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Ver. 19.2
April 1st, 2024

402.0000 Family Nyctaginaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 90 (1789), nom. cons.
32 genera, ca. 440 spp. Phylogeny: Douglas & Spellenberg (2010)
Species listed in database: 457; hybrids: 3
= Allioniaceae Horan.; Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 68 (1834)
= Bougainvilleaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 364 (1858)
= Mirabilidaceae W.R.B.Oliv.; Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 66: 294 (1936)
= Pisoniaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 363 (1858)
402.0401 Genus Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss.; Gen. Pl. 91 (1789) nom. cons.
Distribution: C- and tropical S-America
Species listed in database: 17; hybrids: 1
= Tricycla Cav.; Ic. 6: 78. t. 598 (1801)
= Josepha Vell.; Fl. Flum. 154 (1825)
species :
Bougainvillea berberidifolia Heimerl; Denkschr. Akad. Wien, Math.-Nat. 70: 121 (1900)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL
species :
Bougainvillea campanulata Heimerl; Ann. Conserv. & Jard. Bot. Geneve 17: 229 (1913), et Meded. Herb. Leid. No. 19, 33
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, Tarija); Paraguay (Alto Paraguay); Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman)
83 BOL 85 ARG PAR
species :
Bougainvillea fasciculata Brandão; Anais 37 Congr. Soc. Bot. Brasil 149-158 (1986)
Distribution: Brazil
84 BRA
variant :
var. spinosa Brandão & Laca-B.; Daphne 4(3): 21, fig. 1 (1994)
Distribution: Brazil (Minas Gerais)
84 BRA
species :
Bougainvillea glabra Choisy; Prodr. [A. DC.] 13(2): 437 (1847)
Name: Kahle Bougainvillea (DE); Trinitaria roja (ES); Paperflower (EN)
Distribution: S-Europe [c]; Morocco [c]; Algeria [c]; Tunisia [c]; Libya [c]; Canary Isl. [c] (Gran Canaria [c], La Gomera [c]); Cape Verde Isl. [c]; Guinea [c]; Burkina Faso [c]; Benin [c]; Cameroon [c]; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo] [c]; Chad [c]; Madagascar [c]; Taiwan [c]; Pakistan [c]; Nepal [c]; Bhutan [c]; India [c]; Maldives [c]; Bangladesh [c]; Andaman Isl. [c]; Nicobar Isl. [c]; Myanmar [c]; New Guinea [c]; New Zealand [c]; Rotuma Isl. [c]; Gilbert Isl. [c] (Tarawa [c]); Cook Isl. [c] (widespread, incl. Rarotonga [c]); Society Isl. [c] (Tahiti [c], Raiatea [c]); Tuamotu Arch. [c] (Makatea Isl. [c]); Austral Isl. [c] (Tubuai [c]); Palau [c] (Koror [c]); Northern Marianas [c] (Tinian, Rota [c]); Fed. States of Micronesia [c] (Ulithi [c], Murilo [c], Nomwin [c], Losap [c], Pohnpei [c]); Marshall Isl. [c] (Utirik [c], Likiep [c], Arno [c], Jaluit [c]); USA [c] (Florida [c], Texas [c]); Mexico [c]; Honduras [I]; Nicaragua [c]; Costa Rica [c]; Panama [c]; Bahamas [c]; Cuba [c]; Jamaica [c]; Dominican Republic [c]; Haiti [c]; Puerto Rico [c]; Virgin Isl. [c]; St. Martin/St. Maarten [c]; Antigua [c]; Montserrat [c]; Martinique [c]; St. Lucia [c]; St. Vincent [c]; Barbados [c]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Colombia [c]; Venezuela [c]; Guyana [c]; Surinam [c]; French Guiana [c]; Peru; Bolivia [c]; NE-Brazil (Pernambuco, Bahia); WC-Brazil (Goiás); SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina)
20 alg lby mor tun 21 cny cvi 22 ben bkn gui 23 bio cmn 24 cha 29 mdg 38 tai 40 ban bhu ind mdv nep pak 41 and mya ncb 42 nwg 51 nzl 60 gil rot 61 aui coo sci tua 62 mic mrn mrs plu 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 cos hon nic pan 81 aba bah bbd cub his jam mar mts pue stl stm stv trt vir 82 clm frg guy sur ven 83 bol PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Bougainvillea arborea Glaz.; Mém. Soc. Bot. France 3: 561 (1911), opus utique oppr.
