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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

521.0000 Family Araliaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 217 (1789), nom. cons.
44 genera, ca. 1700 spp. : 150 Indomalesia, 350 Polynesia/Australia, 150 tropical America. Inclusion of Hydrocotyloideae (formerly Apiaceae) confirmed by molecular phylogeny.
Species listed in database: 1686; hybrids: 7
= Botryodendraceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 231 (1858)
= Hederaceae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 519 (1792)
= Hydrocotylaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 258 (1820), nom. cons.
521.2401 Genus Hedera L.; Sp. Pl.: 202 (1753)
Distribution: Palearctic, mostly Europe and Macaronesia. Taxonomy very complicated, with many garden forms and conflicting species concept
Species listed in database: 16; hybrids: 4
= Helix Mitch.; Diss. Bot. & Zool. 46 (1769)
= Psedera Neck.; Elem. 1: 158 (1790)
species :
Hedera algeriensis Hibberd; Fl. World Gard. Guide 7: 57 (1864)
Distribution: Algeria; Tunisia
20 ALG TUN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera algeriensis var. variegata (Paul) Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera algeriensis unranked variegata Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867)
= Hedera canariensis f. variegata (Paul) Verhaeghe; Taxonomania 11: 14 (2004)
= Hedera canariensis var. variegata (Paul) Schulze-Menz; Gentes Herb. 6: 128 (1942)
= Hedera grandifolia var. variegata (Paul) Hibberd; Ivy: 28 (1872)
species :
Hedera azorica Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890)
Distribution: Azores
21 AZO
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera canariensis var. azorica (Carrière) Gand.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 46: 254 (1900)
= Hedera helix var. azorica (Gand.) P.Silva & Q.G.P.Silva; Agron. Lusit. 16(1): 47 (1974)
species :
Hedera canariensis Willd.; Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammte Naturk 2: 171 (1808)
Name: Kanaren-Efeu (DE); Yedra canaria (ES)
Distribution: France [I]; ?Morocco; Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Sao Jorge, Pico, Faial, Flores Isl., Corvo Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); Turkey [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; USA [I] (California [I]); Colombia [I]
12 fra 21 AZO CNY MDR 34 tur 51 ctm 76 usa 82 clm
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera canariensis var. arborescens Hibberd; Fl. World Gard. Guide 7: 57 (1864)
= Hedera canariensis var. aureomaculata Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera canariensis var. latifolia-maculata Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 20 (1868)
= Hedera canariensis var. marginomaculata Lawr.; Gentes Herb. 6: 128 (1942)
= Hedera canariensis var. striata Lawr.; Gentes Herb. 6: 128 (1942)
= Hedera canariensis var. viridis (Hibberd) Lawr.; Gentes Herb. 6: 127 (1942)
= Hedera grandifolia Hibberd; Ivy: 96 (1872)
= Hedera grandifolia var. pallida Hibberd; Ivy: 98 (1872)
= Hedera grandifolia var. viridis Hibberd; Ivy: 98 (1872)
= Hedera helix subsp. canariensis (Willd.) Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 428 (1913)
= Hedera helix var. canariensis (Willd.) DC.; Prodr. 4: 261 (1830)
= Hedera scotica A.Chev.; Le Monde des Plantes 34: 42, pro syn. (1933)
= Hedera sevillana Sprenger; Gartenwelt 7: 244 (1903)
= Hedera viridis (Hibberd) G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 243 (1895)
species :
Hedera colchica (K.Koch) K.Koch; Wochenschr. Gärtn. Pflanzenk. 2: 74 (1859)
Name: Kolchischer Efeu (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; France [I]; Crimea; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia); USA [I] (Arizona [I], North Carolina [I], South Carolina [I])
11 ger 12 fra 14 KRY 33 GEO NCS 34 TUR 76 usa 78 usa
Remarks: widely cultivated and frequently semi-wild
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera acuta G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 243 (1895)
= Hedera amurensis Hibberd ex Lawr. & Schulze-Menz; Gentes Herb. 6: 123 (1942)
= Hedera caucasica Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera colchica f. arborescens (Paul) Rehder; Bibl. Cult. Trees: 490 (1949)
= Hedera colchica f. dentata (Hibberd) Hibberd; J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 12: 395 (1890)
= Hedera colchica f. dentatovariegata (A.E.Schulze) Geerinck; Taxonomaniac 10: 9 (2003)
= Hedera colchica f. dentatovariegata (A.E.Schulze) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland (2009), isonym
= Hedera colchica f. flavovariegata P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 3: 518 (249) (2009)
= Hedera colchica var. arborescens Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera colchica var. dentata (Hibberd) Lawr.; Gentes Herb. 6: 124 (1942)
= Hedera colchica var. dentatovariegata A.E.Schulze; Gentes Herb. 6: 124 (1942)
= Hedera colchica var. rhombifolia (Rupr. ex Regel) Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 2: 1091 (1872)
