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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

059.0000 Family Araucariaceae Henkel & W.Hochst.; Syn. Nadelhölz.: xvii, 1 (1865), nom. cons.
3 genera, ca. 45 spp.
Species listed in database: 40
= Agathidaceae (Vierh.) Baum.-Bodenh. ex A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia 4: 61 (2006)
= Agathideae Vierh.; Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 5(4): 18 (1910)
= Araucarieae D.Don; Trans. Linn. Soc. London 18: 163 (1839)
= Araucariineae Luerss.; Handb. Syst. Bot. 2: 90 (1879)
= Araucarioideae Beilschm.; Flora 16(Beibl. 7): 58, 104 (1833)
= Wollemioideae Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 6: 11 (1999)
059.0003 Genus Araucaria Juss.; Gen. Pl. 413 (1789)
Distribution: many endemic to New Caledonia, 1 Norfolk Island, the rest in New Guinea, Queensland, S-South America. Systematics and species list taken from Farjon (2017)
Species listed in database: 22
= Altingia G.Don; Loudon Hort. Brit. 403 (1830)
= Columbea Salisb.; Trans. Linn. Soc. 8: 317 (1807)
= Dombeya Lam.; Encyc. 2: 301, t. 828 (1786)
= Eutacta Link; Linnaea 15: 543 (1841)
= Eutassa Salisb.; Trans. Linn. Soc. 8: 316 (1807)
= Marywildea A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia 4: 57 (2006)
= Quadrifaria Manetti ex Gordon; Pinet. Suppl. 14 (1862)
= Titanodendron A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia 4: 60 (2006)
species :
Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 3: 375 (1898)
Name: Brasilkiefer (DE), Pinheiro-do-Paraná (P); Parana pine, candelabra tree (EN)
Distribution: Taiwan [I]; El Salvador [I]; Honduras [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Colombia [I]; Ecuador [I]; Bolivia [I]; S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and locally in, São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro); SE-Paraguay; N-Argentina (Misiones)
38 tai 80 els hon 81 pue 82 clm 83 bol ecu 84 BRA 85 ARG PAR
Conservation Status: IUCN R
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria angustifolia var. vinacea Mattos; Loefgrenia, 111: 1 (1997)
= Araucaria bibbiani Hort.It. ex Gordon; Pinet. 24 (1858)
= Araucaria brasiliana A.Rich.; Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 1: 512
= Araucaria brasiliana var. gracilis Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. 415 (1855)
= Araucaria brasiliana var. ridolfiana (Savi f.) Gordon & Glend.; Pinetum 24 (1858)
= Araucaria brasiliensis Loudon; Hort. Brit. 403 (1830)
= Araucaria dioica (Vell.) Stellfeld; Trib. Farm., Bras. 12: 181 (1944)
= Araucaria elegans Carrière; Conif. ed. I. 415 (1855)
= Araucaria gracilis Carrière; Conif. ed. I. 415 (1855)
= Araucaria lindleyana Van Houtte ex Gordon; Pinet. 24 (1858)
= Araucaria ridolfiana Savi f. [Atti Firenz.458 & 783 (1841), & Giorn.Bot.It.2: fasc.1: 52 (1846)]
= Columbea angustifolia Raddi ex Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 1: 398 (1840) non Bertol.
