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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

513.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35205; hybrids: 668
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
513.5187 Genus Helminthotheca Zinn; Cat. Pl. Gött. 430 (1757)
Distribution: Europe, Mediterranean, Asia Minor
Species listed in database: 6
= Crenamum Adans.; Fam. Pl. 2: 112 (1763), nom. superfl.
= Helminthia DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 4: 57 (1805), nom. superfl.
= Hieraciastrum Heist. ex Fabr.; Enum.: 68 (1759), nom. superfl.
= Vigineixia Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 12 (1874)
species :
Helminthotheca aculeata (Vahl) Lack; Taxon, 24(1): 111 (1975)
subspecies :
subsp. aculeata
Distribution: Italy; Sicily; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia
13 ITA SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN
Synonyms: hidden
= Deckera aculeata (Vahl) Sch.Bip; Flora 17: 479 (1834)
= Helminthia aculeata (Vahl) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7: 132 (1838)
= Helminthia callosa Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 14 (1874)
= Helminthia montana Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 14 (1874)
= Helminthia mucronata N.Terracc.; Fl. Vult. Syn.: 111 (1869)
= Picris aculeata Vahl; Symb. Bot. 2: 89 (1791)
subspecies :
subsp. maroccana (Sauvage) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 229-238 (2003)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Picris aculeata subsp. maroccana Sauvage; Trav. Inst. Sci. Chérifien, Sér. Bot. 22: 202 (1961)
species :
Helminthotheca balansae (Coss. & Durieu) Lack; Taxon, 24(1): 111 (1975), et in Diss. Univ. Wien, 116 (Die Gattung Picris L., etc.): 72 (1974 publ. Apr. 1975)
Distribution: ?Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG
Synonyms: hidden
= Helminthia balansae Coss. & Durieu; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. IV. 1: 232 (1854), nomen, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 3: 744 (1856)
= Picris balansae (Coss. & Durieu) Batt.; Batt. & Trab. Fl. de l´Alger. (Dicot.) 545 (1890)
= Vigineixia balansae Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 12 (1874)
species :
Helminthotheca comosa (Boiss.) Holub; Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 11(1): 83 (1976)
Distribution: S-Spain; Morocco; Algeria
12 SPA 20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Deckera comosa (Boiss.) Batt.; Batt. & Trab. Fl. de l´Alger. (Dicot) 544 (1889)
= Deckera racemosa Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 13 (1874)
= Deckera rubiginosa Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 270 (1874)
= Helminthia comosa Boiss.; Elench. Pl. Nov.: 62 (1838)
= Helminthia comosa var. spinulosa Pau; Asoc. Esp. Progr. Ci., Congr. Sevilla 6: 150 (1928)
= Helminthia lusitanica var. subinervis Lange; Pl. Andalousie 1888: no. 231 (1888)
= Helminthia racemosa Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 13 (1874)
= Helminthotheca comosa var. racemosa (Pomel) Quézel & Santa
= Helminthotheca comosa var. rubiginosa (Pomel) Quézel & Santa
= Picris comosa (Boiss.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex B.D.Jacks.; Index Kew. 2: 521 (1894)
= Picris comosa (Boiss.) Maire; Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc, No. 7: 211 (1924)
= Picris racemosa (Pomel) Batt.; Batt. & Trab. Fl. de l´Alger. (Dicot.) 544 (1890)
species :
Helminthotheca echioides (L) Holub; Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 8(2): 176 (1973)
Name: Natternkopf-Wurmlattich, Natternkopf-Bitterkraut (DE); Bristly Oxtongue (EN); Hierba gusanera (ES)
Distribution: England [I]; Northern Ireland [I]; Ireland [I]; Denmark [I]; Norway [I]; Netherlands [I]; Belgium [I]; Luxembourg [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Liechtenstein [I]; Austria [I]; Poland [I]; Slovakia; Hungary [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares (Ibiza & Formentera, Mallorca, Menorca); France; Monaco; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Romania [I]; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Estonia [I]; Lithuania [I]; Belarus; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Nile Delta); Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, Faial, Flores Isl., Corvo Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); Cape Verde Isl. (Sao Vicente Isl.); Ethiopia [I]; Zimbabwe [I]; South Africa [I] (widespread); Turkmenistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (W-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, NW-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Easter Isl. [I]; Canada [I] (Alberta [I], New Brunswick [I], Ontario [I], Saskatchewan [I]); USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I], Connecticut [I], District of Columbia [I], Iowa [I], Maine [I], Maryland [I], Massachusetts [I], Missouri [I], Montana [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], North Dakota [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Vermont [I], Virginia [I]); Mexico [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Arica y Parinacota [I], Atacama [I], Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I], Metropolitana de Santiago [I], O´Higgins [I], Maule [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I]); Chile [I] (Tarapacá [I], Atacama [I], Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I], Metropolitana de Santiago [I], O´Higgins [I], Maule [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Lagos [I])
10 den grb ire nor 11 aut bgm ger hun lie lux net pol SLO swi 12 BAL cis COR FRA GIB MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MLT MNT NMA PEL rom SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR est KRY lit UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY CVI MDR 24 eth 26 zim 27 saf 32 TKM 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 61 eas 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 79 mex 85 arg cle uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Crepis echioides (L.) All.; Fl. Pedem. 1: 222 (1785)
= Helminthia dichotoma Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyr. 496 (1867)
= Helminthia echioides (L.) Gaertn.; Fruct. 2: 368. t. 159, f. 2 (1791)
= Helminthia echioides proles humifusa (Trévis.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 20 (1908)
= Helminthia echioides subsp. humifusa (Trévis.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital.: 419 (1882)
= Helminthia echioides var. aspera Wallr.; 295 (1840), nom. inval.
= Helminthia echioides var. mollis Duby; Bot. Gall., pars prima: 300 (1828)
= Helminthia humifusa (Willd.) Trevir.; Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 13(1): 195 (1826)
= Helminthia pratensis Chevall.; Fl. Gén. Env. Paris 2: 552 (1828)
= Helminthia rigida Schult. ex Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 398 (1821)
= Helminthia tuberculata Moench; Methodus 539 (1794), nom. illeg.
= Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Lack; Diss. Univ. Wien. 116 (Die Gattung Picris L., etc.): 67 (1975) isonym
= Helminthotheca echioides var. incisa P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 4: 532 (108-109) (2006)
= Helminthotheca echioides var. mollis (Duby) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 532 (2006)
= Helminthotheca echioides var. pratensis (Chev.) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 532 (2006)
= Hieracium helminthia E.H.L.Krause; Sturm, Fl. Deutschland, ed. 2, 14: 88 (1906)
= Picris echioides L.; Sp. Pl. 792 (1753)
= Picris echioides var. humifusa (Willd.) Thell.; 572 (1912)
= Picris humifusa Willd.; Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1: 137 (1807)
= Picris ruderalis Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 179 (1796)
species :
Helminthotheca glomerata (Pomel) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 229-238 (2003)
Distribution: Morocco; Algeria
20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Deckera glomerata Pomel; Bull. Soc. Sci. Phys. Algérie 11: 13 (1874) (non Picris glomerata K. Koch 1850)
= Picris duriaei Emb. & Maire; Jahand. & Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc: 1166 (1941)
= Helminthia glomerata Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 13 (1874)
species :
Helminthotheca spinosa (DC.) Talavera & Tremetsberger; AoB Plants 8: plv142, 16 (2016)
Distribution: Portugal; W-Spain
12 POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Helminthia comosa subsp. lusitanica (Welw. ex Schltdl.) Rivas Mart.; Lagascalia, 15(Extra): 117 (1988)
= Helminthia lusitanica Welw. ex Schltdl.; Linnaea 27: 515 (1854)
= Helminthia spinosa DC.; Fl. Franc. 4: 58 (1805)
= Helminthotheca algarbiensis (Franco) Zidorn; Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34(2): 146 (2006)
= Helminthotheca comosa subsp. lusitanica (Welw. ex Schltdl.) P.Silva & Escud.; Bol. Soc. Brot. 60: 156 (1987)
= Helminthotheca spinifera (Franco) Zidorn; Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34(2): 146 (2006)
= Picris algarbiensis Franco; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 268 (1976)
= Picris comosa subsp. lusitanica (Welw. ex Schltdl.) Talavera; Lagascalia 9(2): 236 (1980)
= Picris spinifera Franco; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 268 (1976)
= Picris spinifera subsp. algarbiensis (Franco) Capelo; Silva Lusitana 16(2): 266 (2008)
= Picris spinosa (DC.) Poir.; Lam., Encycl., Suppl. 4: 408 (1816)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life