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V. 14.3
November 10th, 2022

056.0000 Family Gnetaceae Blume; Nov. Pl. Expos.: 23 (1833), nom. cons.
1 genus, ca. 50 spp.
Species listed in database: 44
= Thoaceae Kuntze, T. E. von Post & C. E. Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 615 (1903)
056.0001 Genus Gnetum L.; Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 637 (1767)
Distribution: SE-Asia, 1 sp. to Fiji, 2 spp. to India, 2 spp. WAfr, 6 spp. tropical Americas. There are many undescribed species in Malesia (the Checklist of Borneo alone lists 10 new species and a lot of unidentified herbar material)
Species listed in database: 44
= Abutua Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 630 (1790)
= Arthostema Neck., Elem. 2: 280 (1790)
= Gnemon Rumpf, Herb. Amboin. (1741) 1181 t. 71, 72 ex Kuntze Revis. Gen. Pl. 796 (1891)
= Thoa Aubl., Pl. Gui. 2: 874. t. 336 (1775)

Search for: Gnetum latifolium-var.-funiculare

Nothing found!
species :
Gnetum acutum Markgr.; Fl. Males., Ser. l, 6(6): 947 (1972), nom. nov.
Distribution: Borneo
42 BOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum acutatum Markgr., Blumea, 13: 404 (1966) (non Miq.)
= Thoa acuta (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum africanum Welw.; Trans. Linn. Soc. London 27: 73 (1869)
Distribution: Gabon; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Nigeria; Equatorial Guinea; Congo [Brazzaville]; D.R.Congo [Zaire]; Angola
22 NGA 23 CAF CMN CON EQG GAB ZAI 26 ANG
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa africana (Welw.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum arboreum Foxw.; Philip. J. Sci., Bot., 6: 174 (1911)
Distribution: Philippines (Luzon)
42 PHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa arborea (Foxw.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum bosavicum Markgr.; Blumea, 23(2): 344 (1977)
Distribution: New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa markgrafii Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum buchholzianum Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40: 519 (1908)
Distribution: Gabon; Cameroon; Congo [Brazzaville]
23 CMN CON GAB
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa buchholziana (Engl.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum camporum (Markgr.) D.W.Stev. & Zanoni; Fl. Guianas, Ser. A, 9(209): 14 (1991)
Distribution: Colombia (Caquetá); Venezuela (Bolívar)
82 CLM VEN
Remarks: to be expected in Guyana
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum urens var. camporum Markgr., Acta Bot. Venezuel., 6(1-4): 371 (1971) (1972)
species :
Gnetum catasphaericum H.Shao; Guihaia 14(4): 297-298, f. 1 (1994)
Distribution: China (S-Guangxi, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa catasphaerica (H.Shao) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum chinense Y.Yang, Bing Liu & S.Z.Zhang; PhytoKeys 148: 109 (2020)
Distribution: China (Guizhou, Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Gnetum cleistostachyum C.Y.Cheng; Acta Phytotax. Sin., 13(4): 89 (1975)
Distribution: China (SE-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: status doubtful, name invalid because of two types cited
species :
Gnetum contractum Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. III. 10: 470 (1930)
Distribution: India (Travancore, Nilgiri Hills)
40 IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa contracta (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum costatum K.Schum.; K. Schumach. & Hollr. Fl. Kais. Wilh. Land 13 (1889)
Distribution: New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG
species :
Gnetum cuspidatum Blume; Rumphia, 4: 5 (1848)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia; Java; Sumatra (incl. Bangka Isl.); peninsular Thailand; Borneo; Sulawesi; Moluccas (Talaud Isl., Sula Arch.); Vietnam; Lesser Sunda Isl.
