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Ver. 19.2
April 1st, 2024

260.0000 Family Rosaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 334 (1789), nom. cons.
97-110 genera, ca. 7.500 spp., of them about 4.000 microspecies in Rubus, Alchemilla and Sorbus
Species listed in database: 7619; hybrids: 491
= Agrimoniaceae Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 395, 574 (1822)
= Alchemillaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 17 (1820)
= Amygdalaceae Marquis; Esq. Règne Vég.: 49 (1820), nom. cons.
= Cercocarpaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 287 (1858)
= Chamaemoraceae Lilja; Skånes Fl., ed. 2: 349, 980 (1870)
= Coleogynaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 171 (1858)
= Cydoniaceae Schnizl.; Anal. Nat. Ordn. Gew.: 14 (1856)
= Dryadaceae Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 395, 577 (1822)
= Fragariaceae Nestl.; Monogr. Potentilla: 14 (1816)
= Lindleyaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 166 (1858)
= Malaceae Small; Fl. S. E. U. S.: 529 (1903), nom. cons.
= Mespilaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 509 (1832)
= Neilliaceae Miq.; Fl. Ned. Ind. 1: 390 (1855)
= Potentillaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 231 (1820)
= Poteriaceae Raf.; Anal. Nat.: 173 (1815)
= Prunaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 511 (1820)
= Pyraceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 268, 286 (1818)
= Rhodotypaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 172 (1858)
= Sanguisorbaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 231 (1820)
= Sorbaceae Brenner; Florist. Handb.: 94 (1886)
= Spiraeaceae Bertuch; Taf. Allg. Naturgesch. Gewächs-Reich: Enum. 10, Syn. Tab. 3 (1801)
= Tormentillaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 636 (1820)
= Ulmariaceae Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 395, 588 (1822)
260.3900 Genus Malus Mill.; Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [835] (1754) (s. lat.)
Distribution: Temperate Northern Hemisphere. The North American sect. Chloromeles (including Sorbomalus) is probably a separate genus. Docynia needs to be included to make Malus monophyletic.
Species listed in database: 39; hybrids: 8
= Chloromeles (Decne.) Decne.; Fl. des Serres 23: 156 (1881)
= Docynia Decne.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Par. 10: 131 (1874)
= Docyniopsis (C.K.Schneid.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 3: 162 (1934)
= Macromeles Koidz.; Fl. Symb. Or.-Asiat. 53 (1930)
= Prameles Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 243 (2018)
= Sinomalus Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 1: 11 (1932)
species :
Malus angustifolia (Aiton) Michx.; Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Hook.) 1: 292 (1803)
Name: Southern crabapple
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Chloromeles
Synonyms: hidden
= Chloromeles sempervirens (Desf.) Decne.; Ann. Gén. Hort. 23: 156 (1882)
= Malus angustifolia f. pendula Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 53 (1920)
= Malus coronaria var. angustifolia (Aiton) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 9 (1992)
= Malus coronaria var. angustifolia (Rehder) Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 34 (1983)
= Malus microcarpa A.Sav.; Compt. Rend. Assoc. Franç. Avancem. Sci. Assoc. Sci. France 11: 432 (1882 publ. 1883), nom. illeg.
= Malus sempervirens Desf.; Tabl. École Bot. 173 (1804), nom. superfl.
