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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

339.0000 Family Euphorbiaceae A.Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 384 (1789), nom. cons. (s. str.)
210 genera, ca. 6700 spp.
Species listed in database: 6472; hybrids: 56
= Acalyphaceae A.Juss. ex Menge; Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 172 (1839)
= Bertyaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 190 (1858)
= Cheilosaceae Doweld; Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxxi (2001)
= Crotonaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 258 (1858)
= Hippomanaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 244 (1858)
= Mercurialaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 237 (1820)
= Ricinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 547 (1820)
= Ricinocarpaceae Hurus.; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, ser. 3, Bot. 6: 224 (1954)
= Tithymalaceae Vent.; Tabl. Règne Vég. 3: 483 (1799)
= Tragiaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 4: 111 (1838)
= Trewiaceae Lindl.; Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 174 (1836)
339.3411 Genus Chrozophora Neck.; Elem. 2: 337 (1790), nom. cons.
Distribution: Eurasia from W-Mediterranean to India, Myanmar [Burma] and Indo-China, tropical and South Africa; Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Middle Asia
Species listed in database: 9
= Lepidocroton C.Presl; Epimel. Bot.: 213 (1851)
= Ricinoides Tourn. ex Moench; Methodus: 286 (1794)
= Tournesol Adans.; Fam. Pl. 2: 356 (1763), nom. rej.
species :
Chrozophora brocchiana Vis.; Spongia, Comment. Med. 2: 223 (1836)
Distribution: Morocco; S-Algeria; Egypt (SE-Egypt); Cape Verde Isl. (Ilha de Sao Nicolau); Mauritania; Senegal; Guinea-Bissau; Guinea; Mali; Burkina Faso; Togo; Benin; Niger; Chad; Sudan; Saudi Arabia (Dahana)
20 ALG EGY MOR 21 CVI 22 BEN BKN GNB GUI MLI MTN NGR SEN TOG 24 CHA SUD 35 SAU
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrozophora brocchiana var. hartmannii Schweinf.; Pl. Quaed. Nilot. 9 (1862)
= Chrozophora senegalensis var. lanigera Prain; Fl. Trop. Afr. 6(1): 837 (1912)
= Croton lanigerus (Prain) Perr. ex Prain; Oliv. et al. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 6(1): 839 (1912)
= Croton macrocalyx Ehrenb. ex Schweinf.; Pl. Nilot. 9 (1862)
= Tournesol brocchiana (Vis.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 621 (1891)
species :
Chrozophora gangetica Gand.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 66: 286 (1919 publ. 1920)
Distribution: India
40 IND
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Chrozophora mujunkumi Nasimova; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Akad. Nauk Uzb. SSR 20: 34 (1982)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan
32 KAZ UZB
species :
Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 3: 850 (1826)
Distribution: SE-Spain; Italy; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; ?Crimea; Egypt (Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, NW-coastal Egypt, Desert Oases, Nile Valley); Mauritania; Senegal; Mali; Burkina Faso; Niger; Nigeria; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad (incl. Tibesti); Sudan; South Sudan; Ethiopia; Somalia; Kenya; Tanzania; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Limpopo); Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; East Aegaean Isl.; Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia, S-Iraq, W-Iraq: Desert); Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Badakshan, Bamyan, Helmand, Kabul, Parwan, Qunduz); Cyprus (E-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, Negev Desert, N-Israel); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Dahana, NE-Saudi Arabia, Hejaz, Midyan); Kuwait; United Arab Emirates; Oman (Mascat & Oman); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Waziristan, Sind, Karachi, Lahore); India (Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Andaman Isl. (North Andamans, Middle Andamans, South Andamans, Little Andaman Isl.); Nicobar Isl. (Car Nicobar Isl., North Nicobars, Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.); Myanmar; Vietnam; Java
12 SPA 13 GRC ITA KRI 20 EGY 22 BKN MLI MTN NGA NGR SEN 23 CAF CMN 24 CHA ETH SOM SSU SUD 25 KEN TAN 26 MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 SAF 32 KAZ TKM TZK UZB 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR 35 KUW OMA SAU UAE 40 IND PAK 41 AND MYA NCB VIE 42 JAW
Remarks: frequently included in C. tinctoria because there are morphological transitions between both forms
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrozophora burmanni Spreng.; Syst. Veg., 3: 851 (1826)
= Chrozophora obliquifolia (Vis.) Baill.; Étude Euphorb. 322 (1858)
= Chrozophora obliquifolia (Vis.) Kotschy ex Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl. Pflanzenreich, Euphorb.-Chrozoph. 20 (1912), isonym
= Chrozophora parvifolia Klotzsch ex Schweinf.; Pl. Nilot. 11 (1862)
= Chrozophora plicata var. obliquifolia (Vis.) Prain; Fl. Trop. Afr. 6(1): 835 (1912)
= Chrozophora prostrata Dalzell & A.Gibson; Bombay Fl.: 233 (1861)
= Chrozophora prostrata var. parvifolia (Klotzsch ex Schweinf.) N.P.Balakr.; Bull. Bot. Surv. India, 15(1-2): 7 (1973 publ.1976)
= Croton asper J.Koenig ex Roxb.; Hort. Beng. 104 (1814), Fl. Ind. 3: 681 (1832)
= Croton hastatus Burm.f.; Fl. Indica: 305 (1768), nom. illeg.
