
343All Species
187Indigenous Species
187Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
45 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
136 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
156 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plant Diversity of Lakshadweep Islands (C. S. Reddy & P. S. Roy 2012)
more country list Maldives MDV 298 o3621920
362All Species
192Indigenous Species
192Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
53 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
131 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
170 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

List of Addu vascular plants (Fosberg et al. 1966)
more country list Sri Lanka SRL 65.610 ++42853610890
4285All Species
3610Indigenous Species
3609Indigenous Species except Microspecies
890Endemic Species
890Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
333 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 37 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
110 Basal Angiosperms (of them 50 endemic)
724 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 96 endemic)
197 Orchids (of them 62 endemic)
2244 Dicotyledons (of them 644 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
675 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon (Dassayanake, ed., 1980-2006, 15 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon, vol. 15/1-2 (Shaffer-Fehre, ed., 2006); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); An annotated check-list of the Pteridophytes of Ceylon (Sledge 1982)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae, Apostasiaceae (Jayaweera). In: A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, Vol. 2 (Dassanayake, ed., 1981)
more country list Bangladesh BAN 147.570 o3280285633
3280All Species
2856Indigenous Species
2856Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
218 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
87 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
451 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
162 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1931 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
424 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bangladesh (Khan, ed., 1975 ff., partially published); Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, vols. 5-12 (Ahmed, ed., 2007-2009, complete) [only 5 of 8 volumes seen and included]

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh, vol. 5 (2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Bangladesh, vol. ##
INDOCHINA (41)
more country list Andaman Isl. AND 6.496 +20241663153
2024All Species
1663Indigenous Species
1663Indigenous Species except Microspecies
153Endemic Species
153Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
80 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
92 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
293 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
97 Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
1092 Dicotyledons (of them 89 endemic)
361 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Checklist, Dagar & Singh 1999); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Hajra et al., eds., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); Pteridophytes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dixit 2001)
more country list Nicobar Isl. NCB 1.800 +1468120864
1468All Species
1208Indigenous Species
1208Indigenous Species except Microspecies
64Endemic Species
64Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
94 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
61 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
229 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
59 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
758 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
260 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Plant Resources of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Checklist, Dagar & Singh 1999); Checklist of the Grasses of India (Kellogg et al. 2020)

Most recent flora

Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (Hajra et al., eds., 1999 ff.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Annotated Checklist of Indian Pteridophytes, Part I (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2017), Part II (Fraser-Jenkins et al. 2018); Taxonomic Revision of Three Hundred Indian Subcontinental Pterophytes With a Revised Census-List (Fraser-Jenkins 2008); Pteridophytes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dixit 2001); Flora of Great Nicobar Island (Sinha 1999)
more country list Myanmar MYA 676.552 +1082799801134
10827All Species
9980Indigenous Species
9972Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1134Endemic Species
1132Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
746 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 9 endemic)
41 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
379 Basal Angiosperms (of them 69 endemic)
1462 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 140 endemic)
1026 Orchids (of them 107 endemic)
6326 Dicotyledons (of them 807 endemic)
8 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
847 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar (Kress et al. 2003); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A Contribution Toward the Knowledge of Ferns and Lycophytes from Northern and Northwestern Myanmar (Khine et al. 2017); The ferns of Burma (Dickason 1946)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

An annotated checklist of Myanmar orchid flora (Aung et al. 2020)
more country list Thailand THA 513.115 +10815103931946
10815All Species
10393Indigenous Species
10393Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1946Endemic Species
1946Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
755 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 31 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
449 Basal Angiosperms (of them 139 endemic)
1937 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 407 endemic)
1222 Orchids (of them 168 endemic)
5993 Dicotyledons (of them 1195 endemic)
422 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Thailand (Smitinand et al., eds., 1981-2020, ca. 60% complete, to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Flora of Thailand, Vol. 3/1-4 (Tagawa & Iwatsuki 1979-1989); Pteridophytes in Thailand (Boonkeerd & Pollawatn 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Contributions to the Orchid Flora of Thailand / Orchid Genera in Thailand, 1-13 (Seidenfaden 1972-1998); A Field Guide to the Wild Orchids of Thailand (Vaddhanaphuti 2001); Flora of Thailand, Vol. 12/1 (Orchidaceae 1) (Pedersen et al. 2011); Flora of Thailand, Vol. 12/2 (Orchidaceae 2) (Pedersen et al. 2014)
more country list Laos LAO 236.800 +56765355316
5676All Species
5355Indigenous Species
5355Indigenous Species except Microspecies
316Endemic Species
316Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
287 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
34 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
219 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
879 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 94 endemic)
526 Orchids (of them 33 endemic)
3410 Dicotyledons (of them 176 endemic)
321 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of Plants in Lao PDR (Jin et al. 2016, very data deficient); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992)
more country list Cambodia CBD 181.035 +43604039130
4360All Species
4039Indigenous Species
4039Indigenous Species except Microspecies
130Endemic Species
130Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
204 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
171 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
688 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 19 endemic)
297 Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
2662 Dicotyledons (of them 87 endemic)
321 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia (Cho et al. 2016); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2012 onwards). Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/; Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992)
more country list Vietnam VIE 331.690 +11767110392507
11767All Species
11039Indigenous Species
11038Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2507Endemic Species
2507Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
873 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 65 endemic)
63 Gymnosperms (of them 16 endemic)
617 Basal Angiosperms (of them 176 endemic)
1556 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 497 endemic)
1085 Orchids (of them 293 endemic)
6845 Dicotyledons (of them 1460 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
728 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Câyco Viêtnam (Pham Hoàng Hô, 1991-1993, 6 vols., complete); Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam (Leroy, ed., 1960-2014, 35 vols. published, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Fougeres (de la Flore Generale de l'Indochine) (Tardieu-Blot & Christensen 1939-1951); Cay Co Vietnam (An Illustrated Flora of Vietnam), vol. 1 (Pham-Hoang Ho (1991)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Orchids of Indochina (Seidenfaden 1992); Identification Guide to Vietnamese Orchids (Averyanov 1994); Preliminary List of the Vietnamese Orchids, Vol. 1-2 (Averyanov 1988); Updated Checklist of the Orchids of Vietnam (Averyanov & Averyanova 2004)
MALESIA (42)
more country list peninsular Malaysia (incl. Langkawi Isl.) MLY 132.246 +924589682014
9245All Species
8968Indigenous Species
8968Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2014Endemic Species
2014Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
691 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 45 endemic)
34 Gymnosperms (of them 7 endemic)
652 Basal Angiosperms (of them 192 endemic)
1352 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 317 endemic)
931 Orchids (of them 186 endemic)
5308 Dicotyledons (of them 1267 endemic)
277 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya (Turner 1995 publ. 1997); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of peninsular Malaysia (Parris, Kiew, eds., 2010 ff., 5 vols. published, to be continued); Flora Malesiana

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series I: Ferns and Lycophytes, Vol. 1 (2010), 2 (2013) (Parris et al., eds.) (to be continued); A revised Flora of Malaya II: Ferns of Malaya, ed. 2 (Holttum 1966)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992)
more country list Singapore SNG 710 ++2640219416
2640All Species
2194Indigenous Species
2194Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
171 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
180 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
321 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
224 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1290 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
446 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore (Chong et al. 2009)

Most recent flora

The concise flora of Singapore (Keng, 2 vols., 1990, 1998); Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series I: Ferns and Lycophytes, Vol. 1 (2010), 2 (2013) (Parris et al., eds.) (to be continued); A Guide to the Ferns of Singapore (Wee 1987)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992); A Guide to the Orchids of Singapore (Tan & Sin 1995)
more country list Sumatera (incl. Mentawai, Enggano, Nias, Simeulue, Lingga Arch., Krakatau, Bangka, Belitung, Batu) SUM 425.150 o752374022024
7523All Species
7402Indigenous Species
7402Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2024Endemic Species
2024Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
748 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 135 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
444 Basal Angiosperms (of them 127 endemic)
918 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 276 endemic)
1165 Orchids (of them 481 endemic)
4090 Dicotyledons (of them 1003 endemic)
121 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sumatra (Comber 2001)
more country list South China Sea Isl. SCS 2 -41310
41All Species
31Indigenous Species
31Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
20 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
more country list Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan, incl. Natuna Isl., Riouw Arch., excl. Brunei) BOR 743.384 o12424122455378
12424All Species
12245Indigenous Species
12245Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5378Endemic Species
5378Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
43.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1011 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 264 endemic)
60 Gymnosperms (of them 18 endemic)
791 Basal Angiosperms (of them 293 endemic)
1673 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 932 endemic)
1722 Orchids (of them 932 endemic)
6988 Dicotyledons (of them 2939 endemic)
179 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Enumeratio Phanerogamarum Bornearum (Masamune 1942, 1945); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far); The plants of Mount Kinabalu (2 vols. published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Plants of Mt. Kinabalu, vol. 1 (Ferns and Fern Allies) (Parris et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