= Pyrus angustifolia Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 2: 176 (1789)
= Pyrus coronaria var. angustifolia (Aiton) Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 41 (1873)
= Pyrus sempervirens (Desf.) Willd.; Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol., Suppl.: 35 (1814)
variant :
var. puberula (Rehder) Rehder; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 23: 261 (1914 publ. 1915)
Distribution: USA (Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, New Jersey, Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus angustifolia var. spinosa (Rehder) C.F.Reed; Phytologia 63(5): 410 (1987)
= Malus coronaria var. puberula Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 229 (1913)
= Malus ioensis var. spinosa Rehder; Trees & Shrubs (Sarg.) 2: 231 (1913)
= Pyrus angustifolia var. puberula (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus angustifolia var. spinosa (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus ioensis var. spinosa (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
species :
Malus asiatica Nakai; Icon. Pl. Koisik. 3: t. 155 (1915)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea [I]; Vietnam [c]
36 CHI 38 kor 41 vie
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus asiatica f. lutea Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 6 (1927)
= Malus asiatica f. rubra Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 6 (1927)
= Malus asiatica f. yamamoto Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 5 (1927)
= Malus asiatica var. rinkii (Koidz.) Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 6 (1927)
= Malus domestica var. asiatica (Nakai) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 76(5): 719 (1991)
= Malus domestica var. rinkii (Koidz.) Ohle; Verz. Landwirtsch. Gärtn. Kulturpfl. 1: 359 (1986)
= Malus dulcissima (Koidz.) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 330 (1916)
= Malus dulcissima var. asiatica (Nakai) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3(4): 190 (1934)
= Malus dulcissima var. rinkii (Koidz.) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30(358): 330 (1916)
= Malus matsumurae Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 23: 172 (1909)
= Malus matsumurae var. dulcissima Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 23: 173 (1909)
= Malus prunifolia var. dulcissima (Koidz.) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 76 (1953)
= Malus prunifolia var. matsumurae (Koidz.) Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 15 (1927)
= Malus prunifolia var. ringo (K.Koch) Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 16 (1927)
= Malus prunifolia var. rinkii (Koidz.) Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 2: 279 (1915)
= Malus pumila var. asiatica (Nakai) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 31: 259 (1917)
= Malus pumila var. dasyphylla Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34: 86 (1913)
= Malus pumila var. dulcissima (Koidz.) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34 (1913)
= Malus pumila var. rinkii Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 87 (1913)
= Malus ringo (K.Koch) Siebold ex Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 46: 170 (1874)
= Pyrus asiatica (Nakai) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 96 (2018)
= Pyrus matsumurae (Koidz.) Cardot; Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24(1): 67 (1918)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. rinkii (Koidz.) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus ringo K.Koch; Dendrologie 1: 213 (1869)
= Pyrus ringo Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 37 (1874)
species :
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.; Theor.-prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1280 (1803)
Name: Siberian crabapple
Distribution: Slovakia [I]; Belarus [I]; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye); Kazakhstan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi); Mongolia; North Korea; South Korea; Japan; Nepal; Bhutan; N-India (Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal); Myanmar; Canada [I] (New Brunswick [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Québec [I]); USA [I] (Connecticut [I], Illinois [I], Kentucky [I], Massachusetts [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Minnesota [I], Missouri [I], New Hampshire [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I])
11 slo 14 blr 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 kaz uzb 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA 72 cdn 74 usa 75 usa 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Crataegus pomifera Georgi; Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich 1: 217 (1775)
= Malus baccata f. aureomarginata Zabel; Beissner et al., Handb. Laubholzben.: 188 (1903), nomen
= Malus baccata f. chamardabanica (Vartapetyan & Solovjeva) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 73: 83 (1988), nomen
= Malus baccata f. columnaris Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 276 (1940)
= Malus baccata f. gracilis Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 49 (1920)
= Malus baccata f. jackii Rehder; Pl. Wils. 2: 291 (1915)
= Malus baccata f. latifolia (Regel) Kitag.; Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 368 (1979)
= Malus baccata f. latifolia (Regel) Matsum.; Index Pl. Jap. 2(2): 202 (1912)
= Malus baccata f. latifolia (Regel) Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 18: 616 (1942)
= Malus baccata f. macrocarpa Wróbl.; Arbor. Kórnickie 3: 82 (1958)
= Malus baccata f. minor (Nakai) T.B.Lee; Ill. Woody Pl. Korea 274 (1966)
= Malus baccata var. cerasifera (Spach) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 25: 76 (1911)
= Malus baccata var. gracilis (Rehder) T.C.Ku; Fl. China 9: 181 (2003)
= Malus baccata var. leiostyla Rupr.; Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 15: 132 (1857)
= Malus baccata var. minor Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 32 (1916)
= Malus baccata var. nikkoensis Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 33 (1927)
= Malus baccata var. praecox (Regel) Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 18: 617 (1942)
= Malus baccata var. sibirica (Maxim.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 720 (1906)
= Malus baccata var. xiaojinensis (M.H.Cheng & N.G.Jiang) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 8 (1992)
= Malus cerasifera Spach; Hist. Nat. Veg. (Spach) 2: 152 (1834)
= Malus chamardabanica Vartapetyan & Solovjeva; Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol. 85(5): 82 (1980)
= Malus domestica subsp. cerasifera (Spach) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46(2): 9 (1972)
= Malus microcarpa var. baccata (L.) Carrière; Étud. Gén. Pommier. 68 (1883)
= Malus pallasiana Juz.; Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 370 (1939)
= Malus prunifolia Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 2: 93 (1841)
= Malus rossica Medik.; Gesch. Bot.: 78 (1793)
= Malus rubicunda M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 216 (1847)
= Malus sibirica (Maxim.) Kom. & Aliss.; Opred. Rast. Dal´nevost. Kraia 2: 638 (1932), nom. illeg.