= Hedera colchica var. variegata Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 20 (1868)
= Hedera cordifolia Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 57 (1864)
= Hedera coriacea Hibberd; The Ivy, 105 (1872)
= Hedera coriacea var. dentata Hibberd; Ivy: 106 (1872)
= Hedera dentata (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 162 (1890)
= Hedera helix var. colchica K.Koch; Linnaea 16: 365 (1842)
= Hedera helix var. dentata (Hibberd) G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 121 (1885)
= Hedera helix var. roegneriana (Hibberd) G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 121 (1885)
= Hedera rhombifolia Rupr. ex Regel; Gartenflora 1860: 372 (1860)
= Hedera roegneriana Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 2: 1091 (1872), nom. inval.
= Hedera roegneriana Hibberd; Fl. World 1: 138 (1858)
= Hedera roegneriana var. arborea Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 57 (1864)
species :
Hedera crebrescens M.Bényei-Himmer & M.Höhn; Stud. Bot. Hung. 48(2): 230 (2017)
Distribution: Germany; Hungary; etc.
11 GER HUN
species :
Hedera helix L.; Sp. Pl. 202 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. helix
Name: Gewöhnlicher Efeu (DE); English ivy (EN); Yedra comun (ES); Hiedra (ES)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; Baleares; France; Monaco [c]; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Crete [I]; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; European Russia; Ukraine; Morocco [I]; Canary Isl. (Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma); Turkmenistan; East Aegaean Isl. [I] (incl. Rhodos [I]); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (S-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir); Myanmar [I]; Java [I]; Australia [I]; New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Hawaii [I] (Kauai [I], Oahu [I], East Maui [I], Hawaii Isl. [I]); Canada [I] (British Columbia [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arkansas [I], Arizona [I], California [I], District of Columbia [I], Delaware [I], Florida [I], Georgia [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Michigan [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], North Carolina [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Washington State [I], West Virginia [I]); Mexico [I]; Honduras [I]; Colombia [I]; Ecuador [I]; Peru [I]; Bolivia [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I])
10 DEN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO BAL COR FRA mco POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS kri MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 mor 21 CNY 32 TKM 34 CYP eai IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 35 SAU 41 mya 42 jaw 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 63 haw 71 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 hon 82 clm 83 bol ecu per 85 arg cle
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera arborea (Baumg.) Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 164 (1890), nom. illeg.
= Hedera arborea unranked aurea Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera arborea unranked intermedia Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera arborea unranked microphylla Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera arborea Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890), nom. illeg.
= Hedera arborea Garsault; Fig. Pl. Anim. Med. I. 85 (1764), Descr. Pl. Anim. 62 (1767), Thell. in Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 8: 784
= Hedera arborea Röhl.; 182 (1812), nom. inval.
= Hedera arborea var. variegata Hibberd; Fl. World 1: 138 (1858)
= Hedera aurantiaca (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera aurantiaca unranked fructu-rubro Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera baccifera G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 243 (1895)
= Hedera burgalensis Sennen; Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 27: 143 (1928)
= Hedera chrysophylla (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890), isonym
= Hedera chrysophylla (Hibberd) G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera combwoodiana Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 162 (1890)
= Hedera communis Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 491 (1821)
= Hedera communis var. sterilis Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 491 (1821)
= Hedera conglomerata (G.Nicholson) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera cordata Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera cordifolia G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 247 (1895)
= Hedera digitata G.Nicholson; Hand-List Trees Shrubs 1(Polypet.): 245 (1894)
= Hedera digitata Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867)
= Hedera diversifolia Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 456 (1812)
= Hedera donerailensis K.Koch; Dendrologie 1: 680 (1869)
= Hedera donerailensis Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867), nom. nud.
= Hedera elegantissima G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 247 (1895)
= Hedera floribunda Sennen; Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 27: 143 (1928), nom. illeg.
= Hedera glimii G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 249 (1895)
= Hedera gracilis (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera grandifolia G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 243 (1895)
= Hedera helix f. arborea (Baumg.) Schelle; Beissn. et al., Handb. Laubholzben.: 363 (1903)
= Hedera helix f. arborescens (Lodd. ex Loudon) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 422 (1909)
= Hedera helix f. argenteovariegata Schelle; Beissn. et al., Handb. Laubholzben.: 363 (1903)
= Hedera helix f. aureovariegata (Weston) P.D.Sell; Fl. Great Britain Ireland 3: 518 (2009), isonym
= Hedera helix f. aureovariegata (Weston) Schelle; Beissn. et al., Handb. Laubholzben.: 363 (1903)
= Hedera helix f. baltica (Rehder) Rehder; Bibl. Cult. Trees: 488 (1949)
= Hedera helix f. cavendishii (Paul) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1927: 21 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. conglomerata (G.Nicholson) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 38: 21 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. cullisii Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1927: 22 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. deltoidea (Hibberd) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 38: 22 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. digitata (Bosse) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 38: 23 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. discolor (Hibberd) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1927: 23 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. glymii (Paul) Tobler; Hedera: 128 (1912)
= Hedera helix f. irica P.D.Sell; Fl. Great Britain Ireland 3: 518 (2009)
= Hedera helix f. lobatomajor (G.H.M.Lawr.) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland (2009)
= Hedera helix f. marmorata (G.Nicholson) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1927: 29 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. minima (Hibberd) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1927: 29 (1927)
= Hedera helix f. pedata (Hibberd) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 38: 33 (1927)
= Hedera helix subvar. prostrata Coss. & Germ.; Fl. Descr. Anal. Paris, ed. 2: 279 (1861)
= Hedera helix var. arborea Baumg.; Fl. Lips.: 132 (1790)
= Hedera helix var. arborea Krock.; 365 (1787)
= Hedera helix var. arborescens Lodd. ex Loudon; Arbor. Frutic. Brit. 2: 1000 (1838)
= Hedera helix var. arborescens-albolutea Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. argenteovariegata Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 123 (1770)
= Hedera helix var. aurantiaca Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 71 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. aurea Hibberd; Ivy: 96 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. aurea Jacob-Makoy; Nursery Cat. (L. Jacob-Makoy & Co.) 114: 84 (1870)
= Hedera helix var. aureovariegata Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 123 (1770)
= Hedera helix var. baltica Rehder; L. H. Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 3: 1438 (1915)
= Hedera helix var. cavendishii Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera helix var. chrysophylla Hibberd; Ivy: 85 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. conglomerata G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 121 (1885)
= Hedera helix var. corrugata Hibberd; Ivy: 90 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. crenata Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. crenata Hibberd; Ivy: 74 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. dealbata Hibberd; Ivy: 81 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. deltoidea Hibberd; Ivy: 71 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. digitata Bosse; Vollst. Handb. Blumengart., ed. 2, 2: 220 (1841)
= Hedera helix var. digitata-nova Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. discolor Hibberd; Ivy: 82 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. donerailensis G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 121 (1885)
= Hedera helix var. donerailensis-minor Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. erecta A.E.Schulze; Gentes Herb. 6: 164 (1942)
= Hedera helix var. europaea Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 407 (1896)
= Hedera helix var. glymii Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera helix var. gracilis Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 58 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. helvetica Lawr.; Gentes Herb. 6: 166 (1942)
= Hedera helix var. hodgensii Moore & More; Contr. Cybele Hiber.: 135 (1866)
= Hedera helix var. humifusa Dierb.; 221 (1825)
= Hedera helix var. humirepens Krock.; 365 (1787)
= Hedera helix var. leucocarpa Seem.; J. Bot. 2: 306 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. lobatomajor G.H.M.Lawr.; Gentes Herb. 6: 143 (1942)
= Hedera helix var. lucida Hibberd; Ivy: 68 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. luteola Hibberd; Ivy: 93 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. major Krock.; 365 (1787)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-argentea Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-canescens Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-cullisii Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 71 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-elegans Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-elegantissima Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-major Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-pulchella Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-robusta Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. marginata-rubra Hibberd; Ivy: 78 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. marmorata G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 921 (1885)
= Hedera helix var. meagheri A.E.Schulze; Gentes Herbarum 6: 153 (1942)
= Hedera helix var. melanocarpa Seem.; J. Bot. 2: 306 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. minima Hibberd; Ivy: 76 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. minor-donerailensis Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 58 (1864), nom. subnud.
