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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

477.0000 Family Solanaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 124 (1789), nom. cons.
96 genera, ca. 2900 spp. Phylogeny: Olmstead et al. (2008), Cole et al. (2020)
Species listed in database: 2790; hybrids: 19
= Atropaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 57 (1820)
= Browalliaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 243 (1820)
= Cestraceae Schltdl.; Linnaea 8: 250 (1833)
= Daturaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 243 (1820)
= Duckeodendraceae Kuhlm.; Arq. Serv. Florest. 3: 7 (1950)
= Goetzeaceae Miers; Trans. Linn. Soc. London 27: 191 (1870)
= Hyoscyamaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 272, 294 (1818)
= Lyciaceae Raf.; Autik. Bot. 1: 15 (1840)
= Nicotianaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 416 (1820)
= Nolanaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 244 (1820), nom. cons.
= Salpiglossidaceae Hutch.; Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 631 (1969)
= Sclerophylacaceae Miers; London J. Bot. 7: 58 (1848)
477.7313 Genus Hyoscyamus L.; Sp. Pl. 1: 179.1753 (1753)
Distribution: Europe, N-Africa (incl. Sahara), Northern Caucasus, Middle Asia, SW-Asia to NPakistan, India, Himalayas, SW- and central China
Species listed in database: 32
= Archihyoscyamus A.M.Lu; Adansonia 19(1): 136 (1997)
= Hyoscarpus Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 444 (1867)
species :
Hyoscyamus afghanicus Pojark.; J. Bot. URSS 27: 128 (1942)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Bamyan, Ghazni, Kabul, Logar, Wardak, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost, Zabul)
34 AFG
species :
Hyoscyamus albus L.; Sp. Pl. 180 (1753)
Name: Weißes Bilsenkraut (DE); White henbane (EN); Beleno blanco (ES)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; +Monaco; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Eastern Desert, NW-coastal Egypt); Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Pico, Faial, Flores Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, Jazira, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir); India [I] (Telangana [I]); Australia [I] (Queensland [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Canada [I] (Ontario [I]); USA [I] (Florida [I], New Jersey [I], Pennsylvania [I])
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA GIB MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA PEL PTL ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 KRY UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR 34 CYP EAI IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 35 SAU 40 ind 50 aus 72 cdn 75 usa 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus albus proles major (Mill.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 371 (1908)
= Hyoscyamus albus subsp. major (Mill.) Batt.; Batt. & Trab., Fl. Algérie, Dicot.: 624 (1890)
= Hyoscyamus albus subsp. major Bonnier & Layens; Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France: 227 (1894)
= Hyoscyamus albus var. exserens Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 29: 438 (1938)
= Hyoscyamus albus var. major (Mill.) Lowe; Man. Fl. Madeira 2: 111 (1872)
= Hyoscyamus albus var. major (Mill.) P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 751 (1937), isonym
= Hyoscyamus aureus All.; Fl. Pedem. 1: 104 (1785) non L. 1753
= Hyoscyamus canariensis Ker Gawl.; Bot. Reg. t. 180 (1817)
= Hyoscyamus clusii G.Don; Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. II. 382 (1830)
= Hyoscyamus luridus Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 131 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Hyoscyamus major Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. no. 2 (1768)
= Hyoscyamus minor Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. no. 4 (1768)
= Hyoscyamus saguntinus Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 3: 34 (1889)
= Hyoscyamus varians Vis.; Flora 12: I. Erg. 7 (1829)
species :
Hyoscyamus arachnoideus Pojark.; Bot. Zurn. SSSR. 27 6: 127, 119, t. 2 (1942)
Distribution: Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran)
34 IRN IRQ
species :
Hyoscyamus aureus L.; Sp. Pl. 180 (1753)
Name: Goldenes Bilsenkraut (DE); Golden Henbane (EN)
Distribution: Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; +Tunisia; Egypt (Eastern Desert, Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, SE-Egypt); East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NW-Iraq); Cyprus (E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Judean Desert, Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania)