A Checklist of the Orchids of Borneo (Wood & Cribb 1994); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 1 (Chan et al. 1994); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 2 (Vermeulen 1991); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 3 (Wood 1997); Orchids of Borneo, Vol. 4 (Wood 2003); Bulbophyllum of Borneo (Vermeulen, O'Byrne & Lamb 2015)
more country list Brunei BRN 5.765 +24992463104
2499All Species
2463Indigenous Species
2463Indigenous Species except Microspecies
104Endemic Species
104Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
18 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
285 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
166 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
225 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
1759 Dicotyledons (of them 59 endemic)
36 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam (Wong & Dransfield, ed., 1996)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Plants of Mt. Kinabalu, vol. 1 (Ferns and Fern Allies) (Parris et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Wood). In: A Checklist of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Brunei Darussalam (Wong & Dransfield, ed., 1996)
more country list Sulawesi (Celebes) (incl. Selayar, Banggai, Sangihe, Kabaena) SUL 189.070 -505048801351
5050All Species
4880Indigenous Species
4880Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1351Endemic Species
1351Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
789 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 87 endemic)
33 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
200 Basal Angiosperms (of them 55 endemic)
627 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 201 endemic)
666 Orchids (of them 381 endemic)
2565 Dicotyledons (of them 626 endemic)
170 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of woody plants of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Keßler et al. 2002); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Hovenkamp, P. (2013 onwards): Ferns of Sulawesi - Checklist. sulawesiferns.myspecies.info

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Palawan (incl. Busuanga, Culion) PLW 14.649 o15221514220
1522All Species
1514Indigenous Species
1514Indigenous Species except Microspecies
220Endemic Species
220Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
231 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
81 Basal Angiosperms (of them 10 endemic)
219 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
948 Dicotyledons (of them 173 endemic)
8 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.philippineplants.org

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Checklist by J. F. Barcelona (pers. comm.)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidiana Philippiniana (Valmayor 1984); The Orchids of the Philippines (Cootes 2001) (contains checklist)
more country list Philippines (excl. Palawan, Sulu Arch.) PHI 325.000 +951088174363
9510All Species
8817Indigenous Species
8817Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4363Endemic Species
4363Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
45.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1020 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 244 endemic)
38 Gymnosperms (of them 11 endemic)
400 Basal Angiosperms (of them 225 endemic)
1040 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 348 endemic)
1199 Orchids (of them 837 endemic)
5120 Dicotyledons (of them 2698 endemic)
693 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.philippineplants.org

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines (www.philippineplants.org); Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna, Vol. 2 (Zamora & Co 1986)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidiana Philippiniana (Valmayor 1984); The Orchids of the Philippines (Cootes 2001) (contains checklist)
more country list Jawa (incl. Madura Isl., Kangean Arch., Bawean) JAW 130.520 o68065492796
6806All Species
5492Indigenous Species
5490Indigenous Species except Microspecies
796Endemic Species
795Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
556 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 45 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
227 Basal Angiosperms (of them 31 endemic)
798 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 97 endemic)
787 Orchids (of them 190 endemic)
3109 Dicotyledons (of them 433 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
1314 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Java (Backer & van den Brink, 1963-1968, outdated); Flora Malesiana (about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Java (Comber 1991)
more country list Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba, Timor, Alor, Wetar) [incl. East Timor] LSI 80.000 o29262732338
2926All Species
2732Indigenous Species
2732Indigenous Species except Microspecies
338Endemic Species
338Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
369 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
58 Basal Angiosperms (of them 11 endemic)
415 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
205 Orchids (of them 50 endemic)
1670 Dicotyledons (of them 234 endemic)
194 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of Bali - a provisional checklist (van Balgooy et al. 2014) [not seen nor included]

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The Ferns of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Posthumus 1944); On the Ferns of Sumba (Posthumus 1930); A preliminary Study on Pteridophytes of Lombok: List of the Species (Wardani & Jaenudin 2013)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Timor: checklist (Silveira et al. 2008); Flora of Bali - a provisional checklist (van Balgooy et al. 2014 [not seen nor included]); Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Moluccas [Maluku] (Tanimbar, Kei, Aru, Banda, Ambon, Seram, Buru, Obi, Bacan, Halmaheira, Ternate, Tidore, Morotai, Talaud, Sulu Arch.) MOL 74.500 o39963871670
3996All Species
3871Indigenous Species
3871Indigenous Species except Microspecies
670Endemic Species
670Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
690 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 92 endemic)
30 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
190 Basal Angiosperms (of them 43 endemic)
476 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 65 endemic)
443 Orchids (of them 173 endemic)
2042 Dicotyledons (of them 297 endemic)
125 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); Taxonomic Studies of Pteridophytes of Ambon and Seram (Moluccas) (in 12 parts) (Kato 1988-2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Sulawesi and Maluku: a preliminary Catalogue (Thomas & Schuiteman 2002)
more country list Cocos (Keeling) Islands CKI 14 ++129740
129All Species
74Indigenous Species
74Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
21 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
52 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Christmas Isl. (Austr.) XMS 135 ++38121918
381All Species
219Indigenous Species
219Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
29 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
162 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
PAPUASIA (43)
more country list New Guinea (Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea, incl. d'Entrecasteaux Isl., Goodenough Isl., Louisiade Arch., Rennell, Yapen, Biak, Waigeu Islands etc.) NWG 800.000 -14325140279289
14325All Species
14027Indigenous Species
14027Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9289Endemic Species
9289Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
64.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1327 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 612 endemic)
64 Gymnosperms (of them 20 endemic)
811 Basal Angiosperms (of them 621 endemic)
1792 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 955 endemic)
2835 Orchids (of them 2379 endemic)
7198 Dicotyledons (of them 4702 endemic)
298 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far), Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea (3 vols. published, outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued); The ferns and fern-allies of Papua New Guinea (Johns & Bellamy, 1979 ff., in 12 parts); A Checklist of the Fern Allies, Ferns and Gymnosperms of the N. E. Kepala Burung (Vogelkop), Irian Jaya, Indonesia (Edwards, Johns & Kowalska 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of Papuasian Orchids (Ormerod 2017); A. Schuiteman & Ed de Vogel (2001-2010, CD-ROM): Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea: illustrated checklist and genera. Part 1: Checklist and genera (2001). Part 2: Genus Dendrobium and allied genera (2002). Part 3: Genera Acanthephippium to Hymenorchis (2005). Part 4: Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella (2006). Part 5: Genera Pachystoma to Zeuxine (2008). Part 6: Genus Bulbophyllum (2010).
more country list Bismarck Arch. (New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover, Admirality Isl., Manus Isl., Umboi, etc.) BIS 48.500 - -14441425251
1444All Species
1425Indigenous Species
1425Indigenous Species except Microspecies
251Endemic Species
251Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
17.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
260 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 17 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
52 Basal Angiosperms (of them 15 endemic)
163 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 52 endemic)
260 Orchids (of them 52 endemic)
674 Dicotyledons (of them 115 endemic)
19 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Malesiana (1948 ff., numerous volumes, about 40% published so far); Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists (Peekel 1947, reprint 1985, very incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Malesiana, Series II: Ferns and Fern Allies. Vol. 1-4 (to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Checklist of Papuasian Orchids (Ormerod 2017); A. Schuiteman & Ed de Vogel (2001-2010, CD-ROM): Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea: illustrated checklist and genera. Part 1: Checklist and genera (2001). Part 2: Genus Dendrobium and allied genera (2002). Part 3: Genera Acanthephippium to Hymenorchis (2005). Part 4: Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella (2006). Part 5: Genera Pachystoma to Zeuxine (2008). Part 6: Genus Bulbophyllum (2010).
more country list Solomon Isl. (incl. Bougainville, excl. Santa Cruz Isl.) SOL 35.926 -19011876477
1901All Species
1876Indigenous Species
1876Indigenous Species except Microspecies
477Endemic Species
477Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
25.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
447 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 35 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
82 Basal Angiosperms (of them 38 endemic)
198 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 74 endemic)
313 Orchids (of them 42 endemic)
821 Dicotyledons (of them 286 endemic)
25 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Sol Amazing! (Lycophytes and Ferns of the Solomon Islands) (Chen et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainville (Lewis & Cribb 1991)
AUSTRALASIA (5)
AUSTRALIA (50)
more country list Australia (incl. Tasmania, excl. other islands) AUS 7.690.849 +234142122618108
23414All Species
21226Indigenous Species
21206Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18108Endemic Species
18108Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
77.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
454 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 151 endemic)
119 Gymnosperms (of them 103 endemic)
295 Basal Angiosperms (of them 226 endemic)
2914 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2137 endemic)
1507 Orchids (of them 1360 endemic)
15937 Dicotyledons (of them 14131 endemic)
20 Microspecies (of them endemic)
2188 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Census of Australian Vascular Plants (Hnatiuk 1990); Checklist of the vascular flora of the Sunda-Sahul Convergence Zone (Joyce et al. 2020, very data deficient)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia (1982 ff., 29 vols. published, about 60% complete); Flora of Victoria (1993-1999, complete); Flora of New South Wales (2000-2002, 2 vols. published); Flora of the Darwin region (Dunlop et al., 1995); Flora of South Eastern Queensland (1983-1989, 3 vols.); Flora of South Australia (1980-1986, 2 vols. published); The Student's Flora of Tasmania (5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Australia, Volume 48 (1998); Flora of South Australia (Jessop & Toelken 1986); The Ferns of Tasmania (Garrett 1997); Ferns and Allied Plants of Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia (Duncan & Isaac 1994); Flora of Victoria, Vol. 2 (Walsh & Entwistle, ed., 1994)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Catalogue of Australian Orchidaceae (Clements 1989); Native Orchids of Australia (Jones 1987); A Complete Guide to Native Orchids of Australia (Jones 2006); Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria (Bishop 1996); Flora of South Australia, pt. I (Black 1960); Orchids of South Australia (Bates & Weber 1990); Contributions to Tasmanian Orchidology (Jones 1998); The Orchids of Tasmania (Jones et al. 1999); Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales and Victoria (Bishop 1996); The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995); Orchids of Western Australia (Dixon et al. 1989); Orchids of SW-Australia (3rd ed.) (Hoffmann & Brown 2001)
more country list Ashmore Reef & Cartier Isl. ASH 1 ++16150
16All Species
15Indigenous Species
15Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
12 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 49 (Oceanic Islands 1) (1994)
more country list Lord Howe Isl. LHI 154 ++50028384
500All Species
283Indigenous Species
283Indigenous Species except Microspecies
84Endemic Species
84Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
56 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
12 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
148 Dicotyledons (of them 50 endemic)
217 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Norfolk Isl. (incl. Philip Isl.) NFK 39 ++45219833
452All Species
198Indigenous Species
198Indigenous Species except Microspecies
33Endemic Species
33Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
47 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
37 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
99 Dicotyledons (of them 23 endemic)
254 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
NEW ZEALAND (51)
more country list New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl., Three Kings Isl., Snares Isl., excl. remote islands) NZL 270.000 ++402922861513
4029All Species
2286Indigenous Species
2265Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1513Endemic Species
1512Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
37.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
191 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 32 endemic)
22 Gymnosperms (of them 21 endemic)
22 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
472 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 269 endemic)
120 Orchids (of them 53 endemic)
1459 Dicotyledons (of them 1125 endemic)
21 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
1743 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete); The flora of the Snares Islands, New Zealand (Fineran 1969); The New Flora of New Zealand (2014 ff., http://www.nzflora.info/publications.html)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Kermadec Isl. KER 36 ++14510215
145All Species
102Indigenous Species
102Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
22 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 9 endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Kermadec Islands Flora: An annotated checklist (Sykes 1977); New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands (Sykes & West 1996); Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands (Sykes & West 1996); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985); New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Chatham Isl. CTM 963 ++80941940
809All Species
419Indigenous Species
417Indigenous Species except Microspecies
40Endemic Species
40Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
101 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
95 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
34 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
188 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
390 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of vascular plants recorded from Chatham Islands (De Lange et al. 2011); Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey et al. 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Antipodes Isl. ATP 60 ++67675
67All Species
67Indigenous Species
67Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5Endemic Species
5Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
22 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
27 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Auckland Isl. AUC 551 ++2481752
248All Species
175Indigenous Species
175Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
42 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
48 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
77 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
73 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the New Zealand Flora - Seed Plants (Schönberger et al. 2018)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
PACIFIC (6)
SOUTH WEST PACIFIC (60)
more country list Santa Cruz Isl. (Vanikoro, etc.) SCZ 815 -14114010
141All Species
140Indigenous Species
140Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
39 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
32 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
56 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Sol Amazing! (Lycophytes and Ferns of the Solomon Islands) (Chen et al. 2017)
more country list New Caledonia (incl. Ile des Pins, Loyalty Isl., Ile Art) NWC 19.058 o393034102572
3930All Species
3410Indigenous Species
3410Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2572Endemic Species
2572Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
65.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
282 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 113 endemic)
54 Gymnosperms (of them 48 endemic)
111 Basal Angiosperms (of them 101 endemic)
317 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 140 endemic)
217 Orchids (of them 109 endemic)
2429 Dicotyledons (of them 2061 endemic)
520 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