41 THA VIE 42 BOR JAW LSI MLY MOL SUL SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon cuspidata (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum longispica Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 60: 63 (1911)
= Gnetum penangense Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., 60: 62 (1911)
= Thoa cuspidata (Blume) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum diminutum Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. III. 10: 483 (1930)
Distribution: Borneo (Sarawak)
42 BOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa diminuta (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum formosum Markgr.; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. II. 2: 686 (1930)
Distribution: Vietnam
41 VIE
species :
Gnetum giganteum H.Shao; Guihaia 14(4): 298-299, f. 2 (1994)
Distribution: China (Guangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Gnetum globosum Markgr.; Blumea, 19(1): 108 (1971)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia (only known from type, Taman Negara, Pahang)
42 MLY
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa globosa (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
species :
Gnetum gnemon L.; Mant. 1: 125 (1767)
Distribution: Java [I]; NE-India (Assam); Fed. States of Micronesia; Fiji; peninsular Malaysia (mostly East Coast); Singapore; Thailand; Sumatra [I]; Borneo; Brunei; Sulawesi; Lesser Sunda Isl.; Moluccas; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Solomon Isl.; Philippines; SE-Tibet; China (W-Yunnan); Andaman Isl. (Little Andaman Isl.); Nicobar Isl. (Car Nicobar Isl., North Nicobars, Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.); Myanmar (Kachin, Sagaing, Taninthayi); Laos
36 CHI TIB 40 IND 41 AND LAO MYA NCB THA 42 BOR BRN jaw LSI MLY MOL NWG PHI SNG SUL sum 43 SOL 60 FIJ 62 MIC
Conservation Status: critically endangered (Singapore)
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon griffitii Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 796 (1891)
= Gnemon ovalifolia (Poir.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum acutatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv.: 588 (1861)
= Gnetum gnemon f. stipitatum Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 437 (1930)
= Gnetum gnemon f. volubile Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 437 (1930)
= Gnetum gnemon var. domesticum Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 437 (1930)
= Gnetum gnemon var. laurinum Blume, Rumphia 4: 3 (1849)
= Gnetum gnemon var. lucidum Blume, Rumphia 4: 3 (1849)
= Gnetum gnemon var. majusculum Blume, Rumphia 4: 3 (1849)
= Gnetum gnemon var. ovalifolium (Poir.) Blume, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 2: 105 (1834)
= Gnetum gnemon var. sylvestris (Brongn.) Parl., Prodr. 16(2): 349 (1868)
= Gnetum ovalifolium Poir., Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 2: 810 (1812)
= Gnetum polystachyum Reinw. ex Blume, Catalogus 106 (1823)
= Gnetum sylvestre Brongn., L. I. Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan.: 12 (1829)
= Gnetum vinosum Elmer, Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 7: 2673 (1915)
variant :
var. brunonianum (Griff.) Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 440 (1930)
Distribution: NE-India (Assam); Myanmar; peninsular Malaysia; Borneo (incl. Anambas Isl., Karimata Isl.)
40 IND 41 MYA 42 BOR MLY
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon brunoniana (Griff.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum brunonianum Griff., J. Lindley, Veg. Kingd.: 233 (1846)
variant :
var. gracile Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 444 (1930)
Distribution: Sulawesi
42 SUL
variant :
var. griffithii (Parl.) Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 442 (1930)
Distribution: NE-India (Assam); Myanmar; Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia
40 IND 41 MYA VIE 42 MLY
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon griffithii (Parl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum griffithii Parl., Prodr. [A. DC.] 16(2,2): 349 (1868)
variant :
var. tenerum Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 444 (1930)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia; Borneo; Thailand
41 THA 42 BOR MLY
species :
Gnetum gnemonoides Brongn.; Duperr. Voy. Bot. 12 (1829)
Distribution: Singapore; peninsular Malaysia; Bismarck Arch. (New Hanover); Sumatra (Belitung Isl.); Borneo; Sulawesi; Philippines; Moluccas (Aru Isl.); New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Andaman Isl.; Nicobar Isl.; Myanmar (Yangon); Laos
41 AND LAO MYA NCB 42 BOR MLY MOL NWG PHI SNG SUL SUM 43 BIS
Conservation Status: critically endangered (Singapore)
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon edulis (Willd.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum edule (Willd.) Blume, Tijdschr. Natuurl. Gesch. Physiol. 1: 161 (1834)
= Gnetum funiculare Brongn., L. I. Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan.: 12 (1829)
= Gnetum funiculare Buch.-Ham. ex Sm., Cycl. [A. Rees], (London ed.) 16(sect.1, pt. 31): Gnetum sp. no. 3 (1810)
= Gnetum kerstingii K.Schumach. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. Südsee, 157 (1900)
= Gnetum macrocarpum Becc., Malesia. 1: 182 (1877)
= Gnetum moluccense H.Karst. ex Markgr., Engl., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 13: 435 (1926)
= Gnetum ovalifolium H.Karst., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 40: 215 (1893)
= Gnetum pyrifolium Miq. ex Parl., Prodr. [A. DC.] 16(2,2): 350 (1868)
= Gnetum rumphianum Becc., Malesia, 1: 182 (1877)
= Gnetum scandens Roxb., Hort. Bengal.: 66 (1814)
= Gnetum ula Brongn., L. I. Duperrey, Voy. Monde, Phan.: 12 (1829)
= Gnetum verrucosum H.Karst., Annal. Jard. Buit. 40: 216 (1893)
= Gnetum wrayi Gamble, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1915: 92 (1915)
= Thoa edulis Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 477 (1805)
= Thoa gnemonoides (Brongn.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 32 (2000)