= Columbea brasiliensis Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 596 (1867)
= Pinus dioica Vell.; Fl. Flumin. 10: II. 55, 56 (1829)
species :
Araucaria araucana (Molina) K.Koch; Dendrologie 2: II. 206 (1873)
Name: Monkeypuzzle tree (EN); Araucaria, piñonero, pehuén (Chile)
Distribution: Mozambique [I]; Taiwan [I]; Honduras [c]; Cuba [c]; Colombia [I]; Argentina (Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Biobío, Araucania, Los Lagos)
26 moz 38 tai 80 hon 81 cub 82 clm 85 ARG CLE
Conservation Status: IUCN R
Synonyms: hidden
= Abies columbaria Desf.; Tabl. École Bot., ed. 2. 247 (1815)
= Araucaria araucana subsp. conguillioensis Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. Revised version 16(1): 54 (53) (2009)
= Araucaria araucana var. angustifolia Dallim. & A.B.Jacks.; Handb. Conif. ed. 3: 193 (1948)
= Araucaria chilensis (Lam.) Mirb.; Mem. Mus. Par. 13: 49 (1825)
= Araucaria dombeyi A.Rich.; Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. [Bory] 1: 512 (1822)
= Araucaria imbricata Pav.; Mem. Acad. Med. Madr. 1: 199 (1797)
= Araucaria imbricata var. aurea Dallim. & A.B.Jacks.; Handb. Conif. 158 (1923)
= Araucaria imbricata var. platifolia G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. Suppl.: 80 (1901)
= Araucaria imbricata var. variegata Gordon; Pinetum Suppl.: 24 (1862)
= Columbea imbricata (Pav.) Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 598 (1867)
= Columbea imbricata var. densa Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 599 (1868)
= Columbea imbricata var. denudata Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 600 (1868)
= Columbea imbricata var. distans Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 600 (1868)
= Columbea imbricata var. latifolia Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 600 (1868)
= Columbea imbricata var. striata Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 600 (1868)
= Columbea quadrifaria Salisb.; Trans. Linn. Soc. 8: 317 (1807)
= Dombeya araucana (Molina) Raeusch; Nomencl. Bot. [Raeusch.] ed. 3, 291 (1797)
= Dombeya chilensis Lam.; Encycl. [J. Lamarck & al.] 2(1): 301 (1786)
= Pinus araucana Molina; Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili 182 (1782)
= Quadrifaria imbricata (Pav.) Manetti ex Gordon; Pinet. Suppl. 14 (1862)
species :
Araucaria bernieri J.T.Buchholz; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, 21: 280 (1949)
Name: Bernier´s araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (NW-New Caledonia, S-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN R
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa bernieri (J.T.Buchholz) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
= Araucaria bernieri var. pumilio Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc., 7(l): 21 (2000)
= Araucaria bernieri subsp. buchholzii Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 16(2): 104 (2009)
species :
Araucaria bidwillii Hook.; London J. Bot. 2: 503, t. 18, 19 (1843)
Name: Bunya pine
Distribution: Cameroon [I]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; China [I] (Guangdong [I], Fujian [I], Guangxi [I], Yunnan [I]); Taiwan [I]; Myanmar [I]; Australia (Queensland: near Mount Molloy in the northeast and one near Gympie and inland from there in the south-east); New Caledonia [I]; Fiji [I]; Mexico [I]; Honduras [I]; Nicaragua [I]; Cuba [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Venezuela [I]
23 cmn 29 mau reu 36 chi 38 tai 41 mya 50 AUS 60 fij nwc 79 mex 80 hon nic 81 cub pue 82 ven
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria bidwilliana Hort.; Blumeng.,ed. 3, Siebold & Voss 1: 1234 (1895), syn.
= Araucaria bidwillii var. pendula Van Geert; Nursery Cat. (Auguste Van Geert) 53: 11 (1863)
= Columbea bidwillii (Hook.) Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 601 (1867)
= Dammara bidwillii (Hook.) M.Guilf.; Cat. Pl. (Guilfoyle) 14, nom. illeg. nom. superfl.