www.endemia.nc

Most recent flora

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie (1967-2014, 26 vols. published [approx. 40%], to be continued)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances, Vol. 3 (Brownlie 1969)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances, Vol. 8 (Hallé 1977); Orchidees Indigenes de Nouvelle-Caledonie (Société Néo-Caledonienne d’Orchidophilie 1995); Checklist of New Caledonian Orchidaceae (Clements & Jones 1999, in Orchadian 13)
more country list Vanuatu VAN 12.190 o877856176
877All Species
856Indigenous Species
856Indigenous Species except Microspecies
176Endemic Species
176Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
208 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 15 endemic)
6 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
23 Basal Angiosperms (of them 10 endemic)
75 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
184 Orchids (of them 18 endemic)
360 Dicotyledons (of them 110 endemic)
21 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vanuatu National Herbarium (PVNH) (Chanel et al. 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Vanuatu (Lewis & Cribb 1989)
more country list Rotuma Isl. ROT 43 +4922312
492All Species
231Indigenous Species
231Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
11 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
42 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
261 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Preliminary Checklist of the Flora of Rotuma with Rotuman Names (McClatchley et al. 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Rotuma Island, a Descriptive Manual (St. John 1954)
more country list Tonga TON 750 o78153328
781All Species
533Indigenous Species
533Indigenous Species except Microspecies
28Endemic Species
28Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
91 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
70 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
45 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
305 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
248 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Plants of Tonga (Yuncker 1959); The vegetation of Late, Tonga (Sykes 1981); Rain forest vegetation of 'Eua Island (Drake et al. 1996); The rare plants of Tonga (Whistler 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Pteridophytes of 'Eua, Southern Tonga (Sykes 1978); New or noteworthy ferns from the Tongan Islands (Iwatsuki 1963)
more country list Niue Isl. NUE 264 o5682232
568All Species
223Indigenous Species
223Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
27 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
31 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
19 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
138 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
345 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The flora of Niue Island (Yuncker 1943); Contributions to the flora of Niue (Sykes 1970)
more country list Fiji FIJ 18.376 ++25221706794
2522All Species
1706Indigenous Species
1706Indigenous Species except Microspecies
794Endemic Species
794Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
31.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
308 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 51 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 5 endemic)
101 Basal Angiosperms (of them 77 endemic)
149 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 44 endemic)
175 Orchids (of them 46 endemic)
961 Dicotyledons (of them 571 endemic)
816 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Vitiensis nova (A.C. Smith, 1971-1996, 5 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The pteridophyte flora of Fiji (Brownlie 1977); A revised Checklist of Fijian ferns and lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie 2011)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora vitiensis nova, Vol. 5 (Kores 1991)
more country list Wallis & Futuna WAL 177 +1601554
160All Species
155Indigenous Species
155Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
10 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
26 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
5 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

The vascular plants of the Horne and Wallis Islands (St. John & Smith 1971)

Most recent flora

Contribution a la Connaissance de la Vegetation et de la Flore de Wallis et Futuna (Morat & Veillon 1985)
more country list American Samoa ASA 197 o68355817
683All Species
558Indigenous Species
558Indigenous Species except Microspecies
17Endemic Species
17Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
152 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
22 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
61 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
69 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
254 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
125 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of Samoa (Christopherson 1935/1938); A study of the rare plants of American Samoa (Whistler 1998); Vegetation of Eastern Samoa (Whistler 1980); Plants of the Manua Islands (Yuncker 1945)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revision of the Pteridophyta of Samoa (Christensen 1943)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Samoa (Cribb & Whistler 1996)
more country list [Western] Samoa SAM 2.831 o1003869182
1003All Species
869Indigenous Species
869Indigenous Species except Microspecies
182Endemic Species
182Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
226 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 13 endemic)
91 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
111 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
404 Dicotyledons (of them 121 endemic)
134 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of Samoa (Christopherson 1935/1938); Vegetation and Flora of the Aleipata Islands, Western Samoa (Whistler 1983); Plants of the Manua Islands (Yuncker 1945)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

A revision of the Pteridophyta of Samoa (Christensen 1943)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of Samoa (Cribb & Whistler 1996)
more country list Tuvalu (Ellice Isl.) TUV 26 o83560
83All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
9 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
38 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
27 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation and Flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu (Woodroffe 1985)
more country list Tokelau Isl. (incl. Swains Isl.) TOK 14 +106560
106All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
29 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
50 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll (Parham 1971); The Flora and Vegetation of Swains Island (Whistler 1983)
more country list Phoenix Islands (Kiribati p. p.) PHX 42 +84410
84All Species
41Indigenous Species
41Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
28 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
43 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific (Fosberg & Stoddart 1994)
more country list Gilbert Islands (Kiribati p. p.) GIL 311 +213980
213All Species
98Indigenous Species
98Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
61 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
115 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, checklist (Fosberg & Sachet 1987); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands (Thaman 1992)
more country list Banaba (Ocean Isl., Kiribati p. p.) OCE 6 o28210
28All Species
21Indigenous Species
21Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
16 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)
more country list Nauru NRU 21 ++126510
126All Species
51Indigenous Species
51Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
35 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
75 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation of Nauru and the Gilbert Islands (Thaman 1992); The Flora of Nauru (Thaman et al. 1994)
more country list Pacific Equatorial Sporades (incl. Howland Isl., Baker Isl.) HBI 5 -110
1All Species
1Indigenous Species
1Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
SOUTH CENTRAL PACIFIC (61)
more country list Line Isl. (Kiribati p. p., incl. Christmas Isl. = Kiritimati) LIN 757 +169570
169All Species
57Indigenous Species
57Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
37 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
112 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of the northern Line Islands (Wester 1985)

Most recent flora

Notes on the vascular flora and terrestrial vertebrates of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands (Clapp & Sibley 1971); Vegetation History of Washington Island (Teraina), Northern Line Islands (Wester et al. 1992); Plants of Christmas Island (Chock & Hamilton 1962)
more country list Cook Isl. (incl. Rarotonga Isl.) COO 230 +56227230
562All Species
272Indigenous Species
272Indigenous Species except Microspecies
30Endemic Species
30Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
67 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
42 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
10 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
141 Dicotyledons (of them 18 endemic)
290 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Rarotonga (Wilder 1931); Flora of Cook Islands (2016)
more country list Marquesas Isl. MRQ 1.020 +636401179
636All Species
401Indigenous Species
401Indigenous Species except Microspecies
179Endemic Species
179Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
28.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
114 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 33 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
55 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 20 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
217 Dicotyledons (of them 118 endemic)
235 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Most recent flora

Flora of the Marquesas (M.-H. Sachet), 1 vol. published; Guide floristique - Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou (Butaud 2014); Guide floristique - Niva Oa, Tahuata, Fatuiva (Butaud 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1932)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Gambier Isl. (incl. Mangareva Isl.) GBI 450 +89506
89All Species
50Indigenous Species
50Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
39 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Census of the flora of the Gambier Islands, Polynesia (St. John 1988)

Most recent flora

La vegetation des iles Gambier (Huguenin 1974); Chock & Hamilton (1962); Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Gambier - Guide floristique (Butaud 2013)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1932)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Society Isl. (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Huahine, Bora Bora, Makatea, etc.) SCI 1.628 ++1245655239
1245All Species
655Indigenous Species
654Indigenous Species except Microspecies
239Endemic Species
239Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
197 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 52 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
20 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
68 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
35 Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
334 Dicotyledons (of them 156 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
590 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Societensis (Welsh 1998); Botanique de l'ile de Tupai (Sachet 1983); Flora of Makatea (Wilder 1934); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Society Islands (Copeland 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Societensis (Welsh 1998)
more country list Tuamotu Arch. (excl. Gambier Isl.) TUA 450 +3141419
314All Species
141Indigenous Species
141Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
95 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)
173 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flora of Maupiti (Fosberg & Sachet 19??); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Guide floristique - Atolls soulevés des Tuamotu (Polynésie francaise) Butaud & Jacq 2009); Tuamotu de l'ouest - Guide floristique (Butaud 2013); Tuamotu du centre - Guide floristique (Butaud 2010); Tuamotu de l'est - Guide Floristique (Butaud 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Austral Isl. (Tubuai Isl., incl. Rapa Isl.) AUI 148 +608367101
608All Species
367Indigenous Species
367Indigenous Species except Microspecies
101Endemic Species
101Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
102 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 20 endemic)
9 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
55 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
11 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
190 Dicotyledons (of them 72 endemic)
241 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Les Orchidees du Tubuai, suives d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des Iles Australes (Hallé 1980)

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete); Guide floristique - Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai, Raivavae (Australes) (Butaud 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Les orchidees de Tubuai (Hallé 1980); Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Pitcairn Isl. (incl. Oeno Atoll) PIT 6 +836011
83All Species
60Indigenous Species
60Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
3 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
33 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
23 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An account of the flora of Pitcairn Island (St. John 1987); List of the flora of Oeno Atoll (St. John & Philipson 1960)

Most recent flora

Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Flore de la Polynesie Francaise (Florence 1997, 2004, incomplete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The pteridophyte flora of Pitcairn Island (Brownlie 1961); Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)
more country list Henderson Isl. (incl. Ducie Atoll) HEN 37 ++59564
59All Species
56Indigenous Species
56Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
40 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
3 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Henderson Island (Southeast Polynesia): Summary of current knowledge (Fosberg et al. 1983); Flora of Southestern Polynesia (E. D. & F. B. H. Brown 1930-1931, 3 vols.); Ducie Atoll (Rehder & Rantall 1975)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of Southestern Polynesia, II. Pteridophytes (Brown & Brown 1931)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Southeastern Polynesia, I. Monocotyledons (F. B. H. Brown 1931)
more country list Easter Island (Rapa Nui) EAS 180 o30269
30All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
30% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
13 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 5 endemic)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
5 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
4 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg 1998); Flowering Plants of Easter Island (Zizka 1991)
NORTH WEST PACIFIC (62)
more country list Minami-Torishima (Marcus Isl.) MCU 2 -2290
22All Species
9Indigenous Species
9Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

An Ecological Perspective of Marcus Island (Sakagami 1961)
more country list Palau Isl. (Republic of Palau, Western Carolines) PLU 516 o1102722136
1102All Species
722Indigenous Species
722Indigenous Species except Microspecies
136Endemic Species
136Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
12.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
122 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 12 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
166 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
64 Orchids (of them 28 endemic)
352 Dicotyledons (of them 81 endemic)
380 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vascular Plants of Palau with vernacular names (Fosberg et al. 1980); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Flora of Micronesia (Fosberg & Sachet, 5 vols. published, 1975-1993)
more country list Northern Marianas MRN 464 +67635820
676All Species
358Indigenous Species
358Indigenous Species except Microspecies
20Endemic Species
20Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
58 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
190 Dicotyledons (of them 16 endemic)
318 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Vascular flora of the northern Mariana Islands (Fosberg et al. 1975-1980)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)
more country list Guam GUM 540 o103841612
1038All Species
416Indigenous Species
416Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
60 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
115 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
206 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
622 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

The Flora of Guam (Stone 1970)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Ferns and Orchids of the Mariana Islands (Raulerson & Rinehart 1992)
more country list Federal States of Micronesia (Central and Eastern Carolines: Truk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae) MIC 702 +1208694126
1208All Species
694Indigenous Species
694Indigenous Species except Microspecies
126Endemic Species
126Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
10.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
143 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
13 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
144 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 27 endemic)
329 Dicotyledons (of them 71 endemic)
514 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei (Herrera et al. 2010); Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Flora of Micronesia (Fosberg & Sachet, 5 vols. published, 1975-1993); Flora of Ponape (Glassmann 1952)
more country list Marshall Isl. MRS 174 o3861280
386All Species
128Indigenous Species
128Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
32 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
81 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
258 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vascular Plants recorded from Jaluit Atoll (Fosberg & Sachet 1962); A review of the natural history of the Marshall Islands (Fosberg 1990); Vegetation of Bikini Atoll (Fosberg 1988)
more country list Wake Isl. WAK 8 o110341
110All Species
34Indigenous Species
34Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
76 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Geographical checklist of the Micronesian Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae (Fosberg et al. 1982); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae (Fosberg); A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae (Fosberg)

Most recent flora

Vegetation and flora of Wake Island (Fosberg 1959); Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963 (Fosberg & Sachet 1969)
NORTH CENTRAL PACIFIC (63)
more country list Hawaii (incl. Johnston Atoll, Midway Isl.) HAW 16.729 ++239612311062
2396All Species
1231Indigenous Species
1230Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1062Endemic Species
1062Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
169 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 121 endemic)
27 Basal Angiosperms (of them 24 endemic)
142 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 95 endemic)
3 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
890 Dicotyledons (of them 819 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1165 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i (2., rev. ed., Wagner, Herbst & Sohmer 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Hawai’i (Valier 1995)
NORTH AMERICA (7)
ARCTIC NORTH AMERICA (70)
more country list Alaska (incl. Aleutes) ASK 1.530.000 ++1537133535
1537All Species
1335Indigenous Species
1331Indigenous Species except Microspecies
35Endemic Species
35Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
85 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
13 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
363 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
29 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
841 Dicotyledons (of them 29 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
202 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories (Hulten 1968); Flora of the Aleutian Islands (Hulten 1960); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list Greenland GNL 2.175.600 ++52642811
526All Species
428Indigenous Species
421Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
37 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
147 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
239 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
7 Microspecies (of them 2 endemic)
98 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the vascular plants of Greenland (2nd ed., Holmen 1968); A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980)

Most recent flora

Flora of Canada (Scoggan, ed., 1978-1979); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
CANADA (70-72)
more country list Canada CDN 9.970.610 ++5005390472
5005All Species
3904Indigenous Species
3844Indigenous Species except Microspecies
72Endemic Species
59Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
173 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
37 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
21 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
974 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
75 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2624 Dicotyledons (of them 63 endemic)
60 Microspecies (of them 13 endemic)
1101 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

