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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

486.0000 Family Boraginaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 128 (1789), nom. cons., s. str.
118 genera, ca. 2000 spp.
Species listed in database: 2032; hybrids: 45
= Anchusaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 274, 302 (1818)
= Cerinthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 244 (1820)
= Cynoglossaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 406 (1843)
= Echiaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 2: 61 (1837)
= Onosmaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 437 (1820)
486.2132 Genus Buglossoides Moench; Methodus 418 (1794)
Distribution: mostly Mediterranean and Old World
Species listed in database: 5
species :
Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M.Johnst.; J. Arnold Arbor. 35: 42 (1954)
subspecies :
subsp. arvensis
Name: Acker-Steinsame (DE); Corn gromwell (EN); Mijo de sol (ES)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; ?Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; Baleares; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; European Russia; N-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (NE-Egypt, NW-coastal Egypt); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife); Ethiopia [I]; South Africa [I]; Lesotho [I]; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East [I] (Amur [I], Primorye [I]); Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Bamyan, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Logar, Nangarhar, Parwan); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir); China (Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Zhejiang); North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Kurram, N. W. Frontier Prov., Chitral, Swat, Murree, Pakistani Punjab); Nepal; N-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir); Australia [I] (Northern Territory [I], New South Wales [I], Tasmania [I], Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I]); New Zealand [I]; Canada [I] (British Columbia [I], Manitoba [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Québec [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arkansas [I], California [I], Colorado [I], Connecticut [I], District of Columbia [I], Delaware [I], Florida [I], Georgia [I], Iowa [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Kansas [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Minnesota [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], North Dakota [I], Nebraska [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oklahoma [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], South Carolina [I], South Dakota [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Vermont [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I], West Virginia [I], Wyoming [I]); Bolivia [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Aisén [I])
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO BAL CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY 24 eth 27 les saf 30 SIB 31 rfe 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 SAU 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO 40 IND NEP PAK 50 aus 51 nzl 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 83 bol 85 arg cle uru
Remarks: Subgen. Buglossoides, arvense agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Aegonychon arvense (L.) Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 354 (1821 publ. 1822)
= Buglossoides arvensis f. cyanea R.Fern.; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung., 19(1-4): 100 (1973). nom. nov.
= Buglossoides arvensis subsp. occidentalis Franco; Nova Fl. Portugal 2: 105, 566 (1984)
= Lithospermum arvense f. subcoerulescens Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 13: 243 (1886)
= Lithospermum arvense L.; Sp. Pl.: 132 (1753)
= Lithospermum arvense var. multicaule DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 6: 419 (1815)
= Lithospermum arvense var. punctatum Batt.; Fl. Algerie [Batt. & Trab.] Dicot.: 605 (1890)
= Lithospermum arvense var. ramosum A.F.Schwarz; 549 (1900)
= Lithospermum bicolor Bertol.; Misc. Bot. 1: 14 (1842)
= Lithospermum calycinum Wettst. ex Stapf; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 50: 30 (1885), nom. illeg.
= Lithospermum medium Chevall.; Fl. Gén. Env. Paris 2: 489 (1827)
= Lithospermum minus Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 21 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Lithospermum rugosum Lucé; Topogr. Nachr. Oesel: 43 (1823)
= Margarospermum arvense (L.) Decne.; Hist. Veg. Phan. 9: 31 (1840), Decne. in Jacquem. Voy. Bot. 122 (1844)
= Rhytispermum arvense (L.) Link; Handb. 1: 579 (1829)
= Rhytispermum medium Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, N. S. 17: 122 (1869)
subspecies :
subsp. sibthorpianum (Griseb.) R.Fern.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64(4): 379 (1971)
Distribution: Germany; Hungary; Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; European Russia; Crimea; Algeria; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey; Iran; Cyprus; Lebanon; Syria
11 GER HUN 13 ALB BUL GRC KRI NMA 14 KRY RUS 20 ALG 33 GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN LEB SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Aegonychon arvense subsp. sibthorpianum (Griseb.) Dostál; Folia Mus. Rer. Nat. Bohem. Occid., Bot. 21: 10 (1984)
= Buglossoides arvensis subsp. sibthorpiana (Griseb.) R.Fern.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 379 (1971)
= Buglossoides sibthorpiana (Griseb.) Czerep.; Sosud. Rast. SSSR: 113 (1981)
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. sibthorpianum (Griseb.) Stoj. & Stef.; 914 (1925)
= Lithospermum sibthorpianum Griseb.; Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 86 (1844)
= Lithospermum tenuiflorum Sm.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. 2: t. 158 (1836)
variant :
var. coerulescens (DC.) O.Erikss., A.Hansen & Sunding; Fl. Macaronesia, ed. 2, 1: 92 (1979)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Lanzarote)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Lithospermum arvense f. coerulescens (DC.) Em.Schmid & Gams; 2159 (1927)
= Lithospermum arvense f. coeruleum Borza
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. coerulescens (DC.) Rothm.; 258 (1963), nom. inval.
= Lithospermum arvense var. coerulescens DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 6: 419 (1815)
species :
Buglossoides incrassata (Guss.) I.M.Johnst.; J. Arnold Arbor. 35: 43 (1954)
subspecies :
subsp. incrassata
Name: Bläulicher Acker-Steinsame (DE); Blue Field Gromwell (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Czech Republic; Spain; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (NW-coastal Egypt); East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (NW-Syria, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania)
11 CZE ger 12 BAL COR FRA SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KRI NMA SIC TUE 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: Subgen. Buglossoides, arvense agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Buglossoides arvensis f. incrassata (Guss.) R.Fern.; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung., 19(1-4): 96 (1973)
= Buglossoides arvensis subsp. incrassata (Guss.) Kerguélen; Lejeunia, 120: 59 (1987)
= Lithospermum arvense f. incrassatum (Guss.) Em.Schmid & Gams; 2159 (1927)
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. incrassatum (Guss.) Ball; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 573 (1878)
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. incrassatum (Guss.) Bonnier & Layens; Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France: 222 (1894), isonym
= Lithospermum arvense var. incrassatum (Guss.) Batt.; Fl. Algerie [Batt. & Trab.] Dicot.: 605 (1890)
= Lithospermum arvense var. incrassatum (Guss.) Cincovic & Kojic; Fl. SR Srbije 6: 57 (1974), isonym
= Lithospermum arvense var. monstrosum Parl.; Fl. Ital. 6: 920 (1886)
= Lithospermum incrassatum Guss.; Ind. Sem. Hort. Boccad. (1826) 6, Fl. Sic. Prod. 1: 211
= Rhytispermum incrassatum (Guss.) Rchb.f.; Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 18: 67 (1858)
subspecies :
subsp. permixta (Jord.) L.Cecchi & Selvi; Taxon 63(5): 1076 (2014)
Distribution: N- & S-Spain; France
12 FRA SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Buglossoides arvensis subsp. permixta (Jord.) R.Fern.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 379 (1971)
= Buglossoides permixta (Jord.) Holub; Preslia 58(4): 301 (1986)
= Lithospermum arvense proles permixtum (Jord.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 316 (1908)
= Lithospermum arvense var. permixtum (Jord.) P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 736 (1937)
= Lithospermum permixtum Jord.; F. W. Schultz, Arch. Fl. France Allemagne: 344 (1855)
subspecies :
subsp. splitgerberi (Guss.) E.Zippel & Selvi; Taxon 58(2): 624 (2009)
Name: Splitgerber-Acker-Steinsame (DE); Splitgerber´s Field Gromwell (EN)
Distribution: Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Bayern, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Nordrhein-Westfalen [I], Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Czech Republic; France; Corsica; Italy; Sicily; East Aegaean Isl. (Rhodos); Turkey; Turkmenistan; etc.
11 CZE GER 12 COR FRA 13 ITA SIC 32 TKM 34 EAI TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Buglossoides arvensis subsp. gasparrinii (Heldr. ex Guss.) R.Fern.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 379 (1971)
= Buglossoides arvensis subsp. splitgerberi (Guss.) Giardina & Raimondo; Bocconea 20: 9 (2007)
= Buglossoides gasparrinii (Heldr. ex Guss.) Pignatti; Giorn. Bot. Ital., 113(5-6): 360 (1979 publ. 1980)
= Buglossoides incrassata subsp. leithneri (Heldr. ex Boiss.) E.Zippel & Clermont; Wilhalm & al., 41 (2006), nom. inval.