= Malus sibirica Borkh.; Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 1(3): 89 (1798)
= Malus ×cerasifera f. koidzumii Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 36 (1927)
= Malus ×cerasifera f. microcarpa Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 36 (1927)
= Malus ×cerasifera var. jenensis Lavallée; Énum. Arbres: 104 (1877), nomen
= Malus ×floribunda var. brevipes Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 50 (1920)
= Malus xiaojinensis M.H.Cheng & N.G.Jiang; J. S. W. Agric. Coll. 4: 53 (1983)
= Pyrus baccata L.; Mant. Pl. 75 (1767)
= Pyrus baccata Pall.; Fl. Ross. 1: 23 (1784) (non L., Mant. Pl. 75 (1767))
= Pyrus baccata var. aurantiaca Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. cerasifera (Tausch) Regel; Gartenflora 11: 202 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. cerasiformis Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. conocarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. costata Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1866(Suppl.): 36 (1867 publ. 1868)
= Pyrus baccata var. latifolia Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. lutea Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1866(Suppl.): 36 (1867 publ. 1868)
= Pyrus baccata var. macrocarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. obconoidea Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1866(Suppl.): 36 (1867 publ. 1868)
= Pyrus baccata var. oblonga Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. praecox Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1862: 32 (1862)
= Pyrus baccata var. sanguinea Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1866(Suppl.): 36 (1867 publ. 1868)
= Pyrus baccata var. sibirica Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 19: 170 (1973)
= Pyrus cerasifera Tausch; Flora 21: 714 (1838)
= Pyrus cerasifera var. hyemalis Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 46 (1873)
= Pyrus microcarpa H.L.Wendl. ex K.Koch; Dendrol. 1: 211 (1869)
= Pyrus pallasiana (Juz.) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 115 (2018)
= Pyrus prunifolia Maxim.; Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, Ser. 6, Sci. Math., Seconde Pt. Sci. Nat. 9: 471 (1859)
= Pyrus rubicunda Hoffmanns.; Verz. Pfl.-Kult.-Kult. 192 (1824)
= Pyrus ×brevipes (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 456 (1941)
= Sinomalus baccata (L.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 244 (2018)
= Sinomalus pallasiana (Juz.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus baoshanensis G.T.Deng; J. Sichuan Agric. Univ. 9(1): 48-49 (1991)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Malus coronaria (L.) Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 2 (1768)
Name: Sweet crabapple (EN), Kronen-Apfel (DE)
Distribution: Canada (Ontario); USA (Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming)
72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Chloromeles
Synonyms: hidden
= Crataegus coronaria (L.) Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 357 (1796)
= Malus bracteata (L.H.Bailey) Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 230 (1913)
= Malus carolinensis Ashe; Bull. Charleston Mus. 14(2): 10 (1918)
= Malus carolinensis var. ellipsoidalis Ashe; Bull. Charleston Mus. 14(2): 11 (1918)
= Malus coronaria f. nieuwlandiana A.D.Slavin; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 364 (1931)
= Malus coronaria var. bracteata (Rehder) Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 34 (1983)
= Malus coronaria var. dasycalyx Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 52 (1920)
= Malus coronaria var. elongata (Rehder) Rehder; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 23: 261 (1914 publ. 1915)
= Malus coronaria var. glabrata (Rehder) Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 33 (1983)