The flora of Canada (Scoggan 1978, 1979, 4 vols.); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Les fougeres et les plantes alliees du Canada (Cody & Britton 1989); Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list St. Pierre & Miquelon SPM 242 ++5184070
518All Species
407Indigenous Species
404Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
40 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
154 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
198 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them endemic)
111 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Les plantes vasculaires des iles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (LeGallo 1954); Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
USA (73-78)
more country list USA (Lower 48 States) USA 8.262.426 ++19006156917584
19006All Species
15691Indigenous Species
15382Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7584Endemic Species
7337Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
38.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
437 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 76 endemic)
120 Gymnosperms (of them 26 endemic)
97 Basal Angiosperms (of them 43 endemic)
2723 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1030 endemic)
203 Orchids (of them 51 endemic)
12111 Dicotyledons (of them 6358 endemic)
309 Microspecies (of them 247 endemic)
3315 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of The United States, Canada and Greenland (Kartesz & Kartesz 1980); BONAP North American Distribution Atlas (www.bonap.org); PLANTS database (plants.usda.gov)

Most recent flora

Flora of North America (1993 ff., 19 of 26 volumes published)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Vol. 2 (1993); A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-Allies of the United States and Canada (Lellinger 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of North America, Vol. 26: Orchidaceae (Romero-Gonzales et al. 2002); The Native Orchids of the United States and Canada, excluding Florida (Luer 1975); Wild Orchids of North America north of Mexico (Brown 2003)
more country list Bermuda BER 53 +21013711
210All Species
137Indigenous Species
137Indigenous Species except Microspecies
11Endemic Species
11Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
38 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
76 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
73 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora of Bermuda (Britton 1918)
MEXICO (79)
more country list Mexico MEX 1.964.382 +250052394112014
25005All Species
23941Indigenous Species
23930Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12014Endemic Species
12010Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
48% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1043 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 195 endemic)
170 Gymnosperms (of them 93 endemic)
630 Basal Angiosperms (of them 330 endemic)
3380 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1504 endemic)
1324 Orchids (of them 582 endemic)
17394 Dicotyledons (of them 9310 endemic)
11 Microspecies (of them 4 endemic)
1064 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico (Villasenor 2016); numerous state checklists

Most recent flora

Numerous state floras (and Flora Novo-Galiciana); Flora Mesoamericana (southern Mexico only, 12 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004); Flora Novo-Galiciana, Volume 17 (McVaugh 1992); Pteridophytes. Flora of Chiapas, part 2 (Smith 1981); Flora of Baja California (Wiggins 1980); Pteridophyte flora of Oaxaca, Mexico (Mickel & Beitel 1988); Ferns and fern allies of Chihuahua, Mexico (Knobloch & Correll 1962); Listados floristicos de Mexico. IX. Flora de Durango (Elizondo et al. 1991); Flora de Mexico, Volume 6, parts 1-3: Pteridophyta (1993-1995)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Listado Actualizado de las Orquideas de Mexico (Soto Arenas 1988); Icones Orchidacearum (Mexico), Fasc. 1-6 (Hagsater & Salazar 1990-2003)
more country list Isla Guadalupe GLP 244 ++19915023
199All Species
150Indigenous Species
150Indigenous Species except Microspecies
23Endemic Species
23Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
11.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
15 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
123 Dicotyledons (of them 21 endemic)
49 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The Flora of Guadalupe Island, Mexico (Moran 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Listado Actualizado de las Orquideas de Mexico (Soto Arenas 1988)
more country list Revillagigedo Isl. (incl. Socorro Isl.) RGI 157 +18715325
187All Species
153Indigenous Species
153Indigenous Species except Microspecies
25Endemic Species
25Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
13.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
17 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
24 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
104 Dicotyledons (of them 17 endemic)
34 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

The vascular flora of Isla Socorro, Mexico (Lewin & Moran 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophytes of Mexico (Mickel & Smith 2004)
TROPICAL AMERICA (8)
CENTRAL AMERICA (80)
more country list Guatemala GUA 108.889 o81367832644
8136All Species
7832Indigenous Species
7828Indigenous Species except Microspecies
644Endemic Species
644Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
718 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
30 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
282 Basal Angiosperms (of them 65 endemic)
1201 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 62 endemic)
944 Orchids (of them 190 endemic)
4657 Dicotyledons (of them 322 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them endemic)
304 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts); Flora of Guatemala (Standley, ed., 1958-1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala, pt. 1-3 (Stolze 1976-83)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Orchids of Guatemala: A revised annotated checklist (Dix & Dix 2000); Orchids of Guatemala and Belize (Ames & Correll 1985); Guatemala y sus orquídeas (Behar & Tinschert 1998)
more country list Belize BLZ 22.965 +3629338163
3629All Species
3381Indigenous Species
3380Indigenous Species except Microspecies
63Endemic Species
63Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
260 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
9 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
125 Basal Angiosperms (of them 6 endemic)
622 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 11 endemic)
297 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
2068 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
248 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize (Balick et al. 2000)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize (Balick, Nee & Atha 2000); Native Orchids of Belize (McLeish, Pearce & Adams 1995); Orchids of Guatemala and Belize (Ames & Correll 1985); Lista Comentada de las orquideas de Belice (Catling & Catling 1988)
more country list El Salvador ELS 21.041 o2944274141
2944All Species
2741Indigenous Species
2741Indigenous Species except Microspecies
41Endemic Species
41Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
372 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 3 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
73 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
425 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
407 Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
1453 Dicotyledons (of them 24 endemic)
203 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); An Annotated Checklist of the Monilophytes (Ferns) and Lycophytes of El Salvador (Monterrosa & Monro 2008); Una guia taxonomica para helechos de El Salvador (Seiler 1980); Listado de la flora Salvadorensis / Pteridophyta (Pfeiffer-Berendsohn 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Las Orquideas de El Salvador (Hamer 1974-1981)
more country list Honduras HON 112.492 +75616614197
7561All Species
6614Indigenous Species
6614Indigenous Species except Microspecies
197Endemic Species
197Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
648 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
27 Gymnosperms (of them 6 endemic)
270 Basal Angiosperms (of them 19 endemic)
1117 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
614 Orchids (of them 9 endemic)
3938 Dicotyledons (of them 134 endemic)
947 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de Honduras, espermatofitas (Nelson Sutherland et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Hondurensis Plantarum Vascularium Catalogus. Pteridophyta (Sutherland et al. 1996)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft)
more country list Nicaragua NIC 129.494 ++6340589176
6340All Species
5891Indigenous Species
5890Indigenous Species except Microspecies
76Endemic Species
76Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
606 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
10 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
231 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
1023 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
632 Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
3389 Dicotyledons (of them 55 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
449 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts); Flora of Nicaragua (Stevens et al., eds.) (2001-2009, 4 vols., complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Flora of Nicaragua, Vol. 4 (Helechos) (Gomez & Arbelaez 2009)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Orchids of Nicaragua, Pt. 1-6 (Hamer 1982-1985); Orchidaceae (Hamer). - In: Flora of Nicaragua, Vol. 2 (Stevens, ed., 2001)
more country list Costa Rica (except Isla del Coco) COS 51.060 ++11011103801789
11011All Species
10380Indigenous Species
10379Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1789Endemic Species
1789Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
16.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1151 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 109 endemic)
11 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
766 Basal Angiosperms (of them 319 endemic)
1580 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 184 endemic)
1537 Orchids (of them 479 endemic)
5335 Dicotyledons (of them 695 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
631 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003-2020, 8 vols., complete); Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama (Dressler 1993); Flora Costaricensis, Family 39, part V (Maxillarieae and Oncidinae) (Atwood & de Retana 1999); Lista actualizada de las orquideas de Costa Rica (Mora-Retana & Garcia 1992); Catalogo revisado y anotado de las Orchidaceae de Costa Rica (Pupulin 2002); Orchidaceae (Dressler et al.) - In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, Vol. III (Hammel et al., ed., 2003)
more country list Isla del Coco (Cocos Isl.) COC 40 ++17215835
172All Species
158Indigenous Species
158Indigenous Species except Microspecies
35Endemic Species
35Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
20.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
57 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 17 endemic)
4 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
26 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
65 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
14 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Preliminary List of Plants from Cocos Island (Fosberg & Klawe 1966)

Most recent flora

Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Hammel et al., 2003-2020, 8 vols., complete); Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of ca. 10 volumes published, plus numerous drafts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); The ferns and fern-allies of Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Gomez 1975) [= Contribuciones a la pteridologia costarricense. VII. Pteridofita de la Isla de Cocos]
more country list Panama PAN 75.517 +1010096781460
10100All Species
9678Indigenous Species
9677Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1460Endemic Species
1460Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
14.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
945 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 42 endemic)
22 Gymnosperms (of them 11 endemic)
614 Basal Angiosperms (of them 121 endemic)
1625 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 296 endemic)
1386 Orchids (of them 338 endemic)
5086 Dicotyledons (of them 652 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
422 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Flora of Panama, vol. 1: The introduction and checklist (d'Arcy 1987)

Most recent flora

Flora Mesoamericana (1994 ff., 6 of 12 volumes published, plus drafts of most remaining parts)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 1 (1995); Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America (Tryon & Tryon 1982); Flora of Panama: Checklist and index (D'Arcy 1987); The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

An updated checklist of the Orchidaceae of Panama (Bogarin et al. 2014); Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 7 (draft); Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama (Dressler 1993); Flora of Panama: Checklist and index (D'Arcy 1987); Checklist of the Orchids of Panama (Dressler 1980)
more country list Clipperton Isl. CLI 30 +29160
29All Species
16Indigenous Species
16Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
13 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Flora and vegetation of Clipperton Island (Sachet 1962)
more country list Isla Malpelo MAL 1 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent flora

Flora terreste de la isla Malpelo (Colombia) (Gonzalez-Roman et al. 2014); The biological investigation of Malpelo Island (Graham 1975)
CARIBBEAN (81)
more country list Bahamas BAH 13.939 +1330106451
1330All Species
1064Indigenous Species
1063Indigenous Species except Microspecies
51Endemic Species
51Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
3.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
41 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
217 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 10 endemic)
53 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
734 Dicotyledons (of them 37 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
266 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Bahamian Archipelago (Correll & Correll 1982); Endemic Seed Plants in the Bahamian Archipelago (Freid et al. 2014)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae (Sauleda & Adams). - In: Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Correll & Correll 1982)
more country list Turks & Caicos Isl. TCI 430 +4173647
417All Species
364Indigenous Species
364Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7Endemic Species
7Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
80 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
268 Dicotyledons (of them 6 endemic)
53 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Sauleda & Adams 197
more country list Cuba CUB 114.525 +692260522820
6922All Species
6052Indigenous Species
6052Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2820Endemic Species
2820Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
40.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
549 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 91 endemic)
12 Gymnosperms (of them 5 endemic)
160 Basal Angiosperms (of them 73 endemic)
922 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 246 endemic)
316 Orchids (of them 103 endemic)
4093 Dicotyledons (of them 2302 endemic)
870 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Base de datos de especímenes de la flora de Cuba : con mapas de distribución, Versión 4.0 - 2008

Most recent flora

Flora de la Republica de Cuba (1998 ff., 16 vols. published); Flora de Cuba (Leon & Alain 1946-1962, outdated)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Lista de los helechos y licofitos de Cuba (Sanchez 2017)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Las orquideas nativas de Cuba (Diaz 1988); Iconografia de orquídeas Cubanas (Marquez & Bocourt Vigli 1997); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Cayman Isl. CAY 262 +70554519
705All Species
545Indigenous Species
545Indigenous Species except Microspecies
19Endemic Species
19Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
19 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
12 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
101 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
28 Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
384 Dicotyledons (of them 13 endemic)
160 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Cayman Islands (Proctor 1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Cayman Islands (Proctor 1984); Orquideas de las Islas Cayman (Adams 1971)
more country list Jamaica JAM 10.991 +37223012794
3722All Species
3012Indigenous Species
3012Indigenous Species except Microspecies
794Endemic Species
794Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
21.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
558 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 63 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
95 Basal Angiosperms (of them 28 endemic)
452 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 41 endemic)
207 Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
1697 Dicotyledons (of them 604 endemic)
710 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flowering plants of Jamaica (Adams 1972); Flora of Jamaica (Warner 2007)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Jamaica (Proctor 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchids of Jamaica (Gloudon & Tobisch 1995); A Checklist of the Orchids of Jamaica (Adams 1966); Orchidaceae (Adams, Proctor & Read). In: Flowering Plants of Jamaica (1972); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Hispaniola (Dominican Republic & Haiti) HIS 76.200 +589949291852
5899All Species
4929Indigenous Species
4929Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1852Endemic Species
1852Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
31.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
591 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 65 endemic)
7 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
177 Basal Angiosperms (of them 83 endemic)
600 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 57 endemic)
360 Orchids (of them 160 endemic)
3194 Dicotyledons (of them 1485 endemic)
970 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Hispaniola (Liogier, ed.) (1981 ff., 9 vols. published, mostly complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Navassa Isl. NAV 5 +1381053
138All Species
105Indigenous Species
105Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
5 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
20 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
80 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
33 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Navassa Island and its flora. 2. Checklist of the vascular plants (Zanoni & Buck 1999)
more country list Puerto Rico (incl. Mona Isl., Desecheo Isl., Culebra Isl., Vieques Isl.) PUE 8.959 +33062352240
3306All Species
2352Indigenous Species
2351Indigenous Species except Microspecies
240Endemic Species
240Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
366 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 22 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
86 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
414 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 13 endemic)
135 Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
1347 Dicotyledons (of them 180 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
954 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Liogier (1982)

Most recent flora

Flora of Puerto Rico (Liogier, ed., 1985-1997, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman & Del Mayda 1995); An orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman 1995); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014)
more country list Virgin Islands (U.S. Virgin Islands & British Virgin Islands) VIR 495 +1567106218
1567All Species
1062Indigenous Species
1061Indigenous Species except Microspecies
18Endemic Species
18Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
54 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
37 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
193 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
31 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
747 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
505 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012); Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola (d'Arcy 1967))

Most recent flora

Flora of Virgin Gorda (Little et al. 1971); The flora of the American Virgin Islands (Britton 1918); Flora of St. John (Proctor in Acevedo-Rodriguez et al. 1996); The island of Anegada and its flora (D'Arcy 1971)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Proctor 1989)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); An Orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Ackermann 1995)
more country list Anguilla AGU 70 ++3392602
339All Species
260Indigenous Species
260Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
44 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
212 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
79 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Maarten (St. Martin) STM 86 ++4673672
467All Species
367Indigenous Species
367Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
14 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
8 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
64 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
6 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
275 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
100 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Barthelemy (St. Barts) SBA 21 ++4443510
444All Species
351Indigenous Species
351Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
9 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
19 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
310 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
93 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

The flora of the island of St. Bartholomew and its origin (Questel 1941); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Saba SAB 13 ++5534250
553All Species
425Indigenous Species
425Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
56 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
59 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
9 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
283 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
128 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Eustatius STE 21 ++4503541
450All Species
354Indigenous Species
354Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
32 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
36 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
13 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
257 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
96 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Kitts & Nevis STK 269 ++8066612
806All Species
661Indigenous Species
661Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
131 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
25 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
24 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
380 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
145 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977); A revised list of pteridophytes from St. Kitts (Proctor 1962)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Antigua and Barbuda (incl. Redonda Isl.) ABA 441 ++9747671
974All Species
767Indigenous Species
767Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
33 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
30 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
18 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
555 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
207 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Montserrat MTS 102 ++9017084
901All Species
708Indigenous Species
708Indigenous Species except Microspecies
4Endemic Species
4Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
119 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
35 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
79 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
16 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
458 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
193 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Guadeloupe (incl. Marie Galante, La Désirade, Les Saintes) GDL 1.600 ++2054164026
2054All Species
1640Indigenous Species
1640Indigenous Species except Microspecies
26Endemic Species
26Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
287 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 6 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
64 Basal Angiosperms (of them 3 endemic)
270 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
107 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
911 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
414 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Fournet 1978); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Orchidaceae (Fournet). - In: Flore illustrée des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (1978); Atlas des Orchidées sauvages de Gouadeloupe (Feldmann & Barré 2001)
more country list Dominica DOM 750 ++1453120415
1453All Species
1204Indigenous Species
1203Indigenous Species except Microspecies
15Endemic Species
15Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
196 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
45 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
179 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
90 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
693 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
249 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Dominica (Hodge 1954, Nicolson 1991); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Flora of Dominica, Pt. 1 (Orchidaceae) (Hodge 1954)
more country list Martinique MAR 1.102 ++1889147132
1889All Species
1471Indigenous Species
1471Indigenous Species except Microspecies
32Endemic Species
32Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
224 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 2 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
57 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
242 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 6 endemic)
83 Orchids (of them 4 endemic)
864 Dicotyledons (of them 20 endemic)
418 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flore illustree des phanerogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique (Fournet 1978); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Lucia STL 616 ++1456114110
1456All Species
1141Indigenous Species
1141Indigenous Species except Microspecies
10Endemic Species
10Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
121 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
47 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
190 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
58 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
723 Dicotyledons (of them 8 endemic)
315 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list St. Vincent and the Grenadines STV 389 ++1358111412
1358All Species
1114Indigenous Species
1114Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
168 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
48 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
130 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
59 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
709 Dicotyledons (of them 11 endemic)
244 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974)
more country list Grenada GRE 344 ++10999256
1099All Species
925Indigenous Species
925Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
153 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
27 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
131 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
70 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
544 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
174 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); The Orchids of the Islands of Grenada, British West Indies (Schultes 1956, in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 25)
more country list Barbados BBD 430 ++8555846
855All Species
584Indigenous Species
584Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
30 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
18 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
103 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
7 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
425 Dicotyledons (of them 4 endemic)
271 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez & Strong (eds.) 2012)

