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Ver. 19.3
June 16th, 2024

450.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications. Barnadesioideae might be its own family, related to Calyceraceae.
Species listed in database: 35264; hybrids: 683
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
450.3251 Genus Cheirolophus Cass.; Dict. Sci. Nat. 50: 250 (1827)
Distribution: mostly Macaronesia (many of them very rare), few W-Mediterranean, 2 to Malta and Corsica. Phylogeny: Hidalgo et al. 2017
Species listed in database: 29
= Palaeocyanus Dostál; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung., 19(1-4): 74 (1973) (nom. nov.)
= Ptosimopappus Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 739 (1845)
species :
Cheirolophus anagensis A.Santos; ined.
Name: Anaga-Strauchflockenblume (DE)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
species :
Cheirolophus arboreus (Webb & Berthel.) Holub; Preslia. 46(3): 227 (1974)
Name: Baumartige Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon arboreo (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea arborea Webb & Berthel.; Phyt. Canar. 2: 356 (1846)
= Ptosimopappus arboreus (Webb & Berthel.) Walp.; Ann. 2: 930 (1852)
species :
Cheirolophus arbutifolius (Svent.) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 28: 53 (1976 publ. 1977)
Name: Erdbeerbaum-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Gran Canaria (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea arbutifolia Svent.; Bol. Inst. Nac. Invest. Agron., Madrid 10: No. 22, 7 (1950), reimpr.
species :
Cheirolophus barquinii R.Mesa; Bot. Macaronés. 33: 9 (2023)
Distribution: Canary Isl.
21 CNY
species :
Cheirolophus benoistii (Humb.) Holub; Preslia 45(2). 143 (1973)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea benoistii Humbert; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 15: 230 (1924)
species :
Cheirolophus burchardii Susanna; Fontqueria 44: 32 (1996), nom. nov.
Name: Burchards Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de El Fraile (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea canariensis var. subexpinnata Burchard; Biblioth. Bot. 98: 211 (1929)
= Cheirolophus canariensis subsp. subexpinnata (Burchard) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canaria 28: 53 (1977)
= Cheirolophus canariensis subsp. subexpinnatus (Burchard) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 28: 53 (1976 publ. 1977)
= Cheirolophus canariensis var. subexpinnata (Burchard) O.E.Erikss., A.Hansen & Sunding; Fl. Macaronesia, ed. 2, 1: 92 (1979)
species :
Cheirolophus canariensis (Willd.) Holub; Preslia 45(2): 143 (1973)
Name: Kanaren-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Teno (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea canariensis Willd.; Enum. Hort. Berol. 928 (1809)
= Centaurea hypericifolia Brouss. ex Sch.Bip.; Webb & Berthel. Phyt. Canar. 2: 355 (1846)
= Ptosimopappus canariensis Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 740 (1845)
species :
Cheirolophus cavanillesianus P.P.Ferrer, R.Roselló, Gómez Nav., A.Guillén, E.Laguna & Peris; Nemus 4: 30 (2014), nom. nov. for Centaurea virgata Cav.
subspecies :
subsp. cavanillesianus
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea virgata Cav.; Ic. 3: 16 (1794) non Lam.1785
subspecies :
subsp. capillifolius (Sandwith ex Lacaita) P.P.Ferrer, R.Roselló, Gómez Nav., A.Guillén, E.Laguna & Peris; Nemus 4: 30 (2014)
Distribution: S-Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea intybacea var. capillifolia Sandwith ex Lacaita; Cavanillesia 3: 24 (1930)
= Cheirolophus intybaceus var. capillifolius (Sandwith ex Lacaita) Nebot, De la Torre, Mateo & Alcaraz; Anales Biol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Murcia 16: 107 (1990)
species :
Cheirolophus crassifolius (Bertol.) Susanna; PI. Syst. Evol., 214(1-4): 157 (1999)
Distribution: Malta (incl. Gozo Isl.)