= Malus coronaria var. glaucescens (Rehder) Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 33 (1983)
= Malus coronaria var. lancifolia (Rehder) C.F.Reed; Phytologia 63(5): 410 (1987)
= Malus elongata (Rehder) Ashe; Bull. Charleston Mus. 12(5): 38 (1916)
= Malus elongata var. pubens Ashe; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 49: 268 (1922)
= Malus fragrans Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 228 (1913)
= Malus fragrans var. elongata Rehder; Trees & Shrubs (Sarg.) 2: 229 (1913)
= Malus glabrata Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 225 (1913)
= Malus glaucescens Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 139 (1911)
= Malus lancifolia Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 141 (1911)
= Malus suaveolens (Wender.) M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 215 (1847)
= Malus zumi var. dasycalyx Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 52 (1920)
= Malus zumi var. elongata (Rehder) Rehder; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1914: 261 (1914)
= Pyrus bracteata (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus carolinensis (Ashe) Ashe; J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 34: 138 (1918)
= Pyrus carolinensis var. ellipsoidalis (Ashe) Ashe; J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 34: 139 (1918)
= Pyrus coronaria L.; Sp. Pl. 480 (1753)
= Pyrus coronaria var. dasycalyx (Rehder) Fernald; Rhodora 49: 232 (1947)
= Pyrus coronaria var. elongata (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus coronaria var. fragrans (Rehder) Farw.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 60 (1928)
= Pyrus coronaria var. lancifolia (Rehder) Fernald; Rhodora 49: 232 (1947)
= Pyrus coronaria var. sempervirens Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 230 (1770)
= Pyrus coronaria var. tomentella Farw.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 60 (1928)
= Pyrus elongata (Rehder) Ashe; J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 34: 139 (1918)
= Pyrus glabrata (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus glaucescens (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora, x 3: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus lancifolia (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. suaveolens (Wender.) Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus suaveolens Wender.; Linnaea 5: Litt. 55 (1830)
= Sorbus coronaria (L.) MacMill.; Metasp. Minn. 284 (1892)
species :
Malus crescimannoi Raimondo; Fl. Medit. 18: 6 (2008)
Distribution: Sicily
13 SIC
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Malus daochengensis C.L.Li; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27(4): 301 (1989)
Distribution: China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata var. daochengensis (C.L.Li) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 8 (1992)
= Sinomalus daochengensis (C.L.Li) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus delavayi (Franch.) B.B.Liu; PhytoKeys 229: 47-50 (2023)
Distribution: China (W-Guizhou, W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Cotoneaster bodinieri H.Lév.; Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 25: 44 (1915)
= Cydonia delavayi (Franch.) Cardot; Rev. Hort. 16: 131-133, f. 45-47. 1918-19
= Docynia delavayi (Franch.) C.K.Schneid.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3(38-39): 180 (1906)
= Eriolobus delavayi (Franch.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 727 (1906)
= Pyrus delavayi Franch.; Pl. Delavay. 227, t. 47 (1890)
species :
Malus domestica (Suckow) Borkh.; Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1272 (1803), nom. cons.
Name: Apple (EN), Kultur-Apfel (DE)
