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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

134.0000 Family Iridaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 57 (1789), nom. cons.
70 genera, ca. 2500 spp.
Species listed in database: 2553; hybrids: 45
= Crocaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 266, 283 (1818)
= Galaxiaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 72 (1836)
= Geosiridaceae Jonker; Receuil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 36: 477. seors. impr (1939), nom. cons.
= Gladiolaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 4: 34 (1838)
= Isophysidaceae F.A.Barkley; Revista Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellin Univ. Antioquia 8: 152 (1948)
= Ixiaceae Horan.; Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 51 (1834)
134.6333 Genus Freesia Eckl. ex Klatt; Linnaea 34: 1865 (1866) 672
Distribution: Tropical and South Africa. Revision: Goldblatt & J. C. Manning 2010
Species listed in database: 16
= Nymanina Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 701 (1891)
= Anomatheca Ker Gawl.; Ann. Bot. (König & Sims) 1: 227 (1805)
species :
Freesia andersoniae L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 17: 337 (1927)
Distribution: South Africa (North-West Prov., Free State, N-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
species :
Freesia caryophyllacea (Burm.f.) N.E.Br.; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 134 (1929)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca xanthospila (Redouté) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg., 1: 154 (1824)
= Freesia elimensis L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 23: 167, 168 (1933)
= Freesia parva N.E.Br.; J. S. African Bot. 1: 9 (1935)
= Freesia xanthospila (DC.) Klatt; Linnaea 34: 1865 (1866) 673
= Gladiolus xanthospilus DC.; Red. Liliac. 3: t. 124 (1805)
= Ixia caryophyllacea Burm.f.; Fl. Indica, Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1 (1768)
= Montbretia xanthospila (Redouté) Heynh.; Alph. Aufz. Gew.: 418 (1847)
= Tritonia xanthospila (Redouté) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng.; Syst. Veg., 1: 154 (1824)
= Waitzia xanthospila (Redouté) Heynh.; Nom. Bot. Hort.: 855 (1841)
species :
Freesia corymbosa (Burm.f.) N.E.Br.; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 132 (1929)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Freesia armstrongii W.Watson; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 25: 149 (1898)
= Freesia aurea Hend. ex Gumbl.; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 19: 392 (1896)
= Freesia brevis N.E.Br.; S. African Gard. 23: 263 (1933), nom. illeg. superfl. for F. metelerkampiae L. Bolus
= Freesia corymbosa var. aurea (Hend. ex Gumbl.) N.E.Br.; J. S. African Bot. 1: 16 (1935)
= Freesia metelerkampiae L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 17: 337 (1927)
= Freesia odorata (G.Lodd. ex Bosse) Eckl. ex Klatt; Linnaea 34: 672 (1866)
= Freesia refracta var. odorata (G.Lodd. ex Bosse) Baker; Handb. Irid.: 167 (1892), nom. illeg.
= Gladiolus corymbosus Burm.f.; Fl. Indica, Prodr. Fl. Cap.: 2 (1768)
= Montbretia odorata (G.Lodd. ex Bosse) Heynh.; Alph. Aufz. Gew.: 418 (1847)
= Tritonia odorata G.Lodd. ex Bosse; Blumen-Zeitung 12: 347 (1839)
= Waitzia odorata (G.Lodd. ex Bosse) Heynh.; Nom. Bot. Hort.: 854 (1841)
species :
Freesia fergusoniae L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 17: 337 (1927)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
species :
Freesia fucata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt; Bothalia 31: 189 (2001)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
species :
Freesia grandiflora (Baker) Klatt; T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 1893 (1894) 187
subspecies :
subsp. grandiflora
Distribution: SE-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; S-Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Gauteng, Mpulamanga); Eswatini [Swaziland]
23 ZAI 25 TAN 26 MLW MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 SAF SWZ
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca grandiflora Baker; J. Bot. 14: 337 (1876)
= Freesia rubella Baker; Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 868 (1901)
= Lapeirousia graminifolia (Baker) L.Bolus; J. Bot. 47: 135 (1929)
= Tritonia graminifolia Baker; Handb. Irid.: 195 (1892)
subspecies :
subsp. occulta J.C.Manning & Goldblatt; Strelitzia 27: 111 (2010)
Distribution: Mozambique
26 MOZ
species :
Freesia laxa (Thunb.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning; Syst. Bot. 20(2): 171 (1995)
subspecies :
subsp. laxa
Distribution: Gibraltar [I]; Morocco [I]; SE-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; Rwanda; ?South Sudan; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania; Zambia; Malawi; Mozambique; South Africa (Limpopo, Mpulamanga, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.); Eswatini [Swaziland]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Australia [I] (Queensland [I], New South Wales [I]); Norfolk Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; USA [I] (Florida [I]); Argentina [I]
12 gib 20 mor 23 RWA ZAI 25 KEN TAN UGA 26 MLW MOZ ZAM 27 SAF SWZ 29 mau reu 50 aus nfk 51 nzl 78 usa 85 arg
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca cruenta Lindl.; Edwards´s Bot. Reg. 16: t. 1369 (1830)
= Anomatheca laxa (Thunb.) Goldblatt; J. S. Afr Bot. 37(4): 442 (1971)
= Freesia cruenta (Lindl.) Klatt; T. Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 5: 1893 (1894) 187
= Gladiolus laxus Thunb.; Fl. Cap. ed. Schult. 50 (1823)
= Lapeirousia cruenta (Lindl.) Baker; Handb. Irid.: 173 (1892)
= Lapeirousia graebneriana Harms; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 366 (1900)
= Lapeirousia grandiflora Jacq.; Ann. Fl. Pomone 1835-1836: 120 (1836), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Lapeirousia laxa (Thunb.) N.E.Br.; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 48: 24 (1928)
= Meristostigma laxum (Thunb.) A.Dietr.; Sp. Pl. 2: 597 (1833)
subspecies :
subsp. azurea (Goldblatt & Hutchings) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning; Syst. Bot. 20(2): 171 (1995)
Distribution: Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
26 MOZ 27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca laxa subsp. azurea Goldblatt & Hutchings; Novon 3(2): 146 (1993)
species :
Freesia leichtlinii Klatt; Regel, Gartenfl. (1874) 289
subspecies :
subsp. leichtlinii
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
Synonyms: hidden
= Freesia gentilis N.E.Br.; J. S. African Bot. 1: 20 (1935)
= Freesia muirii N.E.Br.; Gard. Chron., III 92: 467 (1932)
= Freesia xanthospila var. leichtlinii (Klatt) N.E.Br.; 22 (1935)
= Nymanina leichtlinii (Klatt) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 701 (1891)
= Sparaxis thoubertii Klatt; Gartenflora (1874) 289
subspecies :
subsp. alba (G.L.Mey.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt; Strelitzia 27: 70 (2010)
Distribution: Spain [I]; Greece [I]; Crete [I]; South Africa (W-Cape Prov.); East Aegaean Isl. [I]
12 spa 13 grc kri 27 SAF 34 eai
Synonyms: hidden
= Freesia alba (G.L.Mey.) Gumbl.; Gard. Chron., III 19: 392 (1896)
= Freesia herbertii N.E.Br.; J. S. African Bot. 1: 14 (1935)
= Freesia middlemostii F.Barker; S. African Gard. 23: 112 (1933)
= Freesia picta N.E.Br.; J. S. African Bot. 1: 21 (1935)
= Freesia refracta var. alba G.L.Mey.; Z. Schweiz. Gartenbau 1: 37 (1881)
= Freesia sparrmannii var. alba (G.L.Mey.) N.E.Br.; t. 11 (1921)
species :
Freesia marginata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt; Novon 15: 168 (2005)
Distribution: South Africa (Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
species :
Freesia occidentalis L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 23: 255, 266 (1933)
Distribution: South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Freesia framesii L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 24: 243, 245 (1934)
species :
Freesia praecox J.C.Manning & Goldblatt; Strelitzia 27: 65 (2010)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
species :
Freesia refracta (Jacq.) Eckl. ex Klatt; Linnaea 34: 673 (1866)
Distribution: Portugal [I]; Spain [I]; Gibraltar [I]; SE-France [I]; Monaco [c]; Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Gran Canaria [I]); South Africa (W-Cape Prov.); Java [I]; New Zealand [I]; USA [I] (California [I], Florida [I]); Colombia [I]; Argentina [I]
12 fra gib mco por spa 21 cny mdr 27 SAF 42 jaw 51 nzl 76 usa 78 usa 82 clm 85 arg
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Freesia alba Baker; Handb. Irid. (1892) 167
= Freesia hurlingii L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 23: 112 (1933)
= Gladiolus refractus Jacq.; Icon. Pl. Rar. 2(16): 4, t. 241 (1795)
= Gladiolus resupinatus Pers.; Syn. 1: 45 (1805)
= Montbretia refracta (Jacq.) Endl. ex Heynh.; Nom. 2: 418 (1847)
= Nymanina refracta (Jacq.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 701 (1891)
= Sparaxis herbertii Voss; Vilmorin´s Blumeng., ed. 3, Sieber & Voss 1: 990 (1895) [in syn.]
= Sparaxis joubertii Eckl. ex Baker; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 164 (1877)
= Tritonia refracta (Jacq.) Ker Gawl.; Ann. Bot. (König & Sims) 1: 228 (1804)
= Waitzia odorata Heynh.; Nom. 1: 854 (1841)
= Waitzia refracta (Jacq.) Heynh.; Nom. 1: 855 (1841)
species :
Freesia sparrmannii (Thunb.) N.E.Br.; Fl. Pl. South Africa t. 1 I (1921)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Viridibractea
Synonyms: hidden
= Gladiolus sparrmannii Thunb.; Fl. Cap., ed. 2: 49 (1823)
= Ixia sparrmannii (Thunb.) Roem. & Schult.; 285 (1822)
= Meristostigma sparmannii (Thunb.) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 130 (1841)
species :
Freesia speciosa L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 19: 385 (1929)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Freesia flava (E.Phillips & N.E.Br.) N.E.Br.; J. S. African Bot. 1: 27 (1935)
= Freesia sparrmanii var. flava E.Phillips & N.E.Br.; Fl. Pl. South Africa 1: t. 11 (1921)
species :
Freesia verrucosa (B.Vogel) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning; Syst. Bot. 20(2): 171 (1995)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: subgen. 1 Freesia
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca juncea (Ker Gawl.) Ker Gawl.; Ann. Bot. (König & Sims) 1: 227 (1804)
= Anomatheca verrucosa (B.Vogel) Goldblatt; J. S. African Bot. 37(4): 442 (1971)
= Freesia juncea (Pourr.) Klatt; Dur. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afric. 5: 187 (1894)
= Gladiolus amabilis Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 41 (1796), without type
= Gladiolus excisus Jacq.; Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 4: 46 (1804)
= Gladiolus junceus L.f.; Suppl. Pl.: 94 (1782), nom. illeg.
= Gladiolus paniculatus Pers.; Syn. Pl. 1: 45 (1805), nom. illeg. superfl. for G. polystachyus Andrews
= Gladiolus polystachyus Andrews; Bot. Repos. 1: t. 66 (1799)
= Gladiolus pulchellus Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 39 (1796)
= Ixia emarginata Lam.; Encycl. 3: 342 (1789)
= Ixia gawleri Schrad.; Neues J. Bot. 4(1): 67 (1810), nom. superfl.
= Ixia verrucosa B.Vogel; C. J. Trew, Pl. Rar.: t. 24 (1784)
= Lapeirousia juncea Pourr.; Mém. Acad. Sci. Toulouse 3: 79 (1788)
= Meristostigma junceum (Pourr.) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 130 (1841)
= Peyrousia juncea (Pourr.) Poir.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2, 39: 364 (1826)
species :
Freesia viridis (Aiton) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning; Syst. Bot. 20(2): 172 (1995)
subspecies :
subsp. viridis
Distribution: Namibia; South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.)
27 NAM SAF
Remarks: subgen. 2 Viridibractea, ser. Alatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca viridis (Aiton) Goldblatt; J. S. African Bot. 37(4): 443 (1971)
= Gladiolus viridis Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 3: 481 (1789)
= Lapeirousia viridis (Aiton) L.Bolus; S. African Gard. 22: 276 (1932)
= Montbretia viridis (Aiton) Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calc. 610 (1845)
= Tapeinia viridis (Aiton) F.Dietr.; Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. 9: 19 (1823)
= Tritonia viridis (Aiton) Ker Gawl.; Bot. Mag. t. 1275 (1810)
= Waitzia viridis (Aiton) Kreysig; Verz. Warm. & Kalt. Hauspflanzen Gart. Dresden: 52 (1829)
subspecies :
subsp. crispifolia (Goldblatt) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt; Strelitzia 03:55 (2010)
Distribution: South Africa (N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Anomatheca viridis subsp. crispifolia Goldblatt; Contrib. Bolus Herb. 4: 87 (1972)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life