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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

526.0000 Family Caprifoliaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 210 (1789), nom. cons.
32-37 genera, ca. 1100 spp. Phylogeny see Lee et al. 2021
Species listed in database: 1073; hybrids: 34
= Diervillaceae Pyck; A. Backlund & N. Pyck, Taxon 47: 658 (1998)
= Dipsacaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 194 (1789), nom. cons.
= Linnaeaceae Backlund; A. Backlund & N. Pyck, Taxon 47: 658 (1998)
= Loniceraceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 272, 296 (1818)
= Loniceropsida Brongn.; Enum. Pl. Mus. Paris: xvii, 47 (1843)
= Morinaceae Raf.; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 88 (1820)
= Scabiosaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 563 (1820)
= Triplostegiaceae A.E.Bobrov ex Airy Shaw; Kew Bull. 18: 269 (1965)
= Valerianaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg. 227 (1802) nom. cons.
526.5005 Genus Centranthus Neck. ex Lam. & DC.; Fl. Franç. 4: 238 (1805)
Distribution: Europe, Mediterranean, Crimea and Caucasus (3). The genus is sometimes included in a Valeriana sensu latissimo, which seems too much lumping. A split of Valeriana into several genera would make more sense.
Species listed in database: 11; hybrids: 2
= Kentranthus Neck.; Elem. 1: 122 (1790), nom. inval.
= Hybidium Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, N. S. 16: 399 (1868)
species :
Centranthus amazonum Fridl. & A.Raynal; Adansonia 20(2): 328 (1998)
Distribution: Sardinia
12 SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus nervosus Moris; Elench. Sard. 2: 4 (1828) (tentative synonym)
= Valeriana amazonum (Fridl. & A.Raynal) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 147 (2018)
species :
Centranthus angustifolius (Mill.) DC.; Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 239 (1805)
Name: Schmalblättrige Spornblume
Distribution: NW-Switzerland; S- & E-France; N- & C-Italy
11 SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus ruber subsp. angustifolius (DC.) Batt.; Batt. & Trab., Fl. Algérie, Dicot.: 403 (1889)
= Centranthus ruber subsp. angustifolius (Mill.) Bonnier & Layens; Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France: 144 (1894)
= Ocymastrum angustifolium (Mill.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana angustifolia Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 4 (1768)
= Valeriana monandra Vill.; Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 2: 280 (1787)
species :
Centranthus battandieri Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 17: 115 (1926)
Distribution: Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus angustifolius subsp. battandieri (Maire) Maire; Jahand. & Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 725 (1934)
= Centranthus nevadensis subsp. battandieri (Maire) Fern.Casas & Molero; Treb. Inst. Bot. Barcelona 11: 30 (1987)
= Valeriana battandieri (Maire) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 147 (2018)
species :
Centranthus calcitrapae (L.) Dufr.; Hist. Nat. Méd. Fam. Valér. 39 (1811)
subspecies :
subsp. calcitrapae
Name: Fußangel-Spornblume (DE); Lagrimas de Virgen (ES), Annual Valerian (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Croatia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; European Russia; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Azores (Sao Jorge, Pico); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus)
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 CRO GRC ITA KRI PEL PTL SIC 14 KRY RUS 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR 34 CYP EAI TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus calcitrapae subsp. clausonis (Pomel) Sennen & Mauricio; Cat. Fl. Rif Orient.: 54 (1933)
= Centranthus calcitrapae subsp. gutierrezii (Pau) T.Romero & E.Rico; Ruizia 8: 274 (1989)
= Centranthus calcitrapae subsp. trichocarpus I.Richardson; Bot. Jour. Linn. Soc. 71: 232 (1976)
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. clausonis (Pomel) Batt.; Fl. Algerie [Batt. & Trab.] Dicot.: 403 (1889)
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. gutierrezii Pau; Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 3: 292 (1904)
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. intermedius Rouy & E.G.Camus; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 8: 82 (1903)
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. parviflorus (Miégev.) Rouy; Fl. France [Rouy] 8: 82 (1903)
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. pumila DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 6: 491 (1815)
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. trichocarpus (I.Richardson) O.Bolòs & Vigo ex Fanlo; B. Valdés, S. Talavera & E. Fernández-Galiano (eds.), Fl. Vasc. Andalucía Occid. 2: 601 (1987)
= Centranthus clausonis Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atlant.: 73 (1874)
= Centranthus macrosiphon var. micranthus Willk.; Prodr. Fl. Hispan. [Wilkomm & Lange] 2: 5 (1865)
= Centranthus pinnatifidus St.-Lag.; Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 122 (1880)
= Hybidium calcitrapa (L.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, N. S. 16: 399 (1868)
= Kentranthus calcitrapa (L.) Druce; List Brit Pl. 34 (1908)
= Ocymastrum calcitrapa (L.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 302 (1891)
= Rittera calcitrapae (L.) Raf.; Autikon Botanikon, 88 (1840)
= Valeriana annua Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 478 (1821 publ. 1822)
= Valeriana calcitrapae L.; Sp. Pl. 31 (1753)
= Valeriana laciniata Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 56 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Valeriana parviflora Miégev.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 14: 145 (1867)
= Valeriana rotundifolia Sm.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. 1: t. 31 (1806), nom. illeg.
= Valeriana stevenii Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 2: 436 (1844)
subspecies :
subsp. orbiculatus (Sm.) Meikle; Fl. Cyprus 2: 838, 1897 (1985)
Distribution: Cyprus
34 CYP
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus calcitrapae var. orbiculatus (Sm.) DC.; Prodr. [De Candolle] 4: 632 (1830)
= Centranthus orbiculatus (Sm.) Dufr.; Hist. Nat. Valér.: 39 (1811)
= Centranthus orbiculatus (Sm.) Roem. & Schult.; Syst. 1: 35 (1817), isonym
= Valeriana orbiculata Sm.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 21 (1806)
species :
Centranthus lecoqii Jord.; Pug. Pl. Nov. 76 (1852)
Distribution: Germany [I]; N-, SE- & E-Spain; Andorra; S-France
11 ger 12 ADO FRA SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus angustifolius proles lecoqii (Jord.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 8: 80 (1903)
= Centranthus angustifolius subvar. dertosensis O.Bolòs & Vigo; Fl. Països Catalans 3: 624 (1995)
= Centranthus angustifolius subsp. lecoqii (Jord.) Mateo & Figuerola; Fl. Analit. Prov. Valencia (IAM Investig. 14): 368 (1987)
= Centranthus angustifolius subsp. longicalcaratus Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 2: 97 (1889)
= Centranthus angustifolius var. lecoqii (Jord.) Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 2: 5 (1865)
= Centranthus angustifolius var. longecalcaratus Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 2: 27 (1888)
= Centranthus lecoqii var. longicalcaratus (Pau) J.López & Devesa; Acta Bot. Malac. 28: 205 (2003)
= Valeriana lecoquii (Jord.) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 148 (2018)
species :
Centranthus longiflorus Steven; Mém. Soc. Nat. Moscou 7: 272 (1829)
subspecies :
subsp. longiflorus
Distribution: Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan (Nachichevan); Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon)
33 ARM AZE GEO 34 IRQ LEB TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus angustifolius M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 67 (1808), nom. illeg.
= Centranthus elatus Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 10: 73 (1849)
= Centranthus longiflorus var. latifolius Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 3: 92 (1875)
= Ocymastrum longiflorum (Steven) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana angustifolia M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 24 (1808)
= Valeriana erotica Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 148 (2018), nom. nov. for Centranthus longiflorus Steven
subspecies :
subsp. junceus (Boiss. & Heldr.) I.Richardson; Bot. Jour. Linn. Soc. 71: 228 (1976)
Distribution: Albania; Greece
13 ALB GRC
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus junceus Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 10: 73 (1849)
= Centranthus ruber subsp. junceus (Boiss. & Heldr.) Maire & Petitm.; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 3, 9: 350 (1908)
= Ocymastrum junceum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana juncea (Boiss. & Heldr.) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 148 (2018)
subspecies :
subsp. kellereri (Stoj., Stef. & Georgiev) I.Richardson; Bot. Jour. Linn. Soc. 71: 227 (1976)
Distribution: W-Bulgaria
13 BUL
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus kellereri (Stoj., Stef. & T.Georgiev) Stoj. & Stef.; Fl. Bulg., ed. 3: 1090 (1948), as ´Kentranthus´
= Centranthus longiflorus var. kellereri Stoj., Stef. & Georgiev; Ber. Bulg. Bot. Ges. 11: 37 (1928)
= Valeriana kellereri (Stoj., Stef. & T.Georgiev) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 148 (2018)
species :
Centranthus macrosiphon Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. l(3): 57 (1843)
Distribution: Germany [I]; S- & SE-Spain; Italy [I]; Greece [I]; Morocco; Algeria; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I])
11 ger 12 SPA 13 grc ita 20 ALG MOR 50 aus
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus cadevallii Sennen; Treb. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 1917: 83 (1917)
= Centranthus dasycarpus Kunze; Del. Sem. Hort. Lips. (1847)
= Centranthus macrosiphon var. andalusii Fanlo; Lagascalia 14: 6 (1986), without type.