= Thoa scandens (Roxb.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
species :
Gnetum gracilipes C.Y.Cheng; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13(4): 88, t. 64, f. 1-3 (1975)
Distribution: China (SE-Yunnan, S-Guangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Gnetum hainanense C.Y.Cheng ex L.K.Fu, Y.F.Yu & M.G.Gilbert; Novon, 9(2): 187 (1999)
Distribution: China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, SE-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum hainanense C.Y.Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13(4): 88, t. 65 (1975)
= Thoa hainanensis (C.Y.Cheng ex L.K.Fu, Y.F.Yu & M.G.Gilbert) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum interruptum Biye; Pl. Syst. Evol. 300(2): 270 (2013)
Distribution: Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo [Brazzaville]; D.R.Congo [Zaire]; Equatorial Guinea
23 CAF CMN CON EQG ZAI
species :
Gnetum klossii Merr. ex Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. III. 10: 478 (1930)
Distribution: NE-Borneo
42 BOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa klossii (Merr. ex Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum latifolium Blume; Hoev. & de Vriese, Tijdschr. 1: 162 (1834)
Distribution: Singapore; peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Pahang); Vietnam; Philippines; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Thailand; Cambodia; Laos; Andaman Isl. (North Andamans, Middle Andamans, South Andamans, Little Andaman Isl.); Nicobar Isl. (Car Nicobar Isl., North Nicobars, Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.); Myanmar (Bago); Sulawesi; Sumatra
41 AND CBD LAO MYA NCB THA VIE 42 MLY NWG PHI SNG SUL SUM
Conservation Status: critically endangered (Singapore)
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon latifolia (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum latifolium f. brachypodum Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 459 (1930)
= Gnetum latifolium var. blumei Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 459 (1930)
= Gnetum philippinense Warb., Monsunia 1: 196 (1900)
= Thoa pendula Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2: 514 (1845)
variant :
var. funiculare (Blume) Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 463 (1930)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia; peninsular Thailand; Sumatra (Bangka Isl., Lingga Arch., Simeulue); Borneo (Natuna Isl.); Java; Nicobar Isl. (Central Nicobars); Bangladesh
40 BAN 41 NCB THA 42 BOR JAW MLY SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum funiculare Blume, Hoev. & de Vriese, Tijdschr. 1: 162 (1834)
= Gnetum kingianum Gamble, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1915: 92 (1915)
variant :
var. laxifrutescens (Elmer) Markgr.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60: 148 (1925)
Distribution: Bismarck Arch. (New Ireland, New Britain); Philippines; Moluccas (Kei Isl., Tanimbar)
42 MOL PHI 43 BIS
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum laxifrutescens Elmer, Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 4: 1478 (1912)
= Gnetum latifolium var. peekelii Markgr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60: 148 (1925)
variant :
var. longipes (Markgr.) N.T.Hiêp; Fl. Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam, 28: 142 (1996)
Distribution: Philippines (Luzon); Cambodia
41 CBD 42 PHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum latifolium f. longipes Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 459 (1930)
variant :
var. macropodum (Kurz) Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 462 (1930)
Distribution: Nicobar Isl. (Car Nicobar Isl., Central Nicobars)
41 NCB
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum macropodum Kurz, J. Bot. 13: 331 (1875)
variant :
var. minus (Foxw.) Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 463 (1930)
Distribution: Borneo; Philippines; SE-Sulawesi
42 BOR PHI SUL
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum minus Foxw., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot., 6: 176 (1911)
species :
Gnetum latispicum Biye; Pl. Syst. Evol. 300(2): 271 (2013)
Distribution: Cameroon; Central African Republic
23 CAF CMN
species :
Gnetum leptostachyum Blume; Rumphia, 4: 5 (1848)
Distribution: Borneo; Thailand; Laos; Sumatra
41 LAO THA 42 BOR SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon leptostachya (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum leptostachyum var. abbreviatum Markgr., Fl. Males., Ser. 1, Spermat. 4: 346 (1951)
= Gnetum leptostachyum var. abbreviatum Markgr., Fl. Males. 4: 346 (1951)
= Gnetum leptostachyum var. elongatum Markgr., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. sér. 2, 1: 686 (1930)
= Gnetum leptostachyum var. robustum Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 490 (1930)
= Gnetum leptostachyum var. tenue Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 489 (1930)
= Thoa leptostachya (Blume) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum leyboldii Tul.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV. 10: 115 (1858)
Distribution: N-Brazil (Pará, Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia); WC-Brazil (Mato Grosso); Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar); E-Ecuador; Costa Rica; Peru; Bolivia (Pando)
80 COS 82 VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Remarks: to be expected in the Guianas
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon leyboldii (Tul.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum dioicum Leyb. ex Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV. 10: 115, 116 (1858)
= Gnetum paraense Huber, Bol. Mus. Paraense Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 3: 403 (1902)
= Thoa leyboldii (Tul.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum loerzingii Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. III. 10: 480 (1930)
Distribution: Sumatra (incl. Enggano Isl.)
42 SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa loerzingii (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum luofuense C.Y.Cheng; Acta Phytotax. Sin., 13 (4): 89 (1975)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, S-Jiangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Gnetum macrostachyum Hook.fil.; Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 642 (1888)
Distribution: Java; peninsular Malaysia; Thailand; Laos; Sumatra; Borneo; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Myanmar (Taninthayi, Tenasserim); Singapore; Cambodia; Vietnam
41 CBD LAO MYA THA VIE 42 BOR JAW MLY NWG SNG SUM
Conservation Status: critically endangered (Singapore)
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa macrostachya (Hook.fil.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum microcarpum F.Muell.; Bot. Centralbl. 50: 195 (1892)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia; Thailand; Singapore
41 THA 42 MLY SNG
Conservation Status: critically endangered (Singapore)
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum apiculatum Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 4: 30 (1854)
= Gnetum campestre (Ridl.) Gamble ex Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 7: 51 (1916)
= Gnetum microcarpum f. campestre (Ridl.) Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 486 (1930)
= Gnetum microcarpum f. sylvestre (Ridl.) Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 486 (1930)
= Gnetum microcarpum var. campestre Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 60: 62 (1911)
= Gnetum microcarpum var. sylvestre Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 60: 62 (1911)
= Gnetum neglectum var. microcarpum (Blume) Parl., Prodr. 16(2): 350 (1868)
= Gnetum sylvestre Gamble ex Ridl., Fl. Mal. Penins. 5: 275 (1925)
= Thoa microcarpa (Blume) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum montanum Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 10: 466, t. 8 (1930)
Distribution: Nepal; Bhutan; NE-India (Assam); Myanmar (widespread); Bangladesh; Thailand; Vietnam; Cambodia; China (Guangdong, Guangxi); Laos; Andaman Isl. (North Andamans, Middle Andamans, South Andamans, Little Andaman Isl.); Nicobar Isl. (Car Nicobar Isl., North Nicobars, Central Nicobars, Great Nicobar Isl., Little Nicobar Isl.)
36 CHI 40 BAN BHU IND NEP 41 AND CBD LAO MYA NCB THA VIE
Conservation Status: Threatened in Vietnam
Synonyms: hidden
= Abutua indica Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 630 (1790)
= Gnemon indica (Lour.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum indicum (Lour.) Merr., Interpr. Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 77 (1917)
= Gnetum scandens Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 518 (1832) (p. p.)
= Thoa indica (Lour.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
= Thoa montana (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum neglectum Blume; Rumphia, 4: 6. t. 175. f. 2 (1848)
Distribution: Borneo; Myanmar (Rakhine, Taninthayi); Sumatra
41 MYA 42 BOR SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon neglecta (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum neglectum var. procerum Blume, Rumphia 4: 6 (1849)
= Thoa neglecta (Blume) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum nodiflorum Brongn.; Duperr. Voy. Bot. 1: 12 (1829)
Distribution: Ecuador; Colombia (Amazonas, Caquetá, Guainía, Meta, Vaupés, Vichada); Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Peru; N-Brazil (Amapa, Pará, Amazonas, Acre); Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar); Bolivia (Pando, Santa Cruz)
82 CLM FRG GUY SUR VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon amazonica (Tul.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnemon nigra (Carr.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnemon nodiflora (Brongn.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum amazonicum Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV. 10: 116 (1858)
= Gnetum cruzianum Gleason, Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl., 52: 196 (1925)
= Gnetum nigrum Carr., Traité Gén. Conif.: 545 (1855)
= Gnetum oblongifolium Huber, Bol. Mus. Paraense Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 3: 404 (1902)
= Thoa nigra Carr., Traité Gén. Conif.: 545 (1855)
= Thoa nodiflora (Brongn.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
= Thoa urens Poepp. ex Parl., Prodr. [A. DC.] 16(2,2): 351 (1868)
species :
Gnetum oblongum Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. III. 10: 471 (1930)
Distribution: Myanmar (Tenasserim); Bangladesh
40 BAN 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa oblonga (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum oxycarpum Ridl.; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926: 94 (1926)
Distribution: Sumatra (Siberut Isl.)
42 SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa oxycarpa (Ridl.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum paniculatum Spruce ex Benth.; Hook. Kew Journ. 8: 357 (1856)
Distribution: Colombia (Amazonas, Guainía); N-Brazil (Amazonas, Acre); Guyana; ?Surinam; French Guiana; Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar)
82 CLM FRG GUY VEN 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon microstachya (Spruce & Benth. ex Parl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnemon paniculata (Spruce ex Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 796 (1891)
= Gnetum microstachyum Benth. ex Parl., Prodr. (DC.) 16(2,2): 352 (1868)
= Thoa paniculata (Spruce ex Benth.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 33 (2000)
species :
Gnetum parvifolium (Warb.) W.C.Cheng; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9(4): 386 (1964)
Distribution: China (Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Fujian); Laos; Vietnam
36 CHI 41 LAO VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum indicum f. parvifolium (Warb.) Masam.
= Gnetum montanum f. megalocarpum Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 468 (1930)
= Gnetum montanum f. parvifolium (Warb.) Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 10: 468 (1930)
= Gnetum scandens var. parvifolium Warb., Monsonia 1: 196 (1900)
= Thoa parvifolia (Warb.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
species :
Gnetum pendulum C.Y.Cheng; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13(4): 88, t. 63, f. 1-2 (1975)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, SE-Guizhou, S-Yunnan); SE-Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum pendulum f. intermedium C.Y.Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13(4): 88 (1975)
= Gnetum montanum f. megalocarpum Markgr., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 10(4): 468 (1930)
= Gnetum pendulum f. subsessile C.Y.Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 13(4): 88 (1975)
species :
Gnetum raya Markgr.; Blumea, 14: 284 (1967)
Distribution: Borneo; Sumatra
42 BOR SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa raya (Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
species :
Gnetum ridleyi Gamble ex Burkill & M.R.Hend.; Gard. Bull. Straits Settlements, 3: 458 (1925), Markgr. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. Ser. III. 10: 479 (1930)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia (Telom, Pahang)
42 MLY
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum ridleyi Gamble, Gard. Bull. Straits Settlements, 3: 458 (1925) (nomen)
= Thoa ridleyi (Gamble ex Markgr.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
species :
Gnetum schwackeanum Taub. ex Markgr.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 10: 450 (1930)
Distribution: Colombia (Amazonas, Caquetá, Guainía, Vichada); Venezuela (Amazonas); N-Brazil (Amazonas, Acre)
82 CLM VEN 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnetum schwackeanum Taub. ex Schenck, Beitr. Biol. & Anat. Lian. 11. (Schimper, Bot. Mittheil., Heft 5) 249 (1893)
= Thoa schwackeana (Taub. ex A.Schenk) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
species :
Gnetum tenuifolium Ridl.; J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc., 59: 188 (1911)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia; Sumatra; Thailand
41 THA 42 MLY SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Thoa tenuifolia (Ridl.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
species :
Gnetum urens (Aubl.) Blume; Hoev. & de Vriese, Tijdschr. 1: 162 (1834)
Distribution: Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Caquetá, Chocó, Guaviare, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés, Vichada); N-Brazil (Amazonas); Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar); Panama
80 PAN 82 CLM FRG GUY SUR VEN 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon urens (Aubl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 796 (1891)
= Gnetum leyboldii var. woodsonianum Markgr., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52: 385 (1965)
= Gnetum melinonii Benoist, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, 17: 66 (1945)
= Gnetum thoa Brongn., L. I. Duperrey, Voy. Monde 2: 12 (1829), nom. illeg.
= Thoa urens Aubl., Pl. Guian. 2: 874 (1775)
species :
Gnetum venosum Spruce ex Benth.; Hook. Kew Journ. 8: 358 (1856)
Distribution: N-Brazil (Pará, Amazonas); Venezuela (Bolívar)
82 VEN 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Gnemon venosa Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 796 (1891)
= Thoa venosa (Spruce ex Benth.) Doweld, Turczaninowia 3(4): 34 (2000)
...

A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 14.4 (December 2022)

Covering 354,183 valid species, 9,038 hybrids, 58,691 valid infraspecific taxa and 933,256 synonyms, in total 1,355,167 names


Ferns, Lycophytes, Gymnosperms, Basal Angiosperms, Mono- and Dicotyledonae

With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 30 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life