13 GRC KRI 20 EGY TUN 34 CYP EAI IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR
species :
Hyoscyamus bornmulleri Khat.; Iranian J. Bot. 7(1): 32 (1996)
Distribution: Iran
34 IRN
species :
Hyoscyamus boveanus (Dunal) Asch. & Schweinf.; Mem. Inst. Egypt. 2: 113 (1887)
Distribution: Egypt (Desert Oases, Eastern Desert, Great Southwestern Desert, SE-Egypt); Sinai peninsula (S-Sinai)
20 EGY 34 SIN
Synonyms: hidden
= Scopolia boveana Dunal; Prodr. [A. DC.] 13: 553 (1852)
species :
Hyoscyamus coelesyriacus Bornm.; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 31(2): 244 (1914)
Distribution: Lebanon
34 LEB
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Hyoscyamus desertorum (Asch. ex Boiss.) Täckh.; Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 36: 252 (1942)
Distribution: Egypt (Eastern Desert, NE-Egypt); Iraq (NW-Iraq, W-Iraq: Desert); Syria (Jazira, NW-Syria); Israel (Rift Valley, N-Negev Desert, S-Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir)
20 EGY 34 IRQ ISR JOR SIN SYR 35 SAU
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus albus var. desertorum Asch. ex Boiss.; Fl. 4: 296 (1879)
= Hyoscyamus cylindrocalyx Rech.f.; Ark. Bot. Stockh. andra ser. 2: 420 (1952)
species :
Hyoscyamus flaccidus C.Wright; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 184 (1895)
Distribution: Saudi Arabia (Hejaz); Oman (Dhofar)
35 OMA SAU
species :
Hyoscyamus gallagheri A.G.Mill. & Biagi; Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 45(1): 70 (1988)
Distribution: Oman
35 OMA
species :
Hyoscyamus grandiflorus Franch.; Sert. Somal.: 48 (1882)
Distribution: Djibouti; Somalia
24 DJI SOM
species :
Hyoscyamus insanus Stocks; Hook. J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 4: 178 (1852)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran); Afghanistan (Helmand, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Nangarhar); Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Khyber, Pakistani Punjab); Nepal; India [c]
34 AFG IRN 40 ind NEP PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus angulatus Griff.; Notul. 4: 96 (1854), Ic. Pl. As. t. 412 (1854)
species :
Hyoscyamus kotschyanus Pojark.; Bot. Zurn. SSSR. 27 6: 125 (1942), et Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS 11: 146 (1949)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran, SW-Iran)
34 IRN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus reticulatus var. pallens Bornm.; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20(2): 196 (1906)
species :
Hyoscyamus kurdicus Bornm.; Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 48: 611 (1898)
Distribution: Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran)
34 IRN IRQ
species :
Hyoscyamus leptocalyx Stapf; Hook., Ic. Pl. 25: t. 2446 (1896) ex Bornm., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 28: II. 474 (1911)
Distribution: Turkey (SE-Anatolia); Iran (W-Iran)
34 IRN TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Archihyoscyamus leptocalyx (Stapf) A.M.Lu; Adansonia 19(1): 138 (1997)
species :
Hyoscyamus leucanthera Bornm. & Gauba; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 41: 329 (1937)
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Bamyan, Kabul, Wardak)
32 TKM 34 AFG IRN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus kopetdaghi Pojark.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS 11: 144 (1949)
species :
Hyoscyamus longepedunculatus Towns.; Kew Bull. 19: 417, t. 418 (1965)
Distribution: Iraq (NE-Iraq)
34 IRQ
species :
Hyoscyamus malekianus Parsa; Kew Bull. 1948: 215 (1948)
Distribution: Iran (SW-Iran)
34 IRN
species :
Hyoscyamus multicaulis Rech.f. & Edelb.; K. Danske Vid. Selsk., Biol. Skrift. 10: No. 3 (Symb. Afghan. IV.) 85 (1959)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Orozgan / Daykundi)
34 AFG
species :
Hyoscyamus muticus L.; Mantissa 45 (1767)
subspecies :
subsp. muticus
Distribution: Western Sahara; Libya; Egypt (Desert Oases, Eastern Desert, Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, NW-coastal Egypt, SE-Egypt); Mauritania; Mali; Niger; N-Chad (Tibesti); Sudan; Syria (Jazira, NW-Syria); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, N-Saudi Arabia, Asir); Bahrain; Oman (Mascat & Oman)
20 EGY LBY WSA 22 MLI MTN NGR 24 CHA SUD 34 SIN SYR 35 BAR OMA SAU
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus betifolius Lam.; Encyc. 3: 329 (1789)
= Hyoscyamus datora Forssk.; Fl. Aegypt. Arabia. 45 (1775)
= Scopolia datora (Forssk.) Dunal; Prodr. [A. DC.] 13(1): 553 (1852)
= Scopolia mutica (L.) Dunal; Prodr. [A. DC.] 13: 552 (1852)