= Ocymastrum macrosiphon (Boiss.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana cadevallii (Sennen) Christenh. & Byng; Global Fl. 4: 147 (2018)
= Valeriana macrosiphon (Boiss.) Vilm.; Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. I. 916 (1863)
species :
Centranthus nevadensis Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(2): 120 (1856)
subspecies :
subsp. nevadensis
Distribution: S-Spain; Morocco (Rif)
12 SPA 20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus angustifolius Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 1: 291 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Centranthus angustifolius subsp. nevadensis (Boiss.) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 22: 294 (1931)
= Centranthus angustifolius subsp. rifanus Emb. & Maire; Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 17: 51 (1927)
= Centranthus angustifolius var. rifanus (Emb. & Maire) Maire; Jahand. et al., Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 725 (1934)
= Centranthus nevadensis subsp. nevadensis (Boiss.) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 22: 294 (1931)
= Centranthus nevadensis var. rifanus (Emb. & Maire) Maire; Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 725 (1934)
= Ocymastrum nevadense (Boiss.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana nevadensis (Boiss.) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 148 (2018)
subspecies :
subsp. atlanticus (I.Richardson) Dobignard; Index Syn. Fl. Afrique N. 5: 338 (2013)
Distribution: Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus angustifolius subsp. maroccanus (Rouy) Maire; Jahand. & Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 724 (1934)
= Centranthus angustifolius var. macrocentron Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. 17: 116 (1926)
= Centranthus angustifolius var. maroccanus (Rouy) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 17: 116 (1926)
= Centranthus lecoqii subsp. maroccanus (Rouy & E.G.Camus) I.Richardson; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 225 (1975)
= Centranthus longiflorus subsp. atlanticus I.Richardson; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71(3): 227 (1975 publ. 1976)
= Centranthus maroccanus Rouy; Fl. France [Rouy] 8: 80, in adnot. (1903)
= Centranthus maroccanus var. macrocentron Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 17: 116 (1926)
= Centranthus nevadensis subsp. maroccanus (Pau) Rivas Mart., A.Asensi, Molero Mesa & F.Valle; Rivasgodaya 6: 24 (1991)
= Centranthus nevadensis subsp. maroccanus (Rouy) Dobignard; J. Bot. Soc. Bot. France 28: 24 (2004), non Pau
= Centranthus nevadensis subsp. maroccanus (Rouy) Maire; Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 724 (1934)
= Centranthus nevadensis var. maroccanus Pau; Font Quer, Iter Marocc. 1930 no. 627, in sched. (1932)
= Valeriana atlantica (I.Richardson) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 147 (2018)
= Valeriana maroccana (Rouy) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 148 (2018)
species :
Centranthus ruber (L.) DC.; Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 4: 239 (1805)
subspecies :
subsp. ruber
Name: Rote Spornblume (DE); Red Valerian (EN)
Distribution: England [I]; Ireland [I]; Belgium [I]; Luxembourg [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Liechtenstein [I]; Austria [I]; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Monaco; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica; ?Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; San Marino [I]; Slovenia; Croatia; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; European Turkey; European Russia; Crimea [I]; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Azores [I] (Santa Maria Isl. [I], Sao Miguel Isl. [I], Terceira [I], Graciosa [I], Sao Jorge [I], Pico [I], Faial [I], Flores Isl. [I]); Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Lanzarote [I], Fuerteventura [I], Gran Canaria [I], Tenerife [I], La Gomera [I], Hierro [I], La Palma Isl. [I]); South Africa [I] (W-Cape Prov. [I]); Uzbekistan [I]; Georgia [Caucasus]; East Aegaean Isl. (Rhodos); Turkey (WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, N-Cyprus); Pakistan [I]; Java [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Northern Territory [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Lord Howe Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; Hawaii [I] (Maui [I]); USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I], Oregon [I], Utah [I], Washington State [I]); Bolivia [I]; Juan Fdz. Isl. [I]