Distribution: origin in cultivation from C-Asian parents; England [c]; Ireland [c]; Denmark [c]; Norway [c]; Sweden [c]; Finland [c]; Netherlands [c]; Belgium [c]; Germany [c]; Switzerland [c]; Liechtenstein [c]; Austria [c]; Poland [c]; Czech Republic [c]; Slovakia [c]; Hungary [c]; Portugal [c]; Spain [c]; Andorra [c]; Baleares [c]; France [c]; Channel Isl. [c]; Corsica [c]; Sardinia [c]; Italy [c]; Sicily [c]; San Marino [c]; Slovenia [c]; Croatia [c]; Bosnia & Hercegovina [c]; Montenegro [c]; Montenegro [c]; Serbia [c]; Kosovo [c]; North Macedonia [c]; Albania [c]; Romania [c]; Bulgaria [c]; Greece [c]; Crete [c]; Estonia [c]; Latvia [c]; Lithuania [c]; Belarus [c]; European Russia [c]; Moldova [c]; Ukraine [c]; Crimea [c]; Morocco [c]; Algeria [c]; Tunisia [c]; Libya [c]; Azores [c] (Santa Maria Isl. [c]); Madeira [c] (Madeira Isl. [c], Porto Santo Isl. [c]); São Tomé [c]; Kazakhstan [c]; Turkmenistan [c]; Uzbekistan [c]; Kyrgyzstan [c]; Tajikistan [c]; Northern Caucasus; East Aegaean Isl. [c]; Turkey (Anatolia); Afghanistan [c]; Cyprus [c]; Lebanon [c]; Syria [c]; China [c]; South Korea [c]; Pakistan [c]; Nepal [c]; Bhutan [c]; India [c]; Myanmar [c]; Vietnam [c]; Java [c]; Australia [c] (New South Wales [c], Victoria [c]); New Zealand [c]; Niue [c]; Canada [c] (British Columbia [c], Manitoba [c], New Brunswick [c], Newfoundland [c], Nova Scotia [c], Ontario [c], Prince Edward Isl. [c], Québec [c]); St. Pierre et Miquelon [c]; USA [c] (Alabama [c], Arkansas [c], California [c], Colorado [c], Connecticut [c], District of Columbia [c], Delaware [c], Georgia [c], Iowa [c], Illinois [c], Indiana [c], Kansas [c], Kentucky [c], Louisiana [c], Massachusetts [c], Maryland [c], Maine [c], Michigan [c], Minnesota [c], Missouri [c], Mississippi [c], Montana [c], North Carolina [c], New Hampshire [c], New Jersey [c], New Mexico [c], Nevada [c], New York [c], Ohio [c], Oregon [c], Pennsylvania [c], Rhode Island [c], South Carolina [c], Tennessee [c], Utah [c], Virginia [c], Vermont [c], Washington State [c], Wisconsin [c], West Virginia [c], Wyoming [c]); Mexico [c]; Guatemala [c]; Honduras [c]; Costa Rica [c]; Jamaica [c]; Dominican Republic [c]; Haiti [c]; Colombia [c]; Ecuador [c]; Bolivia [c]; Brazil [c]; Argentina [c]
10 den fin grb ire nor swe 11 aut bgm cze ger hun lie net pol slo swi 12 ado bal cis cor fra por sar spa 13 alb bih bul cro grc ita kos kri mnt nma rom sic slv sma srb 14 blr est kry lat lit mld rus ukr 20 alg lby mor tun 21 azo mdr 23 sao 32 kaz kgz tkm tzk uzb 33 NCS 34 afg cyp eai leb syr TUR 36 chi 38 kor 40 bhu ind nep pak 41 mya vie 42 jaw 50 aus 51 nzl 60 nue 71 cdn 72 cdn spm 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 cos gua hon 81 his jam 82 clm 83 bol ecu 84 bra 85 arg
Remarks: Many cultivar names and garden varieties not listed
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus anetica Poit. & Turpin; Duhamel, Traité Arbr. Fruit. 5: no. 11 (1808)
= Malus anisophylla Sumnev.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. & Zool. Acad. Sci. Uzbekistan. 11: 29 (1948)
= Malus apetala Poit. & Turpin; Pomol. Franç. 4: Pommier no. 46 (1846)
= Malus astracanica Dum.Cours.; Bot. Cult. 5: 426 (1811)
= Malus batavica Poit. & Turpin; Pomol. Franç. 4: Pommier no. 44 (1846)
= Malus calvilla Poit. & Turpin; Pomol. Franç. 4: Pommier no. 21-22 (1846)
= Malus caspiriensis Langenf.; Yablonya: Morfol. Evol., Filog., Geogr., Sist.: 181 (1991)
= Malus chitralensis Vassilcz.; Rech.f., Fl. Iran., Lief. 66, 38 (1969)
= Malus communis Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 1: 398 (1798), nom. rej.
= Malus communis f. apetala (Münchh.) Hegi; 747 (1922)
= Malus communis Poir.; Encycl. 5: 560 (1840)
= Malus communis subsp. mitis (Wenz.) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 396 (1893), nom. illeg.
= Malus communis subsp. paradisiaca (L.) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 395 (1893), nom. illeg.