= Croton lanuginosus K.Schum. ex Schweinf.; Pl. Quaed. Nilot.: 10 (1862)
= Croton moluccanus Willd.; Sp. Pl. ed. 4. 4: 551 (1805), nom. illeg.
= Croton obliquifolius Vis.; Spongia, Comment. Med. 2: 223 (1836)
= Croton plicatus Vahl; Symb. Bot. 1: 78 (1790)
= Croton tinctorius Burm.f.; Fl. Indica: 304 (1768), nom. illeg.
= Tournesol plicata (Vahl) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 621 (1891)
species :
Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) A.Juss. ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 3: 850 (1826)
Distribution: Egypt (Desert Oases, Eastern Desert, NE-Egypt, SE-Egypt); Sudan; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Djibouti; Somalia; Soqotra; Israel (Rift Valley, S-Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, Dahana, NE-Saudi Arabia, N-Saudi Arabia, Hejaz, Midyan, Rub al Khali, Asir, Nejd Desert); Oman (Dhofar, Mascat & Oman); Yemen (Aden Desert, coastal Hadhramaut, Inner Hadhramaut, SW-Yemen, W-Yemen); Pakistan; India (Rajasthan)
20 EGY 24 DJI ERI ETH SOC SOM SUD 34 ISR JOR SIN 35 OMA SAU YEM 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Croton oblongifolius Delile; Fl. Aeg. Ill. 76, no. 903 (1813)
species :
Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss.; Tent. Euph. 28 ex Spreng. (1826)
Distribution: Pakistan; Nepal; India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Sri Lanka; Bangladesh; Andaman Isl.; Myanmar; Thailand; Java
40 BAN IND NEP PAK SRL 41 AND MYA THA 42 JAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrozophora plicata var. rottleri (Geiseler) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 747 (1866)
= Croton rottleri Geiseler; Croton. Monogr.: 54 (1807)
species :
Chrozophora sabulosa Kar. & Kir.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 15: 446 (1842)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Iran (S-Iran); Afghanistan (Balkh, Faryab); Oman (Mascat & Oman); China (Xinjiang); Pakistan (Baluchistan)
32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 34 AFG IRN 35 OMA 36 CHI 40 PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrozophora gracilis Fisch. & C.A.Mey. ex Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 3: 581 (1850)
= Chrozophora pannosa Pazij; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Zool. Akad. Nauk Uzbeksk. S.S.R. 11: 25 (1948)
= Tournesol gracilis (Fisch. & C.A.Mey. ex Ledeb.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 621 (1891)
species :
Chrozophora senegalensis (Lam.) A.Juss.; Tent. Euph. 28 (1826) ex Spreng.