subspecies :
subsp. falezlez (Coss.) Maire; Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 3: 191 (1933)
Distribution: S-Morocco; S-Algeria; Mauritania
20 ALG MOR 22 MTN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus falezlez Coss.; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 11: 166. t. 5 (1864)
species :
Hyoscyamus niger L.; Sp. Pl. 179 (1753)
Name: Schwarzes Bilsenkraut (DE), Black henbane (EN)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; ?Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia [I]); Russian Far East (Amur, Primorye, Sakhalin); Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan); Afghanistan (Badakshan, Baghlan, Kunar / Nuristan, Samangan, Takhar); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); China (Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan); Mongolia; South Korea [I]; Pakistan (Kurram, Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, Baltistan, Astor); Nepal; N-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand); Myanmar [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); New Zealand [I]; Canada [I] (Alberta [I], Manitoba [I], New Brunswick [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Prince Edward Isl. [I], Québec [I], Saskatchewan [I]); USA [I] (Colorado [I], Connecticut [I], Delaware [I], Iowa [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Montana [I], North Dakota [I], Nebraska [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New Mexico [I], Nevada [I], New York [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], South Dakota [I], Utah [I], Vermont [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I], Wyoming [I])
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG EAI IRN IRQ LEB TUR 36 CHI 37 MON 38 kor 40 IND NEP PAK 41 mya 50 aus 51 nzl 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscarpus niger (L.) Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 444 (1867)
= Hyoscyamus auriculatus Ten.; Fl. Nap. 3: 222 (1829)
= Hyoscyamus lethalis Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 131 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Hyoscyamus niger subsp. auriculatus (Ten.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital.: 495 (1882)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. biennis Wimm. & Grab.; Fl. Siles. 1: 201 (1827)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. chinensis Makino; J. Jap. Bot. 3: 3 (1926)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. intermedius Iverus; Bot. Not. 1875: 81 (1875)
= Hyoscyamus nigerbiennis Corrêa; Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 22: 518 (1904)
= Hyoscyamus officinarum Crantz; Inst. Rei Herb. 2: 325 (1766)
= Hyoscyamus persicus Boiss. & Buhse; Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 158 (1860)
= Hyoscyamus pictus Roth; Nov. Pl. Sp. 119 (1821)
= Hyoscyamus syspirensis C.Koch; Linnaea 22: 736 (1849)
= Hyoscyamus verviensis Lej.; Fl. Spa 1: 116 (1811)
= Hyoscyamus vulgaris Bubani; Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 1: 351 (1897)
= Hyoscyamus vulgaris L.; Fl. Anglica: 12 (1754), et Amoen. Acad. 4: 98 (1759)
= Hyoscyamus vulgaris Neck.; Delic. Gallo-Belg. 1: 122 (1768)
variant :
var. agrestis (Kit. ex Schult.) Hampe; 16 (1836)
Name: Acker-Bilsenkraut (DE)
Distribution: throughout the distribution of the nominate variety
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit. ex Schult.; Österr. Fl. ed. II. 1: 383 (1814)
= Hyoscyamus agrestis var. integrifolius Wallr.; Sched. Crit.: 83 (1822)
= Hyoscyamus agrestis var. sinuatus Wallr.; Sched. Crit.: 83 (1822), nom. inval.
= Hyoscyamus niger proles agrestis (Schult.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 370 (1908)
= Hyoscyamus niger f. agrestis (Kit. ex Schult.) C.W.Christ.; J. A. Christ. & al., 193 (1922)
= Hyoscyamus niger subsp. agrestis (Kit.) Hultén; Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 13(1): 286 (1971)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. agrestis (Kit.) Beck; Fl. Nieder-Österreich: 953 (1892), nom. superfl.
= Hyoscyamus niger var. agrestis (Schult.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 524 (1881)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. agrestis P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 750 (1937)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. annuus Sims; Bot. Mag. 59: t. 2394 (1823)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. pygmaeus Wallr. ex Klett & Richt.; Fl. Leipzig: 211 (1830), nom. illeg.
variant :
var. bohemicus (F.W.Schmidt) Pohl; 217 (1809)
Name: Böhmisches Bilsenkraut (DE)
Distribution: Germany; Czech Republic; etc.
