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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

474.0000 Family Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.; Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 245 (1805), nom. cons.
35 genera, ca. 900 spp. The circumscription of the family has been greatly reduced, and much of it is now transferred into Lamiaceae.
Species listed in database: 876; hybrids: 36
= Durantaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 295 (1858)
= Lantanaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 357 (1820)
= Petreaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 364 (1858)
474.0205 Genus Duranta L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 637 (1753)
Distribution: subtropical and trop. America from Texas and Florida to Argentina, West Indies
Species listed in database: 27
= Castorea Mill.; Gard. Dict. Abridg. Ed. 4 (1754)
= Ellisia P.Browne; Hist. Jamaica. 262 (1756)
= Hoffmannia Loefl.; It. 194 (1758)
species :
Duranta arida Britton & P.Wilson; Mem. Torr. Bot. Cl. 16: 96 (1920)
subspecies :
subsp. arida
Distribution: Cuba; Puerto Rico; Virgin Isl. (St. Thomas)
81 CUB PUE VIR
variant :
var. fletcheriana (Moldenke) I.E.Méndez; Fl. Rep. Cuba, Ser. A. Pl. Vasc. 7(3): 113 (2003)
Distribution: Cuba; Puerto Rico (Palominitos Isl.)
81 CUB PUE
Conservation Status: endangered (Red List of the Vascular Flora of Cuba)
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta fletcheriana Moldenke; Caribbean Forester 2: 14 (1940)
subspecies :
subsp. serpentina R.W.Sanders & Judd; Moscosoa 4: 217 (1986)
Distribution: Hispaniola (Haiti)
81 HIS
subspecies :
subsp. domingensis (Urb.) Acev.-Rodr.; Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98: 932 (2012)
Distribution: Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
81 HIS
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta erecta var. domingensis (Urb.) Moldenke; Prelim. Alph. List Inval. Incor. Sci. Names Verben. Avicen. 25 (1940)
= Duranta erecta var. domingensis Urb.; Symb. Antill. 7: 355 (1912)
= Duranta repens var. domingensis (Urb.) Moldenke; Revista Sudamer. Bot. 4: 17 (1937)
species :
Duranta armata Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 499 (1941)
Distribution: Peru (Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cuzco, Huancavelica, Junin)
83 PER
species :
Duranta buxifolia Poir.; Lam., Encyc. Suppl. 2: 528 (1811)
Distribution: Hispaniola (Dominican Republic); Puerto Rico
81 HIS PUE
Remarks: status uncertain, not mentioned in Checklist of Caribbean
species :
Duranta canescens (Moldenke) P.Moroni; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 105(4): 520 (2020)
Distribution: Colombia
82 CLM
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta repens f. canescens (Moldenke) Moldenke; Phytologia 44(5): 328 (1979)
= Duranta repens var. canescens Moldenke; Phytologia 1: 436 (1940)
= Duranta repens var. lopez-palacii Moldenke; Phytologia 26: 177 (1973)
species :
Duranta coriacea Hayek; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 2: 88 (1906)
Distribution: Colombia; Ecuador
82 CLM 83 ECU
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Duranta costaricensis (Donn.Sm.) Standl.; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, Bot. Ser. 18: 1005 (1938)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas); Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama
79 MEX 80 COS GUA PAN
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta mutisii var. costaricensis Donn.Sm.; Bot. Gaz. 20: 9 (1895)
= Duranta guatemalensis Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 501 (1941)
species :
Duranta dickinsonii P.Moroni; Perspect. Pl. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 41: 12 (2019)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Duranta dombeyana Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 500 (1941)
Distribution: Ecuador (Chimborazo, Loja, Pichincha, Tunguragua); Galapagos (Isabela); Peru (Cajamarca, Huanuco, Junin, Piura)
83 ECU GAL PER
species :
Duranta erecta L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 637 (1753)
Name: Azotacaballo, Cuentas de ore, Lila; Pigeon berry, Skyflower, Golden dewdrops; Fruta de iguana, Jupiter cimarron (Cuba), Adonis, Fruta de paloma (Dominican Republic), Pigeon berry (Lesser Antilles)
Distribution: Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Senegal [I]; Guinea [I]; Sierra Leone [I]; Burkina Faso [I]; Benin [I]; Cameroon [I]; São Tomé [I]; Gabon [I]; Central African Republic [I]; D.R.Congo (Zaire [I]); Chad [I]; South Sudan [I]; Ethiopia [I]; Uganda [I]; Kenya [I]; Tanzania [I]; Angola [I]; Zimbabwe [I]; Mozambique [I]; Botswana [I]; South Africa [I]; Eswatini [Swaziland] [I]; St. Helena [I]; Madagascar [I]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Iraq [I]; China [I] (Fujian [I], Guangdong [I], Guangxi [I], Hainan [I], Hunan [I], Jiangxi [I], Zhejiang [I], Hongkong [I]); Ryukyu Isl. [I] (Okinawa Isl. [I], Tanegashima [I]); Taiwan [I]; Pakistan [I]; Nepal [I]; India [I] (Andhra Pradesh [I], Assam [I], Bihar [I], Gujarat [I], Indore [I], Karnataka [I], Madhya Pradesh [I], Maharashtra [I], Mandi [I], Odisha [I], Tamil Nadu [I], Uttarakhand [I], West Bengal [I]); Sri Lanka [I]; Andaman Isl. [I] (South Andamans [I]); Nicobar Isl. [I] (North Nicobars [I], Great Nicobar Isl. [I], Little Nicobar Isl. [I]); Bangladesh [I]; Myanmar [I]; Thailand [I]; Cambodia [I]; Vietnam [I]; peninsular Malaysia [I] (Federal Territory [I]); Sumatra [I]; Sulawesi [I]; Philippines [I]; Java [I]; New Guinea [I]; Bismarck Arch. [I] (New Ireland [I]); Australia [I] (New South Wales [I], Queensland [I]); New Caledonia [I]; Vanuatu [I]; Tonga [I] (´Eua [I]); Fiji [I] (Viti Levu [I]); Cook Isl. [I] (Rarotonga [I]); Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I], Raiatea [I], Moorea [I]); Northern Marianas [I] (Aguijan [I], Rota [I]); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Kwajalein [I], Arno [I]); Hawaii [I] (Kauai [I], Oahu [I]); USA (Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, Texas); Bermuda; Mexico (Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan); Guatemala; El Salvador; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Bahamas (Abaco, Acklin, Andros, Cat, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, Long, Mariguana, New Providence, North Andros); Turks & Caicos Isl.; Cuba; Cayman Isl. (Grand Cayman); Jamaica; Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti); Puerto Rico (incl. Caja de Muertos Isl., Desecheo Isl., Palominitos Isl., Vieques Isl.); Navassa Isl.; Virgin Isl. (Buck, St. Croix, St. Thomas, Virgin Gorda); St. Martin/St. Maarten; St. Barthélémy; St. Kitts; Antigua; Montserrat; Guadeloupe; Martinique; St. Lucia; St. Vincent; Barbados; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Colombia (Antioquia, Atlántico, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Santander, Tolima, Valle); Venezuela (Amazonas, Aragua, Bolívar, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Nueva Esparta, Sucre, Zulia); Galapagos (Isabela); Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz); NE-Brazil; WC-Brazil; S-Brazil (Paraná); Paraguay (Guaira); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chaco, Entre Rios, Formosa, Santa Fe); Argentina (Misiones)
21 mdr 22 ben bkn gui sen sie 23 caf cmn gab sao 24 cha eth ssu 25 ken tan uga 26 ang moz zim 27 bot saf swz 28 sth 29 mau mdg reu 34 irq 36 chi 38 nns tai 40 ban ind nep pak srl 41 and cbd mya ncb tha vie 42 jaw mly nwg phi sul sum 43 bis 50 aus 60 fij nwc ton van 61 coo sci 62 gum mic mrn mrs 63 haw 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX 80 COS ELS GUA NIC PAN 81 ABA BAH BBD BER CAY CUB GDL HIS JAM MAR MTS NAV PUE SBA STK STL STM STV TCI trt VIR 82 CLM VEN 83 BOL GAL 84 BRA 85 ARG PAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta angustifolia Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 108 (1796)
= Duranta baumgartenii K.Koch; Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 5: 47 (1862)
= Duranta baumgartii Hibberd; Gard. Chron., n.s. 3: 730 (1875), sphalm.
= Duranta brachypoda Tod.; Nuov. Gen. Sp.: 24 (1860)
= Duranta dentata Pers.; Syn. Pl. 2: 142 (1806)
= Duranta ellisia Jacq.; Enum. Syst. Pl. 26 (1760)
= Duranta erecta var. alba (Mast.) Caro; Revista Argent. Agron. 23: 11 (1956)
= Duranta erecta var. grandiflora (Moldenke) Caro; Revista Argent. Agron. 23: 10 (1956)
= Duranta inermis L.; Sp. Pl. 637 (1753)
= Duranta integrifolia Tod.; Nuov. Gen. Sp. 27 (1860)
= Duranta latifolia Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 108 (1796)
= Duranta macrodonta Moldenke; Phytologia 2: 16 (1941)
= Duranta microphylla Desf.; Tabl. École Bot., ed. 3: 392 (1829)
= Duranta plumieri f. variegata F.M.Bailey; Compr. Cat. Queensland Pl., ed. 2: 380 (1913)
= Duranta plumieri Jacq.; Select. Am. 186. t. 176, f. 76 (1763)
= Duranta plumieri var. alba Mast.; Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 3: 44 (-45) (1888)
= Duranta plumieri var. ellisia (Jacq.) F.M.Bailey; Weeds Susp. Poison. Pl. Queensland: 142 (1906)
= Duranta plumieri var. glabra Hieron. ex Niederl.; Bol. Mens. Mus. Prod. Argent. 3(31): 322 (1890)
= Duranta plumieri var. strigillosa Schauer; Fl. Bras. (Martius) 9: 271 (1851)
= Duranta racemosa Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 2 (1768)
= Duranta repens f. acuminata Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens f. acuta (L.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens f. alba (Mast.) Matuda; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 44: 576 (1950)
= Duranta repens f. alba (Mast.) Moldenke; Phytologia 41(7): 449 (1979), isonym
= Duranta repens f. glabrifolia Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens f. grandiflora (Moldenke) Moldenke; Phytologia 44(5): 328 (1979)
= Duranta repens f. integrifolia (Tod.) Moldenke; Phytologia 44(5): 328 (1979)
= Duranta repens f. microphylla (Desf.) Moldenke; Phytologia 44(5): 328 (1979)
= Duranta repens f. obtusifolia Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens f. serrata (Moldenke) Moldenke; Phytologia 44: 328 (1979)
= Duranta repens f. variegata (L.H.Bailey) Moldenke; Phytologia 44(5): 328 (1979)
= Duranta repens f. vestita Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens L.; Sp. Pl. 637 (1753)
= Duranta repens var. alba (Mast.) L.H.Bailey; Cycl. Amer. Hort. 1: 225 (1900)
= Duranta repens var. alba Domin; Biblioth. Bot. 22(89): 553 (1928)
= Duranta repens var. ellisia (F.M.Bailey) Domin; Biblioth. Bot. 22(89): 553 (1928)
= Duranta repens var. ellisia (Jacq.) R.R.Fernandez; Trees of Mumbai (Bombay): 209 (1999)
= Duranta repens var. grandiflora Moldenke; Phytologia 2: 17 (1941)
= Duranta repens var. microphylla (Desf.) Moldenke; Phytologia 1: 483 (1941)
= Duranta repens var. multidentata Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens var. mutisii Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens var. paucidentata Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta repens var. serrata Moldenke; Phytologia 7: 81 (1959)
= Duranta repens var. variegata L.H.Bailey; Man. Cult. Pl. 632 (1924)
= Duranta rostrata Pasq.; Rendiconto Reale Accad. Sci. Fis. 7: 17 (1868)
= Duranta serratifolia var. variegata Moldenke; Phytologia 28: 101 (1974)
= Duranta spinosa Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 3 (1768)
= Duranta turbinata Tod.; Nuov. Gen. Sp.: 28 (1860)
= Duranta xalapensis Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 254 (1818)
= Ellisia acuta L.; Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1121 (1759)
species :
Duranta lineata Hayek; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 170 (1908)
Distribution: Peru (Ancash, Apurimac, Junin)
83 PER
species :
Duranta mandonii Moldenke; Lilloa 5: 390 (1940)
Distribution: Colombia (Cundinamarca, Valle); Ecuador (Imbabura, Manabi, Pichincha); Peru (Ancash, Cuzco, La Libertad, Lima); Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz)
82 CLM 83 BOL ECU PER
species :
Duranta mutisii L.f.; Suppl. Pl.: 291 (1782)
Distribution: Colombia (Antioquia, Boyacá, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Huila, Norte de Santander, Quindío, Santander, Valle); Venezuela (Aragua, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Merida, Tachira, Trujillo); Ecuador (Cotopaxi, Loja, Azuay, Canar, Loja, Los Rios); Galapagos (Pinzon); Peru (Apurimac, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huancavelica, La Libertad); Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz)
82 CLM VEN 83 BOL ECU GAL PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta macrocarpa Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 255 (1818)
= Duranta mutisiana Sm.; Intr. Physiol. Syst. Bot.: 381 (1807)
= Duranta parietariifolia Juss. ex Walp.; Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 78 (1845)
= Duranta phytolaccifolia Juss. ex Schau.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 11: 616 (1847)
= Duranta recurvistachys Rusby; Phytologia 1: 73 (1934)
= Duranta repens var. mutisii (L.f.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 507 (1891)
= Duranta sprucei var. breviracemosa Moldenke; Phytologia 2: 409 (1948)
species :
Duranta neblinensis Aymard & J.R.Grande; Brittonia 64(3): 247 (2012)
Distribution: Venezuela (Sa. de la Neblina)
82 VEN
species :
Duranta obtusifolia Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 254 (1818)
Distribution: Colombia (Antioquia, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Nariño, Risaralda, Valle)
82 CLM
Synonyms: hidden
= Durania coriacea Hayek; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. 2: 88 (1906)
species :
Duranta penlandii Moldenke; Phytologia 1: 461 (1940)
Distribution: Colombia; Ecuador (Azuay, Pichincha)
82 CLM 83 ECU
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta boekei Moldenke; Phytologia 40(3): 260 (1978)
= Duranta pseudorepens Moldenke; Phytologia 1: 460 (1940)
species :
Duranta peruviana Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 501 (1941)
Distribution: Peru (Cuzco, Huanuco)
83 PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta peruviana var. longipedicellata Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 502 (1941)
species :
Duranta rupestris Hayek; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42(1): 171 (1908)
Distribution: Ecuador (Pichincha); Peru (Ayacucho, Cuzco, Huancavelica, Junin)
83 ECU PER
species :
Duranta serratifolia (Griseb.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. 3: II. 251 (1898)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija); Argentina (Catamarca, Jujuy, Salta, Tucuman)
83 BOL 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta lorentzii Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 280 (1879)
= Duranta serratifolia var. punctata Caro; Revista Argent. Agron. 23: 19 (1956)
= Myrtus serratifolius Griseb.
species :
Duranta serrulata (Moldenke) P.Moroni; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 105(4): 552 (2020)
Distribution: Venezuela
82 VEN
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta mutisii f. serrulata Moldenke; Phytologia 23(5): 454 (1972)
species :
Duranta skottsbergiana Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 502 (1941)
Distribution: Peru (Huanuco, Junin)
83 PER
species :
Duranta sprucei Briq.; Bull. Herb. Boissier 4: 344 (1896)
Distribution: Colombia (Cauca, Nariño, Putumayo); Venezuela (Merida); Ecuador (El Oro, Loja, Pichincha, Cotopaxi, Tunguragua, Esmeraldas); Peru (Amazonas, Cuzco, Cajamarca, Huanuco, Junin, La Libertad, Lima, Puno); Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz); SE-Brazil
82 CLM VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta benthamii Briq.; Engl. & Prantl, Natürl. Pflanzenfam. 4: 3a. (1895) 160, et Bull. Herb. Boissier 4: 343
= Duranta dombeyana var. espinosae Moldenke; Phytologia 9: 186 (1963)
= Duranta sprucei var. colombiensis Moldenke; Phytologia 2: 18 (1941)
= Duranta sprucei var. cotopaxiensis Moldenke; Phytologia 51(4): 244 (1982)
= Duranta tomentosa Hayek; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. 2: 88 (1906)
species :
Duranta stenostachya Tod.; Nou. Gen. Nov. Sp. Palermo 26 (1860)
Distribution: Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I]); Dominica; Martinique; St. Lucia
61 sci 81 DOM MAR STL
species :
Duranta steyermarkii Moldenke; Fieldiana, Bot. 28: No. 3, 515 (1953)
Distribution: Venezuela (Merida, Monagas)
82 VEN
species :
Duranta triacantha Juss.; Ann. Mus. Par. 7: 77 (1806)
Distribution: Colombia (Valle); Ecuador (Bolívar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Imbabura, Loja, Pichincha, Tunguragua); Peru (Apurimac, Cuzco, Junin); Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz)
82 CLM 83 BOL ECU PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta hitchcockii Moldenke; Phytologia 1: 460(1940)
species :
Duranta vestita Cham.; Linnaea 7: 115 (1832)
Distribution: Brazil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo); Argentina (Misiones)
84 BRA 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Duranta parvifolia Moldenke; Phytologia 2: 464 (1948)
= Duranta plumieri var. vestita (Cham.) Schauer; Prodr. [A. DC.] 11: 615 (1847)
= Duranta vestita var. glabrescens Moldenke; Phytologia 2: 364 (1947)
species :
Duranta woronowii Moldenke; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 503 (1941)
Distribution: Colombia (Caquetá, Meta)
82 CLM
species :
Duranta wrightii Moldenke; Phytologia 3: 60 (1949)
Distribution: Cuba
81 CUB
Conservation Status: endangered (Red List of the Vascular Flora of Cuba)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life