= Malus communis subsp. pumila (Mill.) Gams; Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 4: 747 (1922)
= Malus communis var. domestica (Suckow) Gams; Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 4: 747 (1922)
= Malus communis var. mitis Wenz.; Jahrb. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 291 (1883)
= Malus communis var. nigra Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 396 (1893)
= Malus communis var. paradisiaca (L.) Wenz.; Jahrb. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 291 (1883)
= Malus communis var. sativa DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 3: 429 (1805)
= Malus communis var. sieversii (Ledeb.) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 396 (1893)
= Malus communis var. tomentosa Coss. & Germ.; Fl. Descr. Anal. Paris: 186 (1845)
= Malus communis var. tomentosa W.D.J.Koch ex Gams; Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 4: 747 (1922), nom. illeg.
= Malus cylindracea A.Sav.; Compt. Rend. Assoc. Franç. Avancem. Sci. Assoc. Sci. France 11: 429 (1882 publ. 1883)
= Malus dasyphylla var. domestica (Suckow) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 189 (1934)
= Malus dasyphylla var. gellidus (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 154 (1997)
= Malus dasyphylla var. mitis (Wallr.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 189 (1934)
= Malus dasyphylla var. reneta (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 150 (1997)
= Malus dioica (Moench) Medik.; Gesch. Bot. (Medik.) 78 (1793)
= Malus dolichomorpha Juz.; Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 366 (1939)
= Malus domestica subsp. caucasica Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 46(2): 21 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. hybrida Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 46(2): 16 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. intermedia Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 46(2): 10 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. italotaurica Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46(2): 20 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. macrocarpa Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 46(2): 15 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. medioasiatica Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46(2): 22 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. occidentalieuropaea Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46(2): 19 (1972)
= Malus domestica subsp. pumila (Mill.) Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 69 (1983)
= Malus domestica subsp. rossica Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 46(2): 12 (1972)
= Malus domestica var. api (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 139 (1997)
= Malus domestica var. calvillea Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 65 (1983)
= Malus domestica var. coccineus (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 144 (1997)
= Malus domestica var. paradisiaca (L.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 21 (1974)
= Malus domestica var. parmaenea Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 65 (1983)
= Malus domestica var. ponderosus (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 145 (1997)
= Malus domestica var. praecox (Mill.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 21 (1974)
= Malus domestica var. renettea Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 64 (1983)
= Malus domestica var. roseus (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 141 (1997)
= Malus dulcissima var. subsessilis (C.K.Schneid.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 190 (1934)
= Malus fontanesiana Spach; Hist. Veg. Phan. 2: 150 (1834)
= Malus frutescens Medik.; Gesch. Bot.: 78 (1793), nom. rej.
= Malus glabra A.Sav.; C. R. Assoc. Fr. Av. Sci. 11: Rochelle, 1882 432 (1883)
= Malus heterophylla Sumnev.; Dikie Plodovo-Yagodn. Rast. Uzbekistana 52 (1942), without latin descr.
= Malus hissarica Kudr.; Kudrjaschev, Plod. Shakhri 1: 158 (1950)
= Malus hortensis Brügger; Naturgesch. Beitr. Umg. Chur [Fl. Curiensis] 98 (1874)
= Malus jarmolenkoi Poljakov; Trudy Almatinsk. Gosud. Zapoved. 7: 154 (1948)
= Malus juzepczukii Vassilcz.; Proc. First All-Union Meet. Bot. Sel. 1: ? (1952)
= Malus kirghisorum Al.Fed. & Fed.; Plodovye lesa juzhnoi Kirgisii i ich ispolsovanie 220 (1949)
= Malus kudrjaschevii Sumnev.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Zool. Akad. Nauk Uzbeksk. S.S.R. 11: 31 (1948)
= Malus linczevskii Poljakov; Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada (Moscow) 6: 55 (1950)
= Malus livida A.Sav.; Compt. Rend. Assoc. Franç. Avancem. Sci. Assoc. Sci. France 11: 430 (1882 publ. 1883)
= Malus malus (L.) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 275 (1894), nomen
= Malus malus Britton; Ill. Fl. N. U. S. (Britton & Brown) 2: 236 (1897)
= Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck ex Koehne; Deut. Dendrol. 259 (1893)
= Malus paradisiaca (L.) Medik.; Gesch. Bot.: 78 (1793), nom. superfl., nom. rej.
= Malus paradisiaca var. tomentosa W.D.J.Koch ex Koehne; Deut. Dendrol.: 259 (1893), nom. illeg.
= Malus persicifolia (Popov) Sumnev.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. & Zool. Acad. Sