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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

513.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35205; hybrids: 668
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
513.6102 Genus Dimorphotheca Vaill.; Königl. Akad. Wissensch. Paris Phys. Abh. 5: 547 (1754), nom. cons.
Distribution: South Africa
Species listed in database: 18
= Acanthotheca DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 73 (1838)
= Arnoldia Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 330 (1824)
= Blaxium Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 328 (1824)
= Castalis Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 332 (1824)
= Gattenhoffia Neck.; Elem. Bot. 1: 39 (1790), nom. inval.
= Meteorina Cass.; Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1818: 167 (1818)
species :
Dimorphotheca chrysanthemifolia (Vent.) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 73 (1838)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Arnoldia aurea Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 331 (1824)
= Arnoldia chrysanthemifolia (Vent.) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2(1): 256 (1840)
= Arnoldia ventenatiana C.Presl; Repert. 192, in nota (1834)
= Calendula chrysanthemifolia Vent.; Jard. Malm. 56 (1804)
= Dimorphotheca chrysanthemoides Harv.; Fl. Cap. 3: 616 (1865), orth. var.
= Osteospermum floridum E.Mey. ex DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 73 (1838)
= Osteospermum grandiflorum Sims; Bot. Mag. 48: t. 2218 (1821)
species :
Dimorphotheca acutifolia Hutch.; Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 9: 415 (1917)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Calendula scabra P.J.Bergius; Desc. Pl. Cap. 310 (1767)
= Dimorphotheca scabra DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 72 (1838)
= Osteospermum acutifolium (Hutch.) Norl.; Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 48: 152 (1954)
= Osteospermum pulchrum Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 239 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca barberae Harv.; Hook. Bot. Mag. I. 5337 (1862)
Distribution: Greece [c]; South Africa (E-Cape Prov.)
13 grc 27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Dimorphotheca lilacina Regel & Herder; Index Seminum (LE, Petropolitanus) 1864: 16 (1864)
= Osteospermum barberae (Harv.) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 257 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca caulescens Harv.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 420 (1865)
Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpulamanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.); Lesotho; Eswatini [Swaziland]
27 LES SAF SWZ
Synonyms: hidden
= Dimorphotheca dekindtii O.Hoffm.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 152 (1902)
= Osteospermum caulescens Harv.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 442 (1865)
species :
Dimorphotheca cuneata (Thunb.) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 72 (1838)
Distribution: Namibia; Botswana; South Africa (North-West Prov., Free State, N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 BOT NAM SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Arctotis glutinosa Sims; Bot. Mag. 33: t. 1343 (1810)
= Arnoldia viscosa Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2(1): 256 (1840)
= Calendula cuneata Thunb.; Prod. Pl. Cap. 164 (1800)
= Calendula viscosa Andrews; Bot. Repos. 6: t. 412 (1804)
= Dimorphotheca dregei Sch.Bip.; Flora 27: 674 (1844), nom. illeg.
species :
Dimorphotheca dregei DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 72 (1838)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Osteospermum dregei (DC.) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 248 (1943)
variant :
var. reticulata (Norl.) B.Nord.; Compositae Newsl. 25: 47 (1994)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Osteospermum dregei var. reticulatum Norl.; Stud. Calenduleae: 249 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca ecklonis DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 71 (1838)
Name: Kapmargerite (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; South Africa (E-Cape Prov.); Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); USA [I] (California [I])
11 ger 27 SAF 29 mau reu 50 aus 76 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Osteospermum ecklonis (DC.) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 244 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca jucunda E.Phillips; Fl. Pl. S. Afr. 16: t. 629 (1936)
Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo, Gauteng?, Mpulamanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.); Lesotho; Eswatini [Swaziland]; Australia [I] (Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]
27 LES SAF SWZ 50 aus 51 nzl
Synonyms: hidden
= Osteospermum jucundum (E.Phillips) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 259 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca montana Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 73 (1943)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
species :
Dimorphotheca nudicaulis (L.) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 71 (1838)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Arctotis tenuifolia Poir.; Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 1: 439 (1811), nom. illeg., non L.
= Calendula nudicaulis L.; Sp. Pl. 922 (1753)
= Castalis nudicaulis (L.) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 89 (1943)
= Dimorphotheca kraussii Sch.Bip.; Flora 27: 674 (1844)
= Dimorphotheca perennis Less.; Syn. Gen. Compos. 257 (1832)
variant :
var. graminifolia (L.) Harv.; Fl. Cap. 3: 419 (1865)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Arctotis staticifolia Poir.; Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 1: 438 (1811)
= Calendula graminifolia L.; Sp. Pl. 922 (1753)
= Castalis nudicaulis var. graminifolia (L.) Norl.; Stud. Calenduleae 1: 89 (1943)
= Dimorphotheca graminifolia (L.) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 71 (1838)
species :
Dimorphotheca pinnata (Thunb.) Harv.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 423 (1865)
Distribution: Namibia; South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.)
27 NAM SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Acanthotheca pinnatisecta DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 73 (1838)
= Calendula pinnata Thunb.; Prod. Pl. Cap. 164 (1800)
= Chrysanthemum lidbeckioides Less.; Syn. Gen. Compos. 253 (1832)
= Osteospermum pinnatum (Thunb.) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 191 (1943)
variant :
var. brevis (Norl.) J.C.Manning; Bothalia 47(1)-a2252: 1 (2017)
Distribution: Namibia; South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.)
27 NAM SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Osteospermum pinnatum var. breve Norl.; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 5: 647 (1965)
species :
Dimorphotheca pluvialis (L.) Moench; Methodus 585 (1794)
Name: Regenzeigende Kapringelblume (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Poland [I]; France [I]; Monaco [I]; European Russia [I]; Namibia; South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.); NW-India [I] (Himachal Pradesh [I], Jammu & Kashmir [I], Uttarakhand [I]); Bangladesh [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], Victoria [I], New South Wales [I]); USA [I] (California [I]); Honduras [c]; Costa Rica [I]; Bolivia [I]
11 ger pol 12 fra mco 14 rus 27 NAM SAF 40 ban ind 50 aus 76 usa 80 cos hon 83 bol
Synonyms: hidden
= Calendula decurrens Thunb.; Prod. Pl. Cap. 163 (1800)
= Calendula hybrida Sweet; Brit. Fl. Gard. 1: t. 39 (1823)
= Calendula pluvialis L.; Sp. Pl. 921 (1753)
= Calendula versicolor Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 209 (1796)
= Dimorphotheca annua Less.; Syn. Gen. Compos. 257 (1832)
= Dimorphotheca calendulacea var. dubia E.Phillips
= Dimorphotheca hybrida (L.) DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 70 (1838)
= Dimorphotheca incrassata Moench; Methodus 585 (1794)
= Dimorphotheca leptocarpa DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 72 (1838)
= Dimorphotheca pluvialis f. hybrida (DC.) Hegi; 806 (1928)
= Gattenhoffia pluvialis (L.) Druce; List Brit. Pl.: 38 (1908), nom. inval.
= Meteorina crassipes Cass.; Dict. Sci. Nat. 30: 322 (1827)
= Meteorina gracilipes Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 320 (1824)
= Meteorina gracilis Less. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2(1): 509 2: 137 (1840)
= Meteorina lyrata Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 321 (1824)
species :
Dimorphotheca sinuata DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 72 (1838)
Name: Buschige Kapringelblume (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; France [I]; Namibia; South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.); Pakistan [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], Queensland [I], Western Australia [I], New South Wales [I]); USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I])
11 ger 12 fra 27 NAM SAF 40 pak 50 aus 76 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Acanthotheca dentata DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 74 (1838)
= Acanthotheca integrifolia DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 74 (1838)
= Dimorphotheca calendulacea Harv.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 423 (1865)
= Dimorphotheca dentata (DC.) Harv.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 423 (1865)
= Dimorphotheca integrifolia (DC.) Harv.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 424 (1865)
= Dimorphotheca pseudaurantiaca Schinz & Thell.; Verz. Sam. Fruchte Bot. Gart. Zürich 1922: 31 (1923)
species :
Dimorphotheca spectabilis Schltr.; J. Bot., 220 (1897)
Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Gauteng, Mpulamanga)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Castalis spectabilis (Schltr.) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 87 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca tragus (Aiton) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 71 (1838)
Distribution: South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.); Hispaniola [I]
27 SAF 81 his
Synonyms: hidden
= Arnoldia tragus (Aiton) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2(1): 256 (1840)
= Calendula flaccida Vent.; Jard. Malmaison: t. 20 (1803)
= Calendula tragus Aiton; Hort. Kew. 3: 271 (1789)
= Calendula tragus var. flaccida (Vent.) Pers.
= Castalis flaccida (Vent.) DC.; Prodr [A. DC.]. 6: 455 (1838)
= Castalis tragus (Aiton) Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 82 (1943)
= Castalis tragus var. pinnatifida Norl.
= Castalis ventenatii Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 30: 332 (1824)
= Dimorphotheca aurantiaca DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 6: 72 (1838)
= Dimorphotheca flaccida (Vent.) Druce; Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles, 620 (1916 publ. 1917)
= Dimorphotheca tragus (Aiton) B.Nord.; Compositae Newsl. 25: 47 (1994), isonym
species :
Dimorphotheca venusta (Norl.) Norl.; Bot. Notiser 133(4): 560 (1980)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Dimorphotheca montana var. venusta Norl.; Bot. Notiser 116: 147 (1957)
variant :
var. amoena (Norl.) Norl.; Bot. Notiser 133(4): 562 (1980)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Dimorphotheca montana var. amoena Norl.; Bot. Notiser 116: 145 (1957)
species :
Dimorphotheca walliana (Norl.) B.Nord.; Compositae Newsl. 25: 47 (1994)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Osteospermum wallianum Norl.; Stud. Calend. 1: 246 (1943)
species :
Dimorphotheca zeyheri Sond.; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. 3: 421 (1865)
Distribution: Zimbabwe; Botswana; South Africa (North-West Prov., Free State, N-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.); Lesotho
26 ZIM 27 BOT LES SAF
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life