= Hedera helix var. minor-marmorata Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 18 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. palmata (Paul) Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera helix var. palmata-aurea Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. palmatoaurea Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 71 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. pedata Hibberd; Ivy: 76 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. pennsylvanica Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 58 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. pensylvanica Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. poetica Krock.; 365 (1787)
= Hedera helix var. scutifolia Hibberd; Ivy: 71 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. silvestris Dierb.; 221 (1825)
= Hedera helix var. sublutea Hibberd; Ivy: 93 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. succinata Hibberd; Ivy: 86 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. sulphurea Hibberd; Ivy: 83 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. tortuosa Hibberd; Ivy: 67 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. tricolor Rehder; L. H. Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 3: 1438 (1915)
= Hedera helix var. triloba Hibberd; Ivy: 72 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. variegata (Hibberd) G.Nicholson; Ill. Dict. Gard. 2: 122 (1882)
= Hedera helix var. walthamensis (Paul) Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera humi-repens (Röhl.) Röhl.; Deutschl. Fl., ed. 2, 2: 182 (1812)
= Hedera latifolia G.Nicholson; Hand-List Trees Shrubs 1(Polypet.): 247 (1894), nom. inval.
= Hedera lobata Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 134 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Hedera lobata-major G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera marginata Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 21 (1868), nom. nud.
= Hedera marginata G.Nicholson; Hand-List Trees Shrubs 1(Polypet.): 247 (1894)
= Hedera marginata-argentea Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867)
= Hedera marginata-grandis G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera marginata-major (Ed.Otto) G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera marginata-rubra (Hibberd) G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera minor G.Nicholson; Hand-List Trees Shrubs 1(Polypet.): 245 (1894)
= Hedera minor-marmorata Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867)
= Hedera palmata (Paul) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera pedata (Hibberd) G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera pennsylvanica G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 245 (1895)
= Hedera poetica Röhl.; 182 (1812), nom. inval.
= Hedera purpurea Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera roegneriana Bosse; Vollst. Handb. Bl.-Gärtn., ed. 3, 2: 331 (1860)
= Hedera sublutea (Hibberd) G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera walthamensis Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867)
= Hedera willsiana G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 247 (1895)
form :
f. poetarum (Nicotra) McAll. & A.Rutherf.; Plantsman 15(2): 118 (1993)
Distribution: France [I]; Italy [I]; Sicily [I]; European Turkey; Greece [I]; Georgia [Caucasus]; Turkey; Iran; Cyprus
12 fra 13 grc ita sic TUE 33 GEO 34 CYP IRN TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera chrysocarpa Walsh; Trans. Hort. Soc. London 6: 42 (1825)
= Hedera helix proles chrysocarpa (Walsh) Rouy & E.G.Camus; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 7: 405 (1901)
= Hedera helix subsp. chrysocarpa (Walsh) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital. 305 (1882)
= Hedera helix subsp. poetarum (Nicotra) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 319 (1879)
= Hedera helix subsp. poetarum Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 319 (1879)
= Hedera helix var. arborescens-baccata-lutea Ed.Otto; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 24: 19 (1868)
= Hedera helix var. chrysocarpa Ten.; Osserv. Fl. Virgil.: 12 (1826)
= Hedera helix var. poetarum Nicotra; Prodr. Fl. Messan. 2: 242 (1883)
= Hedera helix var. poetica Weston; Univ. Bot. Nurseryman 1: 123 (1770)
= Hedera poetarum Bertol.; Prael. Rei Herb.: 78 (1827) (nom. illeg.)
= Hedera poetica Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 143 (1796), nom. illeg.
subspecies :
subsp. caucasigena (Pojark.) Takht. & Mulk.; Fl. Armenii 6: 251 (1973)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey; Lebanon; Syria; Israel; Palestine
33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 ISR LEB PAL SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera caucasigena Pojark.; Kom., Fl. SSSR 16: 587 (1950)
subspecies :
subsp. leucoclina Cayet, Coulomb & Grégoire; Carnets Bot. 108: 31 (2022)
Distribution: France
12 FRA
subspecies :
subsp. pavonii Cayet, Coulomb & Grégoire; Carnets Bot. 108: 31 (2022)
Distribution: France
12 FRA
subspecies :
subsp. rhizomatifera McAll.; Plantsman 15(2): 118 (1993)
Distribution: S-Portugal; E- & S-Spain
12 POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera rhizomatifera (McAll.) Jury; Willdenowia 34(2): 352 (2004)
species :
Hedera hibernica (G.Kirchn.) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
Name: Irischer Efeu (DE)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Netherlands; Belgium; Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; France; Channel Isl.; USA [I] (North Carolina [I], South Carolina [I])
10 GRB IRE 11 BGM ger NET 12 CIS FRA POR SPA 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera canariensis var. maculata (Hibberd) Hibberd; J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 12: 394 (1890)
= Hedera grandifolia var. maculata Hibberd; Ivy: 98 (1872)
= Hedera helix f. hibernica (G.Kirchn.) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland (2009)
= Hedera helix f. maculata (Hibberd) Tobler; Hedera: 139 (1912)
= Hedera helix subsp. hibernica (Poit.) D.C.McClint.; Suppl. Wild Flow. Guernsey: 23 (1987)
= Hedera helix var. hibernica (Poit.) G.Kirchn.; Petzold & Kirchner, Arbor. Muscav.: 419 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. maculata (Hibberd) Rehder; L. H. Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2: 716 (1900)
= Hedera hibernica unranked aureomarginata Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera hibernica unranked marginata Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera hibernica var. maculata (Hibberd) Bean; Trees Shrubs Brit. Isl. 1: 609 (1914)
= Hedera vegeta G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 243 (1895)
= Hedera vitifolia G.Nicholson; Gard. Kew 1(Polypet.): 245 (1895)
species :
Hedera iberica (McAll.) Ackerf. & J.Wen; Adansonia 24(2): 208 (2002)
Distribution: Portugal; SW-Spain; Morocco
12 POR SPA 20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera maderensis subsp. iberica McAll.; Plantsman 15(2): 124 (1993)
species :
Hedera maderensis K.Koch ex A.Rutherf.; Plantsman 15(2): 120 (1993)
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl.)
21 MDR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera maderensis K.Koch; Verh. Vereins Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 24: XIV (1855), nom. nud.
= Hedera maderensis var. variegata J.H.Veitch; Garden (London, 1871-1927) 18: 17 (1880), species not validly publ.
species :
Hedera maroccana McAll.; Plantsman 15(2): 126 (1993)
Distribution: Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera helix subsp. maroccana (McAll.) Fennane; Trav. Inst. Sci. Univ. Mohammed V, Ser. Bot. 37:52 (2005)
species :
Hedera nepalensis K.Koch; Hort. Dendr. 284 (1853)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan); Pakistan (Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree); Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Manipur, Mizoram, West Bengal); Myanmar (Kachin); Thailand; Laos
34 AFG 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 LAO MYA THA
Synonyms: hidden
= Cissus wallichiana Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1): 416 (1858)
= Hedera cinerea (Hibberd) Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles: 608 (1912)
= Hedera helix var. chrysocarpa DC.; Prodr. 4: 261 (1830), nom. illeg.
= Hedera helix var. cinerea Hibberd; Ivy: 71 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. himalaica Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 57 (1864)
= Hedera himalaica (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera himalaica Tobler; Gatt. Hedera 67, f. 31-38 (1912)
species :
Hedera pastuchovii Woronow ex Woronow; Grossh., Fl. Kavkaza 3: 108 (1932), et Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS, Ser. I. Fasc. 1, 216 (1933), descr.
subspecies :
subsp. pastuchovii
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; NW-Iran
33 AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera pastuchovii Woronow ex Grossh.; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 43: II. 19 (1926), nomen
subspecies :
subsp. cypria (McAll.) Hand; Willdenowia 34(2): 437 (2004)
Distribution: Cyprus
34 CYP
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera cypria McAll.; Plantsman 15(2): 116 (1993)
species :
Hedera rhombea (Miq.) Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 1: 609 (1914)
Distribution: South Korea; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP KOR NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera helix f. rhombea Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 1: 13 (1863)
= Hedera helix var. japonica Lavallée; Énum. Arbres: 126 (1877)
= Hedera helix var. rhombea Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 13 (1863)
= Hedera helix var. submarginata Hibberd; Ivy: 80 (1872)
= Hedera japonica f. variegata (Paul) Nakai; J. Arnold Arbor. 5: 26 (1924)
= Hedera japonica unranked foliis-argenteis Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 162 (1890)
= Hedera japonica unranked foliis-variegatis Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera japonica Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867), nom. illeg.