Most recent flora

Flora of Barbados (Gooding et al., 1965); Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Howard, ed., 6 vols., 1974-1989, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 2: Pteridophyta (Proctor 1977)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae Antillanae (Nir 2000); Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles (Ackerman 2014); Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Vol. 1 (Garay & Sweet 1974); Orchidaceae. - In: Flora of Barbados (Gooding, Loveless & Proctor 1965)
more country list Trinidad & Tobago TRT 5.048 +3480234283
3480All Species
2342Indigenous Species
2341Indigenous Species except Microspecies
83Endemic Species
83Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
290 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 10 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
77 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
464 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 15 endemic)
185 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
1324 Dicotyledons (of them 48 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1138 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago (Baksh-Comeau et al. 2016)

Most recent flora

Flora of Trinidad & Tobago - Williams, R. O. et al. (1928-1979, plus additional volumes up to 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Checklist of the pteridophytes of Trinidad & Tobago (Baksh-Comeau 2000)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Native Orchids of Trinidad and Tobago (Schultes 1960)
more country list Aruba ARU 179 +3332712
333All Species
271Indigenous Species
271Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
210 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
62 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list Bonaire BON 288 +3703013
370All Species
301Indigenous Species
301Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
3 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
3 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
65 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
228 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
69 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list Curacao CUR 444 +5174316
517All Species
431Indigenous Species
431Indigenous Species except Microspecies
6Endemic Species
6Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
96 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
318 Dicotyledons (of them 3 endemic)
86 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Zakflora (Wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire) (2. ed.) (Arnoldo 1964); Flora of the Netherlands Antilles (Stoffers, ed., 8 vols., 1962-1984)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta, in: Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Vol. 1 (Kramer 1962)
more country list San Andres y Providencia SWC 43 o3002960
300All Species
296Indigenous Species
296Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
58 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
222 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
4 Neophytes or Culture Escapes
NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA (82)
more country list Colombia CLM 1.141.748 +25494244167471
25494All Species
24416Indigenous Species
24415Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7471Endemic Species
7471Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1708 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 196 endemic)
35 Gymnosperms (of them 13 endemic)
1432 Basal Angiosperms (of them 437 endemic)
3618 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 916 endemic)
4216 Orchids (of them 2130 endemic)
13407 Dicotyledons (of them 3779 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
1078 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia (Bernal, Gradstein & Celis, eds., 2015)

Most recent flora

Flora de Colombia (1983 ff., 26 vols. published, very incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Ferns and Fern allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Choco. Part 1 (Lellinger 1989); Helechos y plantas afines de Colombia (Murillo-Pulido 1990); Flora de Colombia, Vol. 9: Pteridophyta 1 (Murillo-Pulido 1988)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Native Colombian Orchids, Vol. 1-6 (Escobar 1990-98); Orquideas de Colombia (Ortiz 1995) [contains checklist]; Lista de especies de Orquídeas registradas para Colombia: Adiciones y correcciones (Ortiz 2000, in Orquideologia 21)
more country list Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita) VEN 912.050 +16567159453662
16567All Species
15945Indigenous Species
15944Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3662Endemic Species
3662Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
22.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1238 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 138 endemic)
29 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
732 Basal Angiosperms (of them 177 endemic)
2651 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 622 endemic)
1509 Orchids (of them 298 endemic)
9786 Dicotyledons (of them 2424 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
622 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Nuevo Catalogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela (Hokche, Berry & Huber, eds., 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et al., eds., 9 vols., complete); Flora of Venezuela (Lasser et al., eds., 1968-1989, 21 vols.(?) published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora de Venezuela, Vol. 1 + 2 (Helechos) (Vareschi 1968-69); Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 2 (1995)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Venezuelan orchids illustrated (Dunsterville & Garay 1959-1976, 6 vols.) (reprint as Orchids of Venezuela - An Illustrated Field Guide, 1979, 2nd ed. as Illustrated Field Guide of Orchids of Venezuela, Romero & Carnevali 2000, 3 Vols.); Flora de Venezuela, Vol. XV, pt. 1-5 (Foldats 1969-70); Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 7 (2003)
more country list Guyana (British Guyana) GUY 214.969 +64366190453
6436All Species
6190Indigenous Species
6190Indigenous Species except Microspecies
453Endemic Species
453Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
526 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 26 endemic)
4 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
300 Basal Angiosperms (of them 27 endemic)
1045 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 56 endemic)
573 Orchids (of them 38 endemic)
3742 Dicotyledons (of them 306 endemic)
246 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et al., eds., 9 vols., complete); Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana: Orchidaceae (Christensen in Mori et al. 1997)
more country list Surinam SUR 163.265 +46494426133
4649All Species
4426Indigenous Species
4426Indigenous Species except Microspecies
133Endemic Species
133Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.9% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
322 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
2 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
241 Basal Angiosperms (of them 9 endemic)
826 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 25 endemic)
396 Orchids (of them 8 endemic)
2639 Dicotyledons (of them 87 endemic)
223 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The Pteridophytes of Suriname (Kramer 1978)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Orchideeen van Suriname (Werkhoven 1986)
more country list French Guiana FRG 83.534 +50764878346
5076All Species
4878Indigenous Species
4878Indigenous Species except Microspecies
346Endemic Species
346Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
332 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 13 endemic)
3 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
289 Basal Angiosperms (of them 30 endemic)
807 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 48 endemic)
436 Orchids (of them 49 endemic)
3011 Dicotyledons (of them 206 endemic)
198 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Guianas / ed. by A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (1985-2009, 30(?) vols. published, incomplete); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana (Mori 1997, 2 vols.); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchids of the Guianas, Vol. 1 (Szlachetko et al. 2017); Orchidaceae (Christenson & Boggan). - In: Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (2nd Edition) (Boggan et al. 1997); Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana: Orchidaceae (Christensen in Mori et al. 1997)
more country list Ecuador ECU 272.045 +18951182795571
18951All Species
18279Indigenous Species
18276Indigenous Species except Microspecies
5571Endemic Species
5570Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1481 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 183 endemic)
15 Gymnosperms (of them 1 endemic)
987 Basal Angiosperms (of them 240 endemic)
2574 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 753 endemic)
4229 Orchids (of them 2236 endemic)
8993 Dicotyledons (of them 2158 endemic)
3 Microspecies (of them 1 endemic)
672 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador (Moeller-Jorgensen ed., 1999); Ulloa Ulloa & Neill (2005); Neill & Ulloa Ulloa (2011)

Most recent flora

Flora of Ecuador (1973 ff., 96 vols. published, still incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 9 (Garay 1979); Native Ecuadorian orchids (Dodson & Escobar 1994, Dodson 2001); Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2009): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 76: Orchidaceae. Genera Aa - Cyrtidiorchis.; Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2009): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 84: Orchidaceae. Masdevallia and Affiliates.; Calaway H. Dodson & Carlyle A. Luer (2010): Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 87: Orchidaceae. Genera Cyrtochiloides - Epibator.
more country list Galapagos Isl. GAL 7.844 +789658176
789All Species
658Indigenous Species
658Indigenous Species except Microspecies
176Endemic Species
176Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
22.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
118 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 11 endemic)
7 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
100 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 14 endemic)
16 Orchids (of them 5 endemic)
417 Dicotyledons (of them 145 endemic)
131 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador (Moeller-Jorgensen ed., 1999)

Most recent flora

Flora of the Galapagos Islands (Wiggins & Porter 1971)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The orchids of the Galapagos Islands (Luer 1972)
WEST CENTRAL SOUTH AMERICA (83)
more country list Peru PER 1.280.000 +20796202137183
20796All Species
20213Indigenous Species
20211Indigenous Species except Microspecies
7183Endemic Species
7183Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
34.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1250 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 145 endemic)
20 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
1455 Basal Angiosperms (of them 739 endemic)
2651 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 851 endemic)
2407 Orchids (of them 1068 endemic)
12430 Dicotyledons (of them 4378 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
583 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru (Brako & Zarucchi 1993)

Most recent flora

Flora of Peru (1936 - 1995, 26 (?) vols. published); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Pteridophyta of Peru, pt. 1-6 (Tryon & Stolze 1989-94)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Icones Orchidacearum Peruvianum (Bennett & Christenson 1995-2000, Vol. 1-8, ongoing series); Orchids of Peru, Vol. I-IV (Schweinfurth 1959-1961, in Fieldiana Bot.)
more country list Bolivia BOL 1.098.581 +15484146102964
15484All Species
14610Indigenous Species
14610Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2964Endemic Species
2964Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
19.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1181 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 139 endemic)
17 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
558 Basal Angiosperms (of them 122 endemic)
2263 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 387 endemic)
1384 Orchids (of them 562 endemic)
9207 Dicotyledons (of them 1751 endemic)
874 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia (Jorgensen et al. 2014)