= Marywildea bidwillii (Hook.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia (2006)
species :
Araucaria biramulata J.T.Buchholz; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, 21: 279 (1949)
Name: Biramule araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (NW-New Caledonia, S-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN R
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria rulei var. pendula Bars.; Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 25: 162 (1909)
= Eutacta cookii var. ovalifolia Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 613 (1867)
= Eutassa biramulata (J.T.Buchholz) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria columnaris (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Hook.f.; Bot. Mag, t. 4635 (1852)
Name: New Caledonia pine, Cook´s pine
Distribution: Cameroon [I]; Mozambique [I]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Chagos Arch. [I] (Diego Garcia [I]); Taiwan [I]; Myanmar [I]; New Caledonia (S-New Caledonia, Ile des Pins, Loyalty Isl.); Tuvalu [c]; Cook Isl. [I] (widespread); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); W-USA [I] (California [I]); Honduras [I]; Venezuela [I]; Peru [I]
23 cmn 26 moz 29 cgs mau reu 38 tai 41 mya 60 NWC tuv 61 coo 62 gum mic 76 usa 80 hon 82 ven 83 per
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria albospica Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 611 (1867)
= Araucaria cookii R.Br. ex D.Don; Trans. Linn. Soc. 18: 164 (1841)
= Araucaria cookii var. gracilis Carrière; Conif. ed. II (1867)
= Araucaria intermedia R.Br. ex Vieill.; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. IV. 16: 54 (1861)
= Araucaria lavoixii Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 21(1): 5 (2014)
= Columbea angustifolia Bertol.; Bologn. Opusc. Sci. 3: 411 (1819)
= Cupressus columnaris G.Forst.; Fl. Ins. Austr. 67 (1786)
= Eutacta cookii (R.Br.) Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 612 (1867)
= Eutacta cookii var. gracilis Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 613 (1867)
= Eutacta cookii var. viridis Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 613 (1867)
= Eutacta humilis Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 616 (1867)
= Eutacta minor Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 614 (1867)
= Eutassa columnaris (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex A.Cunn.; A. B. Lamb., Descr. Pinus 2nd edn 2: pp. unnumbered (1832)
Name: Hoop pine, Moreton Bay pine
Distribution: Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Rodrigues [I]; China [I] (Guangdong [I], Fujian [I], Yunnan [I]); Taiwan [I]; Andaman Isl. [I]; Myanmar [I]; Java [I]; Australia (Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, south to the Bellinger River, NE-New South Wales); Fiji [I]; Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I]); Guam [I]; Mexico [I]; Honduras [I]
29 mau reu rod 36 chi 38 tai 41 and mya 42 jaw 50 AUS 60 fij 61 sci 62 gum 79 mex 80 hon
Synonyms: hidden
= Altingia cunninghamii G.Don; Loudon Hort. Brit. 403 (1830), nom. nud.
= Araucaria cunninghamii f. glauca (Antoine) F.M.Bailey; Compr. Cat. Queensland Pl. 513 (1913)
= Araucaria cunninghamii subsp. tahitiensis Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 20(1): 19 (2013)
= Araucaria cunninghamii var. glauca (Antoine) Endl.; Syn. Conif: 187 (1847)
= Araucaria cunninghamii var. longifolia Endl.; Syn. Conif. 187 (1847)
= Araucaria glauca Antoine; Conif. 105, t. 44 (1841)
= Eutacta cunninghamii (Aiton ex A.Cunn.) Link; Linnaea 15: 545 (1842)
= Eutacta cunninghamii var. glauca (Antoine) Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 609 (1867)
= Eutacta cunninghamii var. pendula Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 609 (1867)
= Eutacta cunninghamii var. taxifolia Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 609 (1867)
= Eutassa cunninghamii (Aiton ex A.Cunn.) Sweet; Hort. Brit. 2nd edn, 623 (1839)
variant :
var. papuana Lauterb.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 50(4): 51 (1913)
Distribution: New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Japen Isl., Fergusson Isl.); Bismarck Arch.
42 NWG 43 BIS
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria beccarii Warb.; Monsunia 1: 187 (1900), obs.
= Araucaria columnaris subsp. papuana (Lauterb.) Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 16(1): 43 (2009)
species :
Araucaria goroensis R.R.Mill & Ruhsam; Edinburgh J. Bot. 74(2): 125 (2017)
Distribution: New Caledonia
60 NWC
species :
Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Franco; An. Inst. Super. Agron., Lisboa 19: 11 (1952), reimpr.