13 MLT
Remarks: Subgen. Palaeocyanus
Conservation Status: IUCN CR, known only from very few populations
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea crassifolia Bertol.; Ann. Stor. Nat. 2: 359 (1829)
= Centaurea nitida Naldi ex DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 601 (1838)
= Centaurea spathulata Zerafa; Fl. Melit. 1: 11 (1827) non Ten. 1811
= Palaeocyanus crassifolius (Bertol.) Dostál; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung., 19(1-4): 74 (1973), et Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 192 (1976)
species :
Cheirolophus dariasii (Svent.) Bramwell; Bot. Macarones. 25: 162 (2004)
Name: Cabrito-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon del Cabrito (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gomera)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea satarataensis subsp. dariasii Svent.; Addit. Fl. Canar. 1: 73 (1960)
= Cheirolophus satarataensis subsp. dariasi (Svent.) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 28: 54 (1976 publ. 1977)
species :
Cheirolophus duranii (Burchard) Holub; Preslia 46(3): 227 (1974)
Name: El-Hierro-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon herreno (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Hierro)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea duranii Burchard; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 57 (1913)
species :
Cheirolophus falcisectus Svent. ex Montelongo & Moraleda; Bot. Macaronesica 5: 68 (1978)
Name: Sichelschnittige Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de La Aldea (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria)
21 CNY
species :
Cheirolophus ghomerythus (Svent.) Holub; Preslia 46(3): 227 (1974)
Name: La-Gomera-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon gomero (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gomera)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea ghomerytha Svent.; Contrib. Conoc. Fl. Canar. (Jard. Aclim. Pl., La Orotava, Cuad. No. 79) 180(1946)
variant :
var. integrifolius (Svent.) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 28: 54 (1976 publ. 1977)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gomera)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea ghomerytha var. integrifolia Svent.
species :
Cheirolophus grandifolius (Font Quer) Stübing, Peris, Olivares & J.Martín; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 55(1): 171 (1997)
Distribution: E-Spain; Baleares (Ibiza & Formentera, Mallorca)
12 BAL SPA
Remarks: sometimes included in C. intybaceus s. l.
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea intybacea var. grandifolia Font Quer; Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 20: 153 (1920)
species :
Cheirolophus intybaceus (Lam.) Dostál; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 274 (1976)
subspecies :
subsp. intybaceus
Distribution: E- & S-Spain; SE-France; Corsica
12 COR FRA SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea intybacea Lam.; Encyc. 1: 671 (1783)
= Centaurea intybacea var. glabrescens Porta; Veg. Itin. Iber.: 42 (1892)
= Centaurea intybacea var. macrocephala Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 9: 140 (1905)
= Centaurea intybacea var. scabrescens Porta; Veg. Itin. Iber.: 42 (1892)
= Centaurea leucantha Pourr.; Hist. & Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Toulouse 3: 310 (1788)
= Cheirolophus mansanetianus Stübing, Peris, Olivares & J.Martín; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 55(1): 172 (1997)
= Cheirolophus pinnatifidus Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 51: 56 (1827)
= Ptosimopappus intybaceus (Lam.) Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 740 (1845)
subspecies :
subsp. lagunae (Olivares, Peris, Stübing & J.Martín) Mateo & M.B.Crespo; Fl. Montiberica 59: 90 (2015)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Cheirolophus lagunae Olivares, Peris, Stübing & J.Martín; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 53(2): 262 (1995 publ. 1996)
species :
Cheirolophus junonianus (Svent.) Holub; Preslia. 46(3): 228 (1974)
Name: La-Palma-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Teneguia (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea junoniana Svent.; Contrib. Conoc. Fl. Canar. (Jard. Aclim. Pl., La Orotava, Cuad. No. 79) 176(1946)
variant :
var. isoplexiphyllus (Svent.) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 28: 54 (1976 publ. 1977)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea junoniana var. isoplexiphylla Svent.
species :
Cheirolophus massonianus (Lowe) O.E.Erikss., A.Hansen& Sunding; Fl. Macaronesia, ed. 2, 1: 92 (1979)
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl., Porto Santo Isl.)
