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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

435.0000 Family Ericaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 159 (1789), nom. cons.
127 genera, ca. 4500 spp. The inclusion of Empetraceae, Pyrolaceae, Epacridaceae and Monotropaceae follows conclusive molecular evidence.
Species listed in database: 4539; hybrids: 125
= Andromedaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 428 (1843)
= Arbutaceae Bromhead; Mag. Nat. Hist., n. s. 4: 337, 338 (1840)
= Arctostaphylaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 106 (1858)
= Azaleaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 272, 294 (1818)
= Diplarchaceae Klotzsch; Allgem. Deutsch. Nat. Hist. Zeit. 3: 230 (1857)
= Empetraceae Hook. & Lindl.; W. J. Hook., Fl. Scot.: 297 (1821), nom. cons.
= Epacridaceae R.Br.; Prodr.: 535 (1810), nom. cons.
= Hypopityaceae Klotzsch; Linnaea 24: 11 (1851)
= Ledaceae J.F.Gmel.; Allg. Gesch. Pflanzengifte, ed. 2: 404 (1803)
= Menziesiaceae Klotzsch; Linnaea 24: 11 (1851)
= Monotropaceae Nutt.; Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 272 (1818), nom. cons.
= Oxycoccaceae A.Kern.; Pflanzenleben 2: 713, 714 (1891)
= Prionotaceae Hutch.; Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 306 (1969)
= Pyrolaceae Lindl.; Syn. Brit. Fl.: 175 (1829), nom. cons.
= Rhododendraceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 158 (1789)
= Rhodoraceae Vent.; Tabl. Règne Vég. 2: 449 (1799)
= Salaxidaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 104 (1858)
= Salazariaceae F.A.Barkley; Phytologia 32: 304 (1975)
= Stypheliaceae Horan.; Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 72 (1834)
= Vacciniaceae DC. ex Perleb; Vers. Arzneikr. Pfl.: 228 (1818), nom. cons.
435.3001 Genus Arbutus L.; Sp. Pl. 1: 395 (1753)
Distribution: N- and C-America, W-Europe, Mediterranean, SW-Asia; 1 extending to Crimea and W-Transcaucasia
Species listed in database: 11; hybrids: 2
= Unedo Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Port. 1: 415 (1809)
species :
Arbutus andrachne L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2.: 566 (1762)
Name: Östlicher Erdbeerbaum (DE); Eastern Strawberry-tree (EN)
Distribution: Croatia; S-Albania; European Turkey; Greece (widespread lowlands, Kerkyra, Ionian Isl., Thasos, Samothraki, Evvoia, Sporades, Kiklades: Milos); Crete (W- & C-Crete); Crimea; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Samos, Kos, Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania)
13 ALB CRO GRC KRI TUE 14 KRY 33 AZE GEO 34 CYP EAI ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus andrachne f. angutiserrata H.Lindb.; Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn., Ser. B, Opera Biol. 2(7): 25 (1946)
= Arbutus idaea Gand.; Fl. Cret.: 70 (1916)
= Arbutus integrifolia Lam.; Encyc. 1: 227 (1783)
= Arbutus lucida Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 1: 119 (1840)
= Arbutus sieberi Klotzsch; Linnaea 24: 71 (1851)
species :
Arbutus arizonica (A.Gray) Sarg.; Gard. and For. 4: 317 fig. 54 (1891), et N. Amer. Sylva 5: 127 t. 233
Name: Arizona madrone
Distribution: USA (Arizona, New Mexico); Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas)
76 USA 77 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus xalapensis subsp. arizonica (A.Gray) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 12: 18 (1982)
= Arbutus xalapensis var. arizonica A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer., ed. 2. suppl. 2(1): 396 (1886)
species :
Arbutus bicolor S.González, M.González & P.D.Sørensen; Acta Bot. Mex. 99: 6 (2012)
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Mexico State, Michoacan, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa)
79 MEX
species :
Arbutus canariensis Duhamel; Arb. ed. II. 1: 80 (1800)
Name: Kanarischer Erdbeerbaum (DE); Madronero canario (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus callicarpa Buch; Phys. Beschr. Canar. Ins.: 146 (1828)
= Arbutus longifolia Andrews; Bot. Repos. 10: t. 664 (1814)
= Arbutus procera Sol. ex DC.; Prodr. 7: 581 (1839)
species :
Arbutus madrensis S.González; Acta Bot. Mex. 17: 8 (1992)