Name: Norfolk Island Pine, Star pine
Distribution: Benin [I]; D.R.Congo [Zaire] [I]; Mozambique [I]; China [I] (Fujian [I], Yunnan [I]); Taiwan [I]; Bangladesh [I]; Myanmar [I]; Java [I]; Lord Howe Isl. [I]; Norfolk Isl. (incl. Phillip Isl.); New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Tonga [I]; Niue [I]; Fiji [I]; Oeno Atoll [I]; Palau [I]; Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I]; Marshall Isl. [I] (Majuro [I]); Mexico [I]; Belize [I]; Honduras [I]; Panama [I]; Hispaniola [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I] (St. Croix [I]); Colombia [I]; Isla Margarita [I]; Venezuela [I]; Ecuador [I]; Bolivia [I]
22 ben 23 zai 26 moz 36 chi 38 tai 40 ban 41 mya 42 jaw 50 lhi NFK 51 ctm nzl 60 fij nue ton 61 pit 62 gum mic mrs plu 79 mex 80 blz hon pan 81 his pue ven vir 82 clm ven 83 bol ecu
Conservation Status: IUCN V
Synonyms: hidden
= Altingia excelsa (Lamb.) G.Don; Loudon Hort. Brit. 403 (1830)
= Araucaria excelsa (Lamb.) Aiton; Hort. Kew., ed. 2 [Aiton] 5: 412 (1813)
= Araucaria excelsa var. glauca Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. 420 (1855)
= Araucaria excelsa var. goldieana ( T.Moore) Raffill; Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 40: 353 (1906)
= Araucaria excelsa var. speciosissima Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 46: 451 (1874)
= Columbea excelsa (Lamb.) Spreng.; Syst. Veg., ed. 16 [Sprengel] 4(2, Cur. Post.): 215 (1827)
= Dombeya excelsa Lamb.; Descr. Pinus, ed. I. 87
= Eutacta excelsa (Lamb.) Link; Linnaea 15: 544 (1841)
= Eutacta excelsa var. aurea-variegata Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 611 (1867)
= Eutacta excelsa var. monstrosa Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 611 (1867)
= Eutacta excelsa var. variegata-alba Carrière; Traité Gén. Conif. ed. 2: 611 (1867)
= Eutassa heterophylla Salisb.; Trans. Linn. Soc. 8: 316 (1807)
species :
Araucaria humboldtensis J.T.Buchholz; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2. 21: 279 (1949)
Name: Humboldt araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (SC-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN V
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa humboldtensis (J.T.Buchholz) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria hunsteinii K.Schum.; K. Schumach. & Hollr. Fl. Kais. Wilh. Land. 11 (1889)
Name: Klinki pine
Distribution: Taiwan [I]; New Guinea (Papua New Guinea); Bismarck Arch.
38 tai 42 NWG 43 BIS
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria hunsteinii subsp. klinkii (Lauterb.) Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 16(1): 43 (2009)
= Araucaria hunsteinii var. klinkii (Lauterb.) Silba; Phytologia 68(1): 26 (1990)
= Araucaria klinkii Lauterb.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 50: 48 (1913)
= Araucaria schumanniana Warb.; Monsunia 1: 187 (1900)
= Titanodendron hunsteinii (K.Schum.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia (2006)
= Titanodendron klinkii (Lauterb.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia (2006)
= Titanodendron schumannianum (Warb.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan; Komarovia (2006)
species :
Araucaria laubenfelsii Corbasson; Adansonia, n. s. 8: 467 (1968)
Name: Laubenfels´ araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (SC-New Caledonia, S-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN R
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa laubenfelsii (Corbasson) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria luxurians (Brongn. & Gris) de Laub.; Gaussen. Gymnosp. Act. & Foss, 11(14): 40 (1970), without basionym date, et in Fl. N. Caled. & Depend. 4: 92 (1972), with basionym date
Name: Coast araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (C-New Caledonia, S-New Caledonia, Iles Bélep)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN E
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria cookii var. luxurians Brongn. & Gris; Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. ser. 5, 13: 354 (1871)
= Araucaria columnaris f. luxurians (Brongn. & Gris) E.H.Wilson; J. Arnold Arbor. 7: 84 (1926)
= Araucaria rulei var. patens Bars.; Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. Pisa, Mem. 25: 162 (1909)
= Eutassa luxurians (Brongn. & Gris) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria mackeeii Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 22(1): 25 (2015)
Distribution: New Caledonia
60 NWC
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Araucaria montana Brongn. & Gris; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 13: 358 (1870 publ. 1871)
Name: Mountain araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia
60 NWC
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa montana (Brongn. & Gris) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria muelleri (Carrière) Brongn. & Gris; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 13: 362 (1870 publ. 1871)
Name: Mueller´s araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (S-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN V
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa latifolia de Laub.; Novon 24(2): 130 (2015)
= Eutacta muelleri Carrière; Rev. Hortic. 392 (1866)
= Eutacta muelleri var. microphylla Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 37: 392 (1866)
= Eutassa muelleri (Carrière) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria nemorosa de Laub.; Trav. Lab. For. Toulouse, Tome I. 8: Art. 5, 1 (1969)
Name: Port Boisé araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (S-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN E
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa nemorosa (de Laub.) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria neocookii Silba; J. Int. Conifer Preserv. Soc. 22(1): 25 (2015)
Distribution: New Caledonia
60 NWC
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Araucaria rulei F.Muell. ex Lindl.; Gard. Chron. 868 (1861)
Name: Rule´s araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (S-New Caledonia, C-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN E
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria rulei F.Muell.; Essay Pl. Coll. E. Fitzalan Exped. Burdekin, 19 1860 (1861), obs.
= Araucaria rulei var. compacta (Carrière) Bailey
= Araucaria rulei var. elegans H.J.Veitch; Man. Conif. 197 (1881)
= Araucaria rulei var. goldieana ( T.Moore) Mast.; J. Hort. Soc. London 14: 198 (1892)
= Araucaria rulei var. polymorpha (Carrière) Bailey
= Araucaria van-gaertii Hort.; ex Dallim. & A. B. Jacks., Handb. Conif. 160 (1923), syn.
= Eutacta rulei (F.Muell.) Carrière; Rev. Hortic. 279 (1866)
= Eutacta rulei var. compacta Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 37: 292 (1866)
= Eutacta rulei var. polymorpha Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 37: 350 (1866)
= Eutassa rulei (F.Muell.) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria schmidii de Laub.; Trav. Lab. For. Toulouse, Tome I. 8: Art. 5, 1 (1969)
Name: Schmid´s araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (NE-New Caledonia: Mt. Panie)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN V
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa schmidii (de Laub.) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria scopulorum de Laub.; Trav. Lab. For. Toulouse, Tome I. 8: Art. 5, 1 (1969)
Name: Rock araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (EC-New Caledonia, NW-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Conservation Status: IUCN E
Synonyms: hidden
= Eutassa scopulorum (de Laub.) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
species :
Araucaria subulata Vieill.; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. IV. 16: 55 (1861)
Name: Narrow-leaf araucaria
Distribution: New Caledonia (S-New Caledonia, NE-New Caledonia)
60 NWC
Synonyms: hidden
= Araucaria balansae Brongn. & Gris; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 13: 351 (1870 publ. 1871)
= Eutacta subulata (Vieill.) Carrière; Conif. ed. II. 614 (1867)
= Eutassa subulata (Vieill.) de Laub.; Araucariaceae 42 (2009)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

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With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

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