10 grb ire 11 aut bgm ger lie lux swi 12 ADO BAL cis COR FRA GIB MCO POR SPA 13 CRO ITA KOS MNT NMA SIC SLV sma SRB TUE 14 kry RUS 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 azo cny mdr 27 saf 32 uzb 33 GEO 34 CYP EAI TUR 40 pak 42 jaw 50 aus lhi 51 nzl 63 haw 73 usa 76 usa 83 bol 85 jnf
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus latifolius Dufr.; Hist. Nat. Valér.: 38 (1811)
= Centranthus marinus Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 479 (1821 publ. 1822)
= Centranthus maritimus DC.; Prodr. 4: 632 (1830)
= Ocymastrum rubrum (L.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana alba Mazziari; Ionios Anthol. 2: 450 (1834)
= Valeriana florida Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 55 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Valeriana hortensis Garsault; Fig. Pl. Méd.: t. 608 (1764), opus utique rej.
= Valeriana rubra L.; Sp. Pl. 31 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. sibthorpii (Heldr. & Sart. ex Boiss.) Hayek; Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 2: 491 (1930)
Distribution: S-Albania; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; East Aegaean Isl.; Cyprus
13 ALB GRC KRI 34 CYP EAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus ruber var. sibthorpii (Heldr. & Sartori ex Boiss.) Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 747 (1901)
= Centranthus ruber var. velenovskyi (Vandas) I.Richardson; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 221 (1975 publ. 1976)
= Centranthus sibthorpii Heldr. & Sart. ex Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 2: 119 (1856)
= Centranthus velenovskyi Vandas; Progr. Realgymn. Köln 21 (1895)
= Ocymastrum sibthorpii (Heldr. & Sart. ex Boiss.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana sibthorpii (Heldr. & Sartori ex Boiss.) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 149 (2018)
species :
Centranthus sieberi Heldr.; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 40: 295 (1890)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus nevadensis subsp. sieberi (Heldr.) I.Richardson; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71(3): 229 (1975 publ. 1976)
= Valeriana sieberi (Heldr.) Christenh. & Byng; The Global Flora, Special edition, part 1(4): 149 (2018)
species :
Centranthus trinervis (Viv.) Bég.; Fiori & Paol., Fl. Anal. Ital. 3: 135 (1903)
Distribution: S-Corsica (near Bonifacio)
12 COR
Conservation Status: IUCN CR. Known only from a single population
Synonyms: hidden
= Ocymastrum trinerve (Viv.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 303 (1891)
= Valeriana trinervis Viv.; Fl. Libyc. Spec.: 67 (1824)
species :
Centranthus ×aurigeranus Giraudias; Bull. Soc. Études Sci. Angers 19: 107 (1889 publ. 1890)
Distribution: France; etc.
12 FRA
Remarks: Centranthus lecoqii x C. ruber
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus ×anselmii Sennen; Diagn. Nouv.: 138 (1936)
= Valeriana ×aurigerana (Giraudias) Christenh. & Byng; Global Fl. 4: 147 (2018)
species :
Centranthus ×gillotii Giraudias; Bull. Soc. Études Sci. Angers 19: 107 (1889 publ. 1890)
Distribution: France; etc.
12 FRA
Remarks: Centranthus angustifolius x C. ruber
Synonyms: hidden
= Centranthus ×intermedius (Schleich.) Rapin; Guide Bot. Vaud, ed. 2: 277 (1862)
= Valeriana rubra var. intermedia Schleich.; Cat. Pl. Helv., ed. 4: 36 (1821), nom. nud.
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life