Distribution: Mexico (Durango, Jalisco, Nayarit, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Zacatecas)
79 MEX
species :
Arbutus menziesii Pursh; Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 282 (1813)
Name: Pacific madrone
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia); USA (California, Oregon, Washington State)
71 CDN 73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus menziesii var. elliptica DC.; Prodr. 7: 582 (1839)
= Arbutus menziesii var. oblongifolia DC.; Prodr. 7: 582 (1839)
= Arbutus procera Douglas ex Lindl.; Bot. Reg. t. 1753 (1835)
species :
Arbutus mollis Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 281. t. 260 (1818)
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Zacatecas)
79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus occidentalis McVaugh & Rosatti; Contrib. Univ. Mich. Herb. 11(5): 303 (1978)
= Arbutus occidentalis var. villosa McVaugh & Rosatti; Contrib. Univ. Mich. Herb. 11(5): 304 (1978)
species :
Arbutus pavarii Pamp.; Archiv. Bot., Forli 12: (n. s. ii.) 131, in clavi, 132 (1936)
Distribution: Libya
20 LBY
species :
Arbutus tessellata P.D.Sørensen; Brittonia 39(2): 263 (1987)
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Nayarit, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas)
79 MEX
species :
Arbutus unedo L.; Sp. Pl. 395 (1753)
Name: Westlicher Erdbeerbaum (DE); Western Strawberry-tree (EN); Madrono (ES)
Distribution: Ireland; Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France; Monaco; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); +San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; North Macedonia; Albania; European Turkey; Greece (widespread lowlands, incl. many islands); Crete (W- & C-Crete); European Russia; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Canary Isl. [I] (Tenerife [I]); Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Fourni, Samos, Dodecanese, Kos, Nisyros, Tilos, Karpathos, Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (SW-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Vietnam [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], Queensland [I], Victoria [I]); New Zealand [I]
10 IRE 11 ger 12 BAL cis COR FRA MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH CRO GRC ITA KRI NMA PEL PTL SIC SLV SMA TUE 14 RUS 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 cny 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI LEB TUR 41 vie 50 aus 51 nzl
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus cassinifolia Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 119 (1840)
= Arbutus crispa Hoffmanns.; Verz. Pfl. Nachtr. 1: 204 (1824)
= Arbutus croomii Hort.; Gard. Chron. (1884) II. 492
= Arbutus intermedia Heldr. ex Nyman; Consp. 490 (1881)
= Arbutus laurifolia L.f.; Suppl. 238 (1782)
= Arbutus microphylla Anon.; Gard. Chron., n.s. 22: 49 (1884), nom. illeg.
= Arbutus nothocomaros Heldr. ex Nyman; Consp. fl. Eur. Suppl. 2: I. 214 (1889)
= Arbutus procumbens Kluk ex Besser; Prim. Fl. Galiciae Austriac. 2: 355 (1809)
= Arbutus salicifolia Cels ex Hoffmanns.; Verz. Pfl.-Kult., Nachtr. 1: 204 (1824)
= Arbutus serratifolia Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 288 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Arbutus turbinata Pers. ex Rchb.; Fl. Germ. Excurs. 1: 416 (1831)
= Arbutus unedo f. crispa (DC.) Braun-Blanq.; 1665 (1926)
= Arbutus unedo f. integrifolia (Sims) Braun-Blanq.; 1665 (1926)
= Arbutus unedo f. rubra (Aiton) Rehder; Bibliogr. Cult. Trees: 536 (1949)
= Arbutus unedo f. salicifolia (Rouy) Braun-Blanq.; 1665 (1926)
= Arbutus unedo f. serratifolia (Salisb.) Braun-Blanq.; 1665 (1926)
= Arbutus unedo f. subcrenata Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 32: 212 (1941)
= Arbutus unedo var. alba W.T.Aiton; Hortus Kew. 3: 56 (1811)
= Arbutus unedo var. crispa (Hoffmanns.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 102 (1908)
= Arbutus unedo var. croomii Anon.; Gard. Chron., n.s. 22: 492 (1884)
= Arbutus unedo var. ellipsoidea Aznov.; Magyar Bot. Lapok 3: 9 (1904)
= Arbutus unedo var. integerrima Sims; Bot. Mag. 49: t. 2319 (1822)
= Arbutus unedo var. integrifolia Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 102 (1908), nom. superfl.
= Arbutus unedo var. rubra Aiton; Hort. Kew. 2: 71 (1789)
= Arbutus unedo var. salicifolia (Cels ex Hoffmanns.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 102 (1908)
= Arbutus unedo var. salicifolia Regel; Index Seminum (LE, Petropolitanus) 1856: 31 (1856)
= Arbutus unedo var. serratifolia Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 102 (1908), nom. inval.
= Arbutus unedo var. tangerina Pau; Mem. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 12: 358 (1924)
= Arbutus unedo var. turbinata Pers.; 482 (1805)
= Arbutus vulgaris Bubani; Fl. Pyren. 2: 7 (1831)
= Unedo edulis Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Port. 1: 415 (1809)
= Unedo globosa Jord.; Jord. & Fourr. Ic. Fl. Eur. 3: 42 (1904)
= Unedo oviformis Jord.; Jord. & Fourr. Ic. Fl. Eur. 3: 42 (1904)
species :
Arbutus xalapensis Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 279 (1819)
Name: Texas madrone
Distribution: USA (New Mexico, Texas); Mexico (Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Hidalgo, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacan, México State, México Distrito Federal, Morelos, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas); Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua
77 USA 79 MEX 80 ELS GUA HON NIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus densiflora Benth.; Pl. Hartw.: 15 (1839)
= Arbutus densiflora Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 280. t. 260 (1818)
= Arbutus densiflora var. petiolaris (Kunth) Loes.; Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, 3: 219 (1903)
= Arbutus donnell-smithii Small; N. Amer. Fl. 29: 85 (1914)
= Arbutus floribunda M.Martens & Galeotti; Bull. Acad. Brux. 9: 534 (1842)
= Arbutus glandulosa M.Martens & Galeotti; Bull. Acad. Brux. 9: 533 (1842)
= Arbutus laurifolia Lindl.; Bot. Reg. t. 67 (1839)
= Arbutus laurina M.Martens & Galeotti; Bull. Acad. Brux. 9: 535 (1842)
= Arbutus macrophylla M.Martens & Galeotti; Bull. Acad. Brux. 9: 534 (1842)
= Arbutus paniculata M.Martens & Galeotti; Bull. Acad. Brux. 9: 535 (1842)
= Arbutus peninsularis Rose & Goldman; Contrib. US. Nat. Herb. 13: 312 (1911)
= Arbutus petiolaris Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 3: 281 (1818)
= Arbutus prunifolia Klotzsch; Linnaea 24: 73 (1851)
= Arbutus rubescens Bertol.; Fl. Guatimal. 20. t. 7 (1840)
= Arbutus varians Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 77 (1841)
= Arbutus villosa Willd. ex Klotzsch; Linnaea 24: 72 (1851)
= Arbutus xalapensis var. pubescens Benth.; Pl. Hartw.: 66 (1840)
= Arctostaphylos rubescens (Bertol.) Hemsl.; Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 2: 279 (1881)
= Comarostaphylis glauca Buckley; Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad. ´1861´ 461 (1862)
= Comarostaphylis rubescens (Bertol.) Klotzsch; Linnaea 24: 77 (1851)
variant :
var. texana (Buckley) A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer., ed. 2. 2(1): 397 (1886)
Distribution: USA (Texas); Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo)
77 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus xalapensis subsp. texana (Buckley) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 12: 18 (1982)
= Arbutus texana Buckley; Proc. Acad. Sci. Philad. ´1861´ 460 (1862)
species :
Arbutus ×andrachnoides Link; Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 395 (1821)
Name: Hybrid-Erdbeerbaum (DE); Hybrid Strawberry-tree (EN)
Distribution: Frequent wherever the parent species grow together; Croatia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia)
13 CRO GRC KRI 34 EAI TUR
Remarks: Arbutus unedo x Arbutus andrachne
Synonyms: hidden
= Arbutus ×hybrida Ker Gawl.; Bot. Reg. 8: t. 619 (1822)
= Arbutus ×serratifolia G.Lodd.; Bot. Cab. 6: t. 580 (1822), nom. illeg.
species :
Arbutus ×androsterilis Salas, Acebes & del Arco; Taxon 42(4): 789 (1993)
Distribution: Canary Isl.
21 CNY
Remarks: A. canariensis x A. unedo
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life