Distribution: Mauritania; Senegal; Gambia; Guinea-Bissau; Mali; Burkina Faso; Ghana; Togo; Benin; Niger; Chad
22 BEN BKN GAM GHA GNB MLI MTN NGR SEN TOG 24 CHA
Synonyms: hidden
= Croton senegalensis Lam.; Encyc. 2: 212 (1786)
= Lepidocroton serratus C.Presl; Epimel. Bot.: 213 (1851)
= Tournesol senegalensis (Lam.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 621 (1891)
species :
Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss.; Euphorb. Tent. 84 (1824)
Name: Weißfilziges Lackmuskraut (DE); Woolly Turnasole (EN); Giradol (ES)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (widespread, incl. most islands); Crete; European Russia; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Desert Oases, NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, SE-Egypt); Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (Chios, Lesvos, Ikaria, Rhodos, Dodecanese, Kos, Tilos, Nisyros, Simi, Chalki, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, N-Iran, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Farah, Faryab, Helmand, Herat, Jawzjan / Sar-e-Pol, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Nangarhar, Paktia / Khost, Qunduz, Takhar); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, Negev Desert, N-Israel); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Hejaz, Asir); Qatar; Oman (Mascat & Oman); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Waziristan, Swat, Sind, Pakistani Punjab); India (Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Maryland [I])
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA PEL SIC SRB TUE 14 KRY RUS 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 OMA QAT SAU 40 IND PAK 50 aus 78 usa
Remarks: C. obliqua is frequently separated but there are continuous intergrades
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrozophora cordifolia Pazij; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. & Zool. Acad. Sci. Uzbekistan. 11: 23 (1948)
= Chrozophora glabrata (Heldr.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl. Pflanzenreich, Euphorb.-Chrozoph. 24 (1912)
= Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng.; Syst. Veg., 3: 850 (1826)
= Chrozophora integrifolia Bunge; Beitr. Fl. Russl.: 314 (1852)
= Chrozophora lepidocarpa Pazij; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Zool. Akad. Nauk Uzbeksk. S.S.R. 14: 23 (1954)
= Chrozophora obliqua (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg. 3: 850 (1826)
= Chrozophora obliqua (Vahl) Schweinf.; Pl. Nilot. 13 (1862), isonym
= Chrozophora obliqua var. hierosolymitana (Spreng.) Duthie; Fl. Gangetic Plain 3: 105 (1915)
= Chrozophora sieberi C.Presl; Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 5, 3: 539 (1845)
= Chrozophora subplicata (Müll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 147, VI: 21 (1912)
= Chrozophora tinctoria f. brachypetala Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 749 (1866)
= Chrozophora tinctoria subsp. obliqua (Vahl) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Fl. Països Catalans 2: 547 (1990)
= Chrozophora tinctoria var. glabrata Heldr.; Parnassus Boicus 277 (1899)
= Chrozophora tinctoria var. hierosolymitana (Spreng.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 850 (1826)
= Chrozophora tinctoria var. subplicata Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 749 (1866)
= Chrozophora tinctoria var. verbascifolia (Willd.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 748 (1866)
= Chrozophora verbascifolia (Willd.) A.Juss. ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 3: 851 (1826)
= Chrozophora villosa Lindl.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. 10: 78 (1840)
= Chrozophora warionii Coss. ex Batt.; Batt. & Trab., Fl. Algérie, Dicot.: 804 (1890)
= Croton argenteus Forssk.; Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: lxxv (1775), nom. illeg.
= Croton obliquus Vahl; Symb. Bot. 1: 78 (1790)
= Croton oblongifolius Sieber ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 3: 850 (1826), nom. illeg.
= Croton patulus Lag.; Gen. et Sp. Nov. 21 (1816)
= Croton tinctorius L.; Sp. Pl. 1004 (1753)
= Croton verbascifolius Willd.; Sp. Pl. ed. 4. 4: 539 (1805)
= Ricinoides tinctoria (L.) Moench; Methodus: 286 (1794)
= Tournesol obliqua (Vahl) Franch.; J. Bot. (Morot) 1: 135 (1887)
= Tournesol obliqua (Vahl) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 621 (1891), isonym
= Tournesol tinctoria (L.) Baill.; Traité Bot. Méd. Phan. 2: 932 (1884)
= Tournesol verbascifolia (Willd.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 621 (1891)
= Tournesol warionii (Coss. ex Batt. & Trab.) Baill.; Traité Bot. Méd. Phan. 2: 932 (1884)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life