= Bougainvillea brachycarpa Heimerl; Bot. Jahrb. 11: 88 (1889)
= Bougainvillea formosa W.Bull; Nursery Cat. (William Bull) 377: 5 (1904)
= Bougainvillea glabra var. acutibracteata Heimerl; Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1890: 159 (1891)
= Bougainvillea glabra var. alba Mendes & Viégas; Bragantia 1: 252 (1941)
= Bougainvillea glabra var. brachycarpa (Heimerl) Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 113 (1900)
= Bougainvillea glabra var. graciliflora Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 112 (1900)
= Bougainvillea glabra var. obtusibracteata Heimerl; Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1890: 158 (1891)
= Bougainvillea glabra var. sanderiana Dimmock; Amer. Florist (Chicago, 1885-1931) 10: 307 (1894)
= Bougainvillea rubicunda Schott ex Rohrb.; Mart. Fl. Bras. 14(2): 351 (1872)
= Bougainvillea sanderiana (Dimmock) W.Falc.bis; Gardening (Chicago) 4: 280 (1896)
= Bougainvillea spectabilis var. glabra (Choisy) Hook.; Bot. Mag. 80: 4811 (1854)
species :
Bougainvillea herzogiana Heimerl; Meded. Herv. Leid. No. 27, 12 (1915)
Distribution: Bolivia (Santa Cruz)
83 BOL
Conservation Status: Known only from type
species :
Bougainvillea infesta Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 40 (1879)
Name: Palo mataco
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, Tarija); Paraguay (Alto Paraguay); Argentina (Chaco, Jujuy, Salta)
83 BOL 85 ARG PAR
species :
Bougainvillea lehmanniana Heimerl; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 466 (1932)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Bougainvillea malmeana Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 119 (1901)
Distribution: WC-Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul)
84 BRA
species :
Bougainvillea modesta Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 118 (1901)
Name: Comomosi
Distribution: Bolivia (Beni, Chuquisaca, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija)
83 BOL
species :
Bougainvillea pachyphylla Heimerl ex Standl.; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, Bot. Ser. 8: 308 (1931)
Distribution: Ecuador; Peru
83 ECU PER
species :
Bougainvillea peruviana Humb. & Bonpl.; Pl. Aequin. 1: 173. t. 49 (1808)
Distribution: Bahamas [I]; Colombia [I]; Ecuador [I]; Peru
81 bah 82 clm 83 ecu PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Tricycla peruviana (Humb. & Bonpl.) Poir.; Encyc. Suppl. 5: 359 (1817)
species :
Bougainvillea pomacea Choisy; Prodr. [A. DC.] 13(2): 438 (1849)
Distribution: NE-Brazil
84 BRA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
Synonyms: hidden
= Bougainvillea glabra var. pomacea (Choisy) Luetzelb.; Estud. Bot. Nordéste 3: 29 (1926)
species :
Bougainvillea praecox Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 40 (1879)
Distribution: Bolivia (Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Tarija); WC-Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul); Paraguay (Alto Paraguay); Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Jujuy, Salta)
83 BOL 84 BRA 85 ARG PAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Bougainvillea praecox var. rhombifolia Heimerl; Verh. Zool-Bot. Ges. Wien 62: 4 (1912)
= Bougainvillea praecox var. spinosa Chodat & Hassl.; Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, 3: 415 (1903)
species :
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.; Sp. Pl. 2: 348 (1799)
Name: Bougainvillea, Santa rita
Distribution: Croatia [c]; Morocco [c]; Algeria [c]; Tunisia [c]; Libya [c]; Madeira [c]; Canary Isl. [c]; Cape Verde Isl. [c] (Santo Antao Isl. [c]); Guinea [c]; Burkina Faso [c]; Benin [c]; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo] [c]; Principe Isl. [c]; São Tomé [c]; Congo [Brazzaville] [c]; Central African Republic [c]; Chad [c]; Mozambique [c]; St. Helena [c]; Madagascar [c]; Bonin Isl. [c] (Chichijima [c]); Taiwan [c]; Pakistan [c]; Nepal [c]; Bhutan [c]; India [c]; Maldives [c]; Bangladesh [c]; Andaman Isl. [c]; Nicobar Isl. [c]; Myanmar [c]; Cambodia [c]; Vietnam [c]; Borneo [c]; Sulawesi [c]; Java [c]; New Guinea [c]; New Caledonia [c]; Vanuatu [c]; Rotuma Isl. [c]; Tonga [c]; Niue [c]; Fiji [c]; Gilbert Isl. [c] (Tarawa [c]); Society Isl. [c] (Tahiti [c], Raiatea [c]); Northern Marianas [c] (Saipan [c]); Guam [c]; Fed. States of Micronesia [c] (Murilo [c], Truk [c], Pohnpei [c]); Marshall Isl. [c] (Kwajalein [c], Majuro [c]); Wake Isl. [c]; Mexico [c]; Belize [c]; Honduras [c]; Bahamas [I]; Cuba [I]; Cayman Isl. [I]; Hispaniola [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I]; St. Barthélémy [I]; Antigua [I]; Guadeloupe [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [c]; Colombia [c]; Isla Margarita [I]; Venezuela (Bolívar); French Guiana [c]; Ecuador [c]; Galapagos [c]; Peru [c]; Bolivia [c]; N-Brazil (Pará, Amazonas); NE-Brazil (Ceara, Bahia); WC-Brazil (Brasilia Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso do Sul); SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro)
13 cro 20 alg lby mor tun 21 cny cvi mdr 22 ben bkn gui 23 bio caf con pri sao 24 cha 26 moz 28 sth 29 mdg 38 oga tai 40 ban bhu ind mdv nep pak 41 and cbd mya ncb vie 42 bor jaw nwg sul 60 fij gil nue nwc rot ton van 61 sci 62 gum mic mrn mrs wak 79 mex 80 blz hon 81 aba bah cay cub gdl his pue sba trt ven vir 82 clm frg VEN 83 bol ecu gal per 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Bougainvillea bracteata Pers.; Syn. Pl. [Pers.] 1: 418 (1805), nom. superfl.