Most recent flora

Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Prodromus of a Fern Flora of Bolivia (Smith & Kessler 2016 ff., over 30 parts, complete)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orquideas de Bolivia, Vol. 1 (Vasquez & Ibisch 2000); Orquideas de Bolivia, Vol. 2 (Vasquez & Ibisch 2003); Index Orchidacearum Bolivianum (Hashimoto 1993)
BRAZIL (84)
more country list Brazil BRA 8.547.404 +368623627421036
36862All Species
36274Indigenous Species
36272Indigenous Species except Microspecies
21036Endemic Species
21036Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
57.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1361 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 498 endemic)
25 Gymnosperms (of them 4 endemic)
1599 Basal Angiosperms (of them 836 endemic)
6830 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 4317 endemic)
2786 Orchids (of them 1813 endemic)
23673 Dicotyledons (of them 13568 endemic)
2 Microspecies (of them endemic)
588 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil (floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br)

Most recent flora

various regional floras (all incomplete); Flora Neotropica (over 100 vols. published, ongoing)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Flora Brasileira: Orquideas 1 (A-L), 2 (M-Z) (CD-ROM, Campacci 2000); Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil (floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br); Orchidaceae Brasilienses (Pabst & Dungs 1975-77); Icones Orchidacearum Brasilienses (Castro & Campacci, Vol. 1, 2001)
more country list Fernando Noronha Isl. FNI 26 -272612
27All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
12Endemic Species
12Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
44.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
22 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent flora

Terrestrial vascular floras of Brazil's Oceanic Archipelagos (Alves 2006) [not seen and not included]
more country list Ilha da Trindade ITR 11 -161613
16All Species
16Indigenous Species
16Indigenous Species except Microspecies
13Endemic Species
13Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
81.3% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
10 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 8 endemic)
2 Basal Angiosperms (of them 2 endemic)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
2 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)

Most recent flora

Terrestrial vascular floras of Brazil's Oceanic Archipelagos (Alves 2006) [not seen and not included]
TEMPERATE SOUTH AMERICA (85)
more country list Paraguay PAR 406.752 +51665004420
5166All Species
5004Indigenous Species
5004Indigenous Species except Microspecies
420Endemic Species
420Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
8.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
242 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 4 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
102 Basal Angiosperms (of them 5 endemic)
911 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 51 endemic)
167 Orchids (of them 23 endemic)
3581 Dicotyledons (of them 337 endemic)
162 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora de Paraguay (1983 ff., 39 vols. published, still incomplete)
more country list Uruguay URU 176.215 +28122483131
2812All Species
2483Indigenous Species
2483Indigenous Species except Microspecies
131Endemic Species
131Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
4.7% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
102 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
1 Gymnosperms (of them 0 endemic)
26 Basal Angiosperms (of them 1 endemic)
679 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 39 endemic)
49 Orchids (of them 7 endemic)
1626 Dicotyledons (of them 83 endemic)
329 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flora del Uruguay (1958 ff., only 4 vols. published?)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora de Uruguay, Vol. 1 Pteridophyta (Legrand & Lombardo 1958)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

Orchidaceae. - In: Flora del Uruguay (Herter 1949)
more country list Argentina ARG 2.780.400 +1013392711873
10133All Species
9271Indigenous Species
9267Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1873Endemic Species
1870Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
18.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
371 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 19 endemic)
21 Gymnosperms (of them 2 endemic)
106 Basal Angiosperms (of them 8 endemic)
1970 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 395 endemic)
267 Orchids (of them 29 endemic)
6536 Dicotyledons (of them 1420 endemic)
4 Microspecies (of them 3 endemic)
862 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008); Catalogo de las plantas vasculares de la Republica Argentina (2 vols., Zuloaga et al. 1996)
more country list Chile (excl. Juan Fdz. Isl.) CLE 756.626 +498544211934
4985All Species
4421Indigenous Species
4415Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1934Endemic Species
1934Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
38.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
120 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 16 endemic)
16 Gymnosperms (of them 3 endemic)
16 Basal Angiosperms (of them 12 endemic)
917 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 354 endemic)
63 Orchids (of them 36 endemic)
3289 Dicotyledons (of them 1513 endemic)
6 Microspecies (of them endemic)
564 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008); Catalogo de la flora vascular de Chile (Marticorena 1984)

Most recent flora

Flora de Chile (1995-2005, ongoing, 4 vols. published)
more country list Desventuradas Isl. DSV 30 +473714
47All Species
37Indigenous Species
37Indigenous Species except Microspecies
14Endemic Species
14Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.8% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
30 Dicotyledons (of them 13 endemic)
10 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

The flora of San Felix Island (Johnston 1931); Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg 1998)
more country list Juan Fernandez Isl. JNF 181 +401260118
401All Species
260Indigenous Species
260Indigenous Species except Microspecies
118Endemic Species
118Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
29.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
48 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 22 endemic)
6 Basal Angiosperms (of them 4 endemic)
54 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 16 endemic)
1 Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
151 Dicotyledons (of them 75 endemic)
141 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Vascular flora of the Robinson Crusoe Islands (Marticorena et al. 1998)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Helechos de Juan Fernandez (Barrera Moscoso 1997)
ANTARCTIC (9)
ANTARCTIC CONTINENT (90)
more country list Antarctic continent ANT 13.200.000 +220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
SUBANTARCTIC ISLANDS (91)
more country list Macquarie Isl. MAQ 123 ++55483
55All Species
48Indigenous Species
48Indigenous Species except Microspecies
3Endemic Species
3Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
6 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
14 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
2 Orchids (of them 2 endemic)
26 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
7 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Campbell Isl. CMP 137 ++1361242
136All Species
124Indigenous Species
124Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
1.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
20 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
39 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
5 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
60 Dicotyledons (of them 2 endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of New Zealand (1961-2000, 5 vols.)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Flora of New Zealand: Ferns and Lycophytes (Brownsey & Perrie, 2014, 2015) - various volumes; New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989); A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species (Brownsey, Given & Lovis 1985)

Additional Reference Literature for Orchids

The Nature Guide to New Zealands Native Orchids (St. George 1999)
more country list Heard & McDonald Isl. HMD 372 +13120
13All Species
12Indigenous Species
12Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
4 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

Flora of Australia 50 (Oceanic Islands 2) (1993)
more country list Marion & Prince Edward Isl. MPE 335 +37252
37All Species
25Indigenous Species
25Indigenous Species except Microspecies
2Endemic Species
2Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
5.4% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 1 endemic)
11 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
12 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Ile Amsterdam & St. Paul Isl. ASP 67 +26269
26All Species
26Indigenous Species
26Indigenous Species except Microspecies
9Endemic Species
9Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
34.6% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
11 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
7 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 3 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 5 endemic)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Iles Crozet CRZ 300 +20200
20All Species
20Indigenous Species
20Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
7 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
5 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Iles Kerguélen KEG 6.993 +40291
40All Species
29Indigenous Species
29Indigenous Species except Microspecies
1Endemic Species
1Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
2.5% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
6 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
15 Dicotyledons (of them 1 endemic)
11 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighboring islands (Roux 2009)
more country list Falkland Isl. FAL 12.173 +25716616
257All Species
166Indigenous Species
166Indigenous Species except Microspecies
16Endemic Species
16Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
6.2% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
21 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 1 endemic)
45 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
4 Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
96 Dicotyledons (of them 15 endemic)
91 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Zuloaga et al. 2008)

Most recent flora

Flowering Plants of the Falkland Islands (Woods 2000); The vascular flora of the Falkland Islands (Moore 1968)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

The current status and distribution of the Falkland islands pteridophyte flora (Broughton & MacAdam 2003)
more country list Tristan da Cunha (incl. Gough Island, Nightingale Isl., Inaccessible Island) TDC 202 o18010347
180All Species
103Indigenous Species
103Indigenous Species except Microspecies
47Endemic Species
47Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
26.1% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
40 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 14 endemic)
1 Basal Angiosperms (of them 0 endemic)
35 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 21 endemic)
27 Dicotyledons (of them 12 endemic)
77 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Vegetation and Checklist of Inaccessible Island (Roux et al. 1992)

Most recent flora

The terrestrial botany of the Tristan da Cunha Islands (Wace & Dixon 1965); Vegetation and Checklist of Inaccessible Island (Roux et al. 1992)

Additional Reference Literature for Ferns and Lycophytes

Farne auf atlantischen Inseln (Benl & Benl 1988)
more country list South Georgia Isl. SGE 3.756 ++80250
80All Species
25Indigenous Species
24Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
8 Ferns and Lycophytes (of them 0 endemic)
9 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
8 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)
1 Microspecies (of them endemic)
55 Neophytes or Culture Escapes

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)

Most recent flora

The Vascular Flora of South Georgia (Greene 1964); Survey for baseline information on introduced vascular plants: South Georgia (Osborne et al. 2009)
more country list South Sandwich Isl. SSA 310 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
more country list South Orkney Isl. SOI 622 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)
more country list South Shetland Isl. SSI 4.700 ++220
2All Species
2Indigenous Species
2Indigenous Species except Microspecies
0Endemic Species
Endemic Species (excluding endemic Microspecies)
0% Percentage of True Endemics (excluding Microspecies)
1 Monocotyledons excl. Orchids (of them 0 endemic)
1 Dicotyledons (of them 0 endemic)

Most recent checklist

Biota Australis Terrestris (Ashworth & Vestal, Internet database)