21 MDR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea massoniana Lowe; Hooker´s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 8: 297 (1856)
species :
Cheirolophus mauritanicus (Font Quer) Susanna; Fontqueria 14: 15 (1988)
Distribution: Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea mauritanica (Font Quer) Pau; Font Quer, Iter Marocc., No. 698 (1932 publ. 1930)
= Centaurea sempervirens var. mauritanica Font Quer; Cavanillesia 3: 62 (1930)
= Cheirolophus sempervirens subsp. mauritanicus (Font Quer) Ibn Tattou; Bocconea 8: 31 (1998)
species :
Cheirolophus metlesicsii Parada; Bot. Macaronésica 10: 68 (1982 publ. 1984)
Name: Metlesics´ Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Anavingo (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
species :
Cheirolophus puntallanensis A.Santos; ined.
Name: Puntallana-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Puntallana (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma)
21 CNY
Conservation Status: very rare, only one known location
species :
Cheirolophus santos-abreui A.Santos; Veg. Fl. La Palma: 282 (1983)
Name: Santos-Abreu-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Las Nieves (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Conservation Status: very rare
species :
Cheirolophus satarataensis (Svent.) Holub; Preslia 46(3): 228 (1974)
Name: Satarata-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Satarata (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Gomera)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea satarataensis Svent.; Addit. Fl. Canar. 1: 71 (1960)
species :
Cheirolophus sempervirens (L.) Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 32 (1874)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; France
12 FRA POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea javornikiensis Formánek; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 37: 153 (1887)
= Centaurea sempervirens f. albiflora P.Silva & M.R.Lopes; Agron. Lusit., 37(2): 188 (1976)
= Centaurea sempervirens L.; Sp. Pl. 913 (1753)
= Centaurea sordida Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 207 (1796)
= Cheirolophus lanceolatus Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 51: 56 (1827)
= Cyanus hastatus Moench; Methodus 561 (1794)
= Ptosimopappus sempervirens (L.) Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 740 (1845)
= Sagmen sempervirens (L.) Hill; Hort. Kew. 66 (1768)
species :
Cheirolophus sventenii (A.Santos) G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 28: 54 (1976 publ. 1977)
subspecies :
subsp. sventenii
Name: Sventenius´ Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Guelguen (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea sventenii A.Santos; Vieraea, 4(1-2): 232 (1974 publ. 1975)
subspecies :
subsp. gracilis A.Santos; Veg. Fl. La Palma: 283 (1983)
Name: Zierliche Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Tijarafe (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
species :
Cheirolophus tagananensis (Svent.) Holub; Preslia 46(3): 228 (1974)
Name: Taganana-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Taganana (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea tagananensis Svent.; Contrib. Conoc. Fl. Canar. (Jard. Aclim. Pl., La Orotava, Cuad. No. 79) 184 (1946)
species :
Cheirolophus tananicus (Maire) Holub; Preslia 45(2): 143 (1973)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea tananica Maire; Maire in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 23: 194 (1932)
= Cheirolophus tananicus (Maire) Ibn Tattou; Bocconea 8: 31 (1998), isonym
species :
Cheirolophus teydis (C.Sm.) G.López; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 39(1): 153 (1982)
Name: Teide-Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de la cumbre (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea arguta Nees; Hor. Phys. Berol. 116. t. 25 (1820)
= Centaurea teidis Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2(1): 323 (1840)
= Centaurea teydis C.Sm.; Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1816-1817: 369 (1819)
= Cheirolophus argutus (Nees) Holub; Preslia 45(2): 143 (1973)
= Ptosimopappus argutus (Nees) Boiss.; Diagn. Ser. II. 3: 60 (1856)
species :
Cheirolophus uliginosus (Brot.) Dostál; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 193 (1976)
Distribution: W-Portugal; SW-Spain
12 POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea uliginosa Brot.; Fl. Lusit. 1: 368 (1804)
= Ptosimopappus uliginosus (Brot.) Boiss.; Diagn. Ser. II. 3: 60 (1856)
species :
Cheirolophus webbianus (Sch.Bip.) Holub; Preslia 46(3): 228 (1974)
Name: Webbs Strauchflockenblume (DE); Cabezon de Webb (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Centaurea webbiana Sch.Bip.; Webb & Berthel. Phyt. Canar. 2: 353 (1846)
= Ptosimopappus webbianus Boiss.; Diagn. Ser. II. 3: 61 (1856)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.3 (June 16th, 2024)

Covering 355,120 accepted species,
8,650 hybrids, 47,763 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,061 synonyms,
in total 1,408,594* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life