= Buglossoides splitgerberi (Guss.) Brullo; Colloqu. Phytosciolog. 12: 79 (1983)
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. gasparrinii (Heldr. ex Guss.) M.Laínz; Bol. Inst. Estud. Asturianos, Supl. Ci. 22: 25 (1976)
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. gasparrinii (Heldr. ex Guss.) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Collect. Bot. 11: 60 (1979), isonym
= Lithospermum arvense subsp. gasparrinii (Heldr.) M.Laínz; Bol. Inst. Estud. Astur., Supl. Cienc., 22(Aport. Conoc. Fl. Cantabro -Astur, 11): 25 (1976)
= Lithospermum gasparrinii Heldr. ex Guss.; Fl. Sic. Syn. 1: 217 (1843)
= Lithospermum incrassatum subsp. gasparrinii (Guss.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 518 (1881)
= Lithospermum leithneri Heldr. ex Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 4: 216 (1879), nom. inval.
= Lithospermum splitgerberi Guss.; Fl. Sicul. Syn. 1: 217 (1843)
species :
Buglossoides minima (Moris) R.Fern.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64(4): 379 (1971)
Distribution: Sardinia; Italy; Sicily
12 SAR 13 ITA SIC
Remarks: Subgen. Buglossoides
Synonyms: hidden
= Lithospermum minimum Moris; Stirp. Sard. Elench. 2: 7. (1828)
= Lithospermum tenuiflorum Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 3: 519 (1881)
= Rhytispermum minimum (Moris) Rchb.f.; Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 18: 68 (1858)
species :
Buglossoides rochelii (Friv.) Stoyanov, Mátis & Sennikov; Nordic J. Bot. 2023(10)-e04096: 8 (2023)
Distribution: Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; Greece; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; S-European Russia; SE-European Russia
13 BUL GRC NMA ROM 14 KRY MLD RUS UKR
Remarks: Subgen. Buglossoides. Synonymy fide Stoyanov et al. 2023
Conservation Status: IUCN I
Synonyms: hidden
= Buglossoides czernjajevii (Klokov) Czerep.; Sosud. Rast. SSSR: 113 (1981)
= Buglossoides glandulosa (Velen.) R.Fern.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 379 (1971)
= Lithospermum czernjajevii Klokov & Des.-Shost.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Kieff 14: 3 (1932), nomen, Klokov in Trav. Inst. Bot.,Univ. Kharkov, ed. Med. 1: 75, 76, descr (1936)
= Lithospermum glandulosum Velen.; Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag, Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1893(37): 46 (1893)
= Lithospermum rochelii Friv.; Flora (Regensburg) 18: 336 (1835)
species :
Buglossoides tenuiflora (L.f.) I.M.Johnst.; J. Arnold Arbor. 35: 42 (1954)
Name: Schmalblütige Rindszunge (DE)
Distribution: France; ?Sicily; Croatia; ?Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Greece; E-European Russia; Crimea; ?Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (NE-Egypt, NW-coastal Egypt); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Turkmenistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, S-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (EC-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Herat, Kabul); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Judean Desert, Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (NE-Saudi Arabia); Kuwait; Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Kurram, Peshawar, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Pakistani Punjab, Rawalpindi); NW-India (Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand)
12 FRA 13 CRO GRC KOS NMA SRB 14 KRY RUS 20 EGY LBY TUN 32 KAZ KGZ TKM 33 ARM GEO NCS 34 AFG CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 KUW SAU 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Buglossoides ramosissima Moench; Methodus: 418 (1794)
= Lithospermum aegyptiacum J.C.Mikan ex Schrank; Denkschr. Königl. Akad. Wiss. München 4: 73 (1813 publ. 1814)
= Lithospermum apulum Eichw.; Pl. Nov. Casp.-Cauc.: 6 (1831)
= Lithospermum fulvidulum Bertol.; Misc. Bot. 1: 13 (1842)
= Lithospermum tenuiflorum L.f.; Suppl. Pl.: 130 (1782)
= Myosotis tenuiflora (L.f.) Viv.; Fl. Libyc. Spec.: 9 (1824)
= Rhytispermum tenuiflorum (L.f.) Rchb.f.; Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 18: 67 (1858)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life