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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

513.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35205; hybrids: 668
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
513.3124 Genus Chamaeleon Cass.; Dict. Sci. Nat. 47: 509 (1827)
Distribution: Mediterranean to C-Asia. Probably to be included in Carlina.
Species listed in database: 5
species :
Chamaeleon comosus (Spreng.) Greuter; OPTIMA Newslett. 31: (4) (1997)
Distribution: Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (N-Israel)
34 ISR LEB SYR
Synonyms: hidden
= Acarna comosa Spreng.; Syst. Veg. 3: 380 (1826)
= Atractylis comosa (Spreng.) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 550 (1838)
= Atractylis comosa (Spreng.) Sieber ex Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 50: 58 (1827)
= Atractylis speciosa DC.; Deless., Icon. Sel. Pl. 4: 31 (1840)
= Atractylodes comosa (Spreng.) D.P.Petit; Bull. Soc. Bot. France, Lett. Bot. 134: 179 (1987)
= Carlina comosa (Spreng.) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 49-61 (2003)
= Chamaeleon speciosus (DC.) Dittrich; Boissiera 51: 74 (1996)
species :
Chamaeleon cuneatus (Boiss.) Dittrich; Boissiera 51: 74 (1996)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Bamyan, Ghazni, Ghorat, Herat, Wardak, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost); Pakistan (Kurram)
34 AFG 40 PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Atractylis cuneata Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 3: 454 (1875)
= Atractylodes cuneata (Boiss.) D.P.Petit; Bull. Soc. Bot. France, Lett. Bot., 134(2): 179 (1987)
species :
Chamaeleon gummifer (L.) Cass.; Dict. Sci. Nat. 47: 509 (1827)
Name: Mastixdistel (DE); Gummi-Spindelkraut; Pine Thistle (EN)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (W-Anatolia)
12 COR POR SAR SPA 13 GRC ITA KRI MLT SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN 34 EAI TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Acarna gummifera (L.) Willd.; Sp. Pl. 3: 1699 (1803)
= Acarna macrocephala (Desf.) Willd.; Sp. Pl. 3: 1700 (1803)
= Atractylis acaulis Pers.; Syn. Pl. 2: 382 (1807), pro syn.
= Atractylis gummifera L.; Sp. Pl. 829 (1753)
= Atractylis macrocephala Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 253 (1799)
= Atractylis nemotoiana Arènes; Bull. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire 15: 65 (1953)
= Carlina fontanesii DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 548 (1838)
= Carlina gummifera (L.) Less.; Syn. Gen. Comp. 12 (1832)
= Carlina macrocephala (Desf.) Less.; Syn. Gen. Compos. 12 (1832)
= Carthamus gummiferus (L.) Lam.; Encycl. 1: 639 (1785)
= Chamaeleon megacephalus Cass.; Dict. Sci. Nat. 47: 159 (1827)
= Cirsellium gummiferum (L.) Brot.; Fl. Lusit. 1: 346 (1804)
species :
Chamaeleon macrocephalus (Moris) Sch.Bip.; Linnaea 19: 325 (1846)
subspecies :
subsp. macrocephalus
Distribution: Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; ?Morocco
12 COR SAR 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Carlina discolor Soleirol ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 400 (1879)
= Carlina macrocephala Formánek; Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 16: 18 (1898), nom. illeg.
= Carlina macrocephala Moris; Elench. Sard. 2: 5 (1828)
= Carlina macrocephala var. toscanensis Meusel & A.Kástner; Österr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 128: 450 (1994)
subspecies :
subsp. nebrodensis (Guss.) comb.ined.
Distribution: Italy; Sicily
13 ITA SIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Carlina macrocephala subsp. nebrodensis (Guss. ex DC.) D.A.Webb; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 68: 279 (1974)
= Carlina nebrodensis Guss.; DC. Prod. 6: 546 (1838)
species :
Chamaeleon macrophyllus (Desf.) D.P.Petit; Bull. Soc. Bot. France, Lett. Bot., 134(2): 179 (1987)
Distribution: Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Acarna macrophylla (Desf.) Willd.; Sp. Pl. 3: 1700 (1803)
= Atractylis macrophylla Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 255 (1798)
= Atractylis macrophylla var. incana Maire; Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 7: 206 (1924)
= Carlina macrophylla (Desf.) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 548 (1838)
= Chamaeleon caulescens Cass.; Dict. Sci. Nat. 50: 60 (1827)
= Chamaeleon macrophyllus (Desf.) Sch.Bip.; Linnaea 19: 325 (1846)
= Chamaeleon macrophyllus var. incanus (Maire) D.P.Petit; Bull. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia, Ser. 4, 9(4): 414 (1987 publ. 1988)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life