= Hedera japonica Tobler; Gattung Hedera, 84 (1912)
= Hedera japonica var. variegata Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 1215 (1867)
= Hedera pedunculata Nakai; J. Arnold Arb. 5: 25 (1924)
= Hedera rhombea unranked foliis-variegatis Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 164 (1890)
= Hedera rhombea var. variegata (Paul) A.E.Schulze; Gentes Herbarum 6: 131 (1942)
= Hedera rhomboidea G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876)
= Hedera rhomboidea unranked obovata Hend. & Andr.Hend.; Gard. Chron. 1870: 446 (1870)
= Hedera submarginata (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera tobleri Nakai; Fl. Sylv. Kor. 16: 42 (1927)
variant :
var. formosana (Nakai) H.L.Li; Woody Pl. Taiwan 669, f. 276 (1963)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera formosana Nakai; J. Arnold Arbor. 5(1): 25 (1924)
species :
Hedera sinensis (Tobler) Hand.-Mazz.; Symb. Sin. 7: 693 (1933)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, S-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, S-Yunnan, Zhejiang); Tibet; Nepal; Laos; Vietnam
36 CHI TIB 40 NEP 41 LAO VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera himalaica var. sinensis Tobler; Gatt. Heder. 79, f. 39-42 (1912)
= Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis (Tobler) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 4(4): 250 (1923)
= Hedera potaninii Pojark.; Notul. Syst. Lining. 14: 261, f. 3 (1951)
= Hedera robusta Pojark.; Notul. Syst. Lining. 14: 258, f. 1 (1951)
= Hedera shensiensis Pojark.; Notul. Syst. Lining. 14: 261, f. 3 (1951)
variant :
var. leucotricha Grushv. & Skvortsova; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 22: 174 (1985)
Distribution: China (Yunnan); Laos; Vietnam
36 CHI 41 LAO VIE
species :
Hedera siyuanwukouensis S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 5: 96 (2022)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Hedera taurica (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. 62: 163 (1890)
Distribution: Crimea
14 KRY
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera angularis (Hibberd) G.W.Johnson; J. Hort. Cottage Gard., n.s. 31: 67 (1876), nom. illeg.
= Hedera contracta (Hibberd) Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 62: 163 (1890)
= Hedera helix f. sagittifolia (Hibberd) Tobler; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1927: 32 (1927)
= Hedera helix var. angularis Hibberd; Ivy: 74 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. contracta Hibberd; Ivy: 70 (1872)
= Hedera helix var. sagittifolia Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 58 (1864)
= Hedera helix var. taurica Hibberd; Fl. World 7: 58 (1864)
= Hedera poetarum var. taurica (Hibberd) Tobler; Hedera: 42 (1912)
= Hedera sagittifolia (Hibberd) Paul; Gard. Chron. 1867: 926 (1867)
species :
Hedera ×cazorlensis R.H.Marshall & McAll.; New J. Bot. 7(1): 6 (2017)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
species :
Hedera ×nessensis R.H.Marshall & McAll.; New J. Bot. 7(1): 7 (2017)
Distribution: Great Britain
10 GRB
species :
Hedera ×sepulcralis R.H.Marshall & McAll.; New J. Bot. 7(1): 6 (2017)
Distribution: Great Britain
10 GRB
species :
Hedera ×soroksarensis M.Bényei-Himmer & M.Höhn; Hedera 401 (2017)
Distribution: Hungary; etc.
11 HUN
Remarks: Hedera helix x H. hibernica
Synonyms: hidden
= Hedera ×schmidtii M.Bényei-Himmer; Stud. Bot. Hung. 48: 245 (2017)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


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