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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

472.0000 Family Orobanchaceae Vent.; Tabl. Règne Vég. 2: 292 (1799), nom. cons.
95 genera, ca. 2150 spp. Phylogeny: McNeal et al. 2013, Pinto-Carrasco et al. 2017, Nickrent (2020)
Species listed in database: 2189; hybrids: 76
= Aeginetiaceae Livera; Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard (Peradeniya) 10: 153 (1927)
= Buchneraceae Lilja; Skånes Fl., ed. 2: 979 (1870)
= Cyclocheilaceae Marais; Kew Bull. 35: 805 (1981)
= Euphrasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 239 (1820)
= Lindenbergiaceae Doweld; Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xlix (2001)
= Melampyraceae Rich. ex Hook. & Lindl.; Hook., Fl. Scot.: 2: 213 (1821)
= Nesogenaceae Marais; Kew Bull. 35: 798 (1981)
= Pedicularidaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 99 (1789)
= Phelypaeaceae Horan.; Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 73 (1834)
= Rhinanthaceae Vent.; Tabl. Règne Vég. 2: 295 (1799)
472.0612 Genus Bellardia All.; Fl. Pedem. 1: 61 (1785)
Distribution: Mediterranean, W-Asia. Resurrection of genus see Uribe-Tank (2016)
Species listed in database: 2
= Lasiopera Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Portug. 1: 298 (1813)
= Trixago Steven; Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 6: 4 (1823)
species :
Bellardia trixago (L.) All.; Fl. Pedem. 1: 61 (1785)
Name: Mediterranean lineseed (EN); Bunte Bellardie (DE); Gallocresta bicolor (ES)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; San Marino; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Pico); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Hierro, La Palma); Sudan (incl. Jbel Marra); South Sudan; Ethiopia [I]; Kenya [I]; South Africa [I]; La Réunion [I]; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (E-Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (N-Iran, W-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, Jazira, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); USA [I] (California [I], Texas [I]); Peru [I]; Brazil [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Valparaíso [I], Maule [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Aisén [I])
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA SIC SMA SRB TUE 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR 24 eth SSU SUD 25 ken 27 saf 29 reu 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 50 aus 76 usa 77 usa 83 per 84 bra 85 arg cle uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Alectorolophus trixago (L.) M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur. Caucasus 2: 68 (1808)
= Bartsia bicolor DC.; Ic. Rar. t. 10 (1808)
= Bartsia capensis (L.) Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 2: 773 (1825)
= Bartsia maxima (Willd.) Pers.; Syn. 2: 151 (1806)
= Bartsia rhinanthoides Hochst. ex Benth.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 10: 543 (1846)
= Bartsia trixago L.; Sp. Pl. 602 (1753)
= Bartsia versicolor (Lam.) Pers.; Syn. Pl. 2: 151 (1806)
= Bellardia carnea (Griseb.) Wettst.; Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3b): 102 (1893)
= Bellardia trixago var. flaviflora (Boiss.) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 20: 193 (1929)
= Bellardia trixago var. maxima Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 11: 134 (1909)
= Bellardia trixago var. versicolor (Lam.) Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 564 (1913)
= Buchnera africana L.; Pl. Rar. Afr. 12 (1760)
= Euphrasia trixago (L.) Vis.; Fl. Dalmat. 2: 175 (1847)
= Euphrasia versicolor (Willd.) Bubani; Fl. Pyren. 1: 274 (1897)
= Lasiopera rhinanthina Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Port. 1: 299. t. 58 (1813)
= Rhinanthus bicolor (DC.) Poir.; Encyc. Suppl. 5: 623 (1817)
= Rhinanthus capensis L.; Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 405 (1767)
= Rhinanthus capensis Willd.; Sp. pl. ed. 5, 3: 191 (1800), nom. illeg.
= Rhinanthus creticus F.Dietr.; Vollst. Gaertn. Lexik. 8: 137 (1808)
= Rhinanthus maritimus Lam.; Fl. Fr. 2: 353 (1779)
= Rhinanthus maximus Willd.; Sp. Pl. ed. 4. 3: 189 (1800), nom. illeg.
= Rhinanthus trixago (L.) L.; Syst. ed. XII. 1107 (1759)
= Rhinanthus versicolor Lam.; Encycl. (Lam.) 2(1): 61 (1786)
= Trixago apula Steven; Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 6: 4 (1823)
= Trixago apula var. flaviflora Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 4: 474 (1879)
= Trixago apula var. versicolor (Lam.) Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 2: 613 (1870)
= Trixago carnea Griseb.; Spicil. Fl. Rumel. 2: 12 (1844)
= Trixago maxima (Pers.) Webb & Berthel.; Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3(2
= Trixago rhinanthina (Hoffmanns. & Link) Link ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 2: 773 (1825)
= Trixago versicolor (Lam.) Webb & Berthel.; Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries (Phytogr.) 3(2) 3: 151 (1845)
species :
Bellardia viscosa (L.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey.; Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 2: 4 (1835)
Name: Gelbes Teerkraut (DE); Yellow Bartsia (EN)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark [I]; Netherlands [I]; Belgium [I]; Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Croatia; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Egypt (Nile Delta); Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, Faial, Corvo Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Hierro, La Palma); Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, NW-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Hawaii [I] (Hawaii Isl. [I]); Canada [I] (British Columbia [I]); USA [I] (Arkansas [I], California [I], Louisiana [I], Mississippi [I], Oregon [I], Texas [I], Washington State [I]); Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Metropolitana de Santiago [I], O´Higgins [I], Maule [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I], Aisén [I])
10 den GRB IRE 11 bgm ger net 12 BAL CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA SIC SRB TUE 20 ALG EGY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 63 haw 71 cdn 73 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 85 arg cle uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Bartsia maxima Gren. & Godr.; Fl. France Corse 2: 611 (1852), pro syn..
= Bartsia viscosa L.; Sp. Pl. 602 (1753)
= Eufragia viscosa (L.) Benth.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 10: 543 (1846)
= Eufragia viscosa var. suavis Costa; Introd. Fl. Cataluña: 189 (1864)
= Euphrasia linifolia Lam.; Fl. Franç. 2: 349 (1779), nom. illeg.
= Euphrasia pratensis Sebast. & Mauri; Fl. Roman. Prodr.: 199 (1818)
= Euphrasia viscidula Dumort.; Fl. Belg. 32 (1827)
= Euphrasia viscosa (L.) Sieber ex Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 1: 616 (1840)
= Lasiopera viscosa (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Port. 1: 301. t. 61 (1813)
= Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel; Parl., Fl. Ital. 6: 482 (1885)
= Rhinanthus maximus Lam.; Encycl. 2: 61 (1786)
= Rhinanthus viscosus (L.) Lam.; Fl. Fr. 2: 354 (1779)
= Trixago viscosa (L.) Rchb.; Fl. Germ. Excurs. 360 (1831)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life