= Bougainvillea brasiliensis J.F.Gmel.; Syst. Nat. ed. 13[bis]. 2: 632 (1791), nom. rej. prop.
= Bougainvillea peruviana Nees & Mart.; Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 11: 39 (1823), nom. illeg.
= Bougainvillea speciosa Schnizl.; Iconogr. Fam. Regn. Veg. 2: t. 104 (1843-1870)
= Bougainvillea spectabilis var. hirsutissima J.A.Schmidt; Mart., Fl. Bras. 14(2): 351 (1872)
= Bougainvillea spectabilis var. parviflora Mart. ex J.A.Schmidt; Mart., Fl. Bras. 14(2): 351 (1872)
= Bougainvillea spectabilis var. virescens (Choisy) J.A.Schmidt; Mart., Fl. Bras. 14(2): 351 (1872)
= Bougainvillea virescens Choisy; Prodr. [A. DC.] 13(2): 437 (1849)
= Josepha augusta Vell.; Fl. Flum. 154 (1825)
= Tricycla spectabilis (Willd.) Poir.; Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 5: 359 (1817)
species :
Bougainvillea spinosa (Cav.) Heimerl; Engl. & Prantl, Natürl. Pflanzenfam. 3(1b): 27 (1889)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Tarija); Paraguay (Alto Paraguay); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut, Cordoba, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG PAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Bougainvillea patagonica Decne.; Voy. Venus, Bot. [Atl.]: t. 8 (1864)
= Bougainvillea patagonica f. microbracteata Heimerl; Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 70: 122 (1901)
= Bougainvillea spinosa f. microbracteata (Heimerl) Heimerl; Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 17: 233 (1913)
= Bougainvillea spinosa f. parviflora (Phil.) Heimerl; Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 17: 233 (1913)
= Bougainvillea spinosa var. conferta Chodat; Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 2: 538 (1902)
= Tricycla spinosa Cav.; Ic. 6: 79. t. 598
= Tricycla spinosa var. parviflora Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 43: 534 (1873)
species :
Bougainvillea stipitata Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 88 (1874)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija); Argentina (Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Salta, Santiago del Estero, San Luis, Tucuman)
83 BOL 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Bougainvillea frondosa Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 89 (1874)
= Bougainvillea longispinosa Rusby; Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 6: 109 (1896)
= Bougainvillea stipitata var. fiebrigii Heimerl; Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 42: 76 (1908)
= Bougainvillea stipitata var. grisebachiana Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 116 (1900)
= Bougainvillea stipitata var. kuntzeana Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 117 (1900)
= Bougainvillea stipitata var. longispinosa (Rusby) Heimerl; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 70: 116 (1900)
= Bougainvillea stipitata var. stuckertiana Heimerl; Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 17: 228 (1913)
species :
Bougainvillea trollii Heimerl; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 464 (1932)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca)
83 BOL
Conservation Status: Known only from type
species :
Bougainvillea ×buttiana Holttum & Standl.; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, Bot. Ser. 23: 44 (1944)
Distribution: Somalia [c]; Mozambique Channel Isl. [Iles Éparses] [I] (+Ile Europa [I], Juan de Nova Isl. [c]); Taiwan [c]; peninsular Malaysia [c]; Mexico [c]; Belize [c]; Honduras [c]; Nicaragua [c]; Trinidad [c]; Colombia [c]; Venezuela (Bolívar); Ecuador [c]; Peru [c]
24 som 29 mci 38 tai 42 mly 79 mex 80 blz hon nic 81 trt 82 clm VEN 83 ecu per
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.2 (April 1st, 2024)

Covering 354,662 accepted species,
8,644 hybrids, 47,758 accepted infraspecific taxa and 996,179 synonyms,
in total 1,407,243* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life