11 CZE GER
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus agrestis var. pallidus Ruthe; 329 (1834)
= Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W.Schmidt; Fl. Boem. 3: 31 (1794)
= Hyoscyamus bohemicus var. pallidus (Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.) Pojark.; Kom., Fl. URSS 22: 95 (1955)
= Hyoscyamus niger f. pallidus (Willd.) Braun-Blanq.; 1198 (1934)
= Hyoscyamus niger subsp. pallidus (Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.) Juel, Cedergr. & Örtendahl; Index Seminum [Uppsala] 1917: 18 (1918), isonym
= Hyoscyamus niger subsp. pallidus (Willd.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 146 (1834)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. pallidus (Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.) W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 509 (1838)
= Hyoscyamus niger var. pallidus (Willd.) Rchb.; (1831 publ. 1832)
= Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd.; Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 228 (1809)
species :
Hyoscyamus nutans Schönb.-Tem.; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 100: 75, t. 17 (1972)
Distribution: Iran (EC-Iran, S-Iran, SW-Iran)
34 IRN
species :
Hyoscyamus orthocarpus Schönb.-Tem.; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 100: 74, t. 16 (1972)
Distribution: Iran (EC-Iran, S-Iran, W-Iran); Oman (Mascat & Oman)
34 IRN 35 OMA
species :
Hyoscyamus pojarkovae Schönb.-Tem.; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 100: 56, t. 10 (1972)
Distribution: Egypt; Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (W-Iran); Lebanon (Antilebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains)
20 EGY 34 IRN IRQ LEB SYR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. var. integrifolius Boiss.; Fl. 4: 295 (1879)
species :
Hyoscyamus pusillus L.; Sp. Pl. 180 (1753)
Distribution: SE-European Russia; Egypt (NE-Egypt, Nile Delta); W-Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Badakshan, Baghlan, Bamyan Farah, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Laghman, Wardak, Nangarhar, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost, Parwan, Samangan); Syria (Jbel Druze); Israel (C-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Negev Desert, Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, NE-Saudi Arabia, N-Saudi Arabia, Nafud Desert, Hejaz, Midyan, Asir, Nejd Desert); Kuwait; China (Xinjiang); W-Tibet; Mongolia; Pakistan (Baluchistan, Waziristan, Kurram, Peshawar, Pakistani Punjab, Chitral, Gilgit, Baltistan, Skardu); NW-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir)
14 RUS 20 EGY 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM GEO NCS 34 AFG IRN ISR JOR SIN SYR TUR 35 KUW SAU 36 CHI TIB 37 MON 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus micranthus Ledeb. ex G.Don; Gen. Hist. 4: 472 (1838)
= Hyoscyamus pungens Griseb.; Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 52 (1844)
species :
Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 257 (1762)
Name: Netz-Bilsenkraut
Distribution: Germany [I]; European Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Armenia; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria); Israel (C-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Judean Desert); Sinai peninsula (N-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania)
11 ger 13 TUE 32 TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM 34 IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus camerarii Fisch. & C.A.Mey.; Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 4: 38 (1838)
= Hyoscyamus camerarii var. hemschinicus K.Koch; Linnaea 22: 736 (1845)
= Hyoscyamus camerarii var. villosus K.Koch; Linnaea 22: 736 (1845)
= Hyoscyamus pinnatifidus Schltdl.; Linnaea 17: 127 (1843)
= Hyoscyamus purpureus Griseb.; Spicil. Fl. Rumel. 2: 52, in nota (1844)
species :
Hyoscyamus rosularis Schönb.-Tem.; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 100: 76, t. 18 (1972)
Distribution: Iran (EC-Iran)
34 IRN
species :
Hyoscyamus senecionis Willd.; Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol. 228 (1809)
Distribution: Iraq (NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, N-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Bamyan, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghorat, Herat, Kabul, Wardak, Parwan)
34 AFG IRN IRQ
variant :
var. bipinnatisectus (Boiss.) Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 4: 297 (1879)
Distribution: Iran; Afghanistan
34 AFG IRN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus bipinnatisectus Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Orient. 7: 36 (1846)
= Hyoscyamus senecionis var. multifidus Aitch. & Hemsl.; Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 3: 92 (1888)
species :
Hyoscyamus squarrosus Griff.; Ic. Pl. Asiat. 4: t. 413 (1854)
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., SW-Iran); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Bamyan, Ghazni, Ghorat, Herat, Kabul, Wardak, Paktia / Khost, Parwan, Zabul); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Kurram)
32 TKM 34 AFG IRN 40 PAK
species :
Hyoscyamus tenuicaulis Schönb.-Tem.; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 100: 77, t. 19 (1972)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran, SW-Iran)
34 IRN
Synonyms: hidden
= Hyoscyamus muticus f. ovatifolius Parsa; Kew Bull. 3: 215 (1948)
species :
Hyoscyamus tibesticus Maire; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. II. 4: 909 (1932)
Distribution: S-Libya; N-Chad (Tibesti)
20 LBY 24 CHA
species :
Hyoscyamus turcomanicus Pojark.; Bot. Zurn. SSSR. 27 6: 127, t. 3 (1942)
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran)
32 TKM TZK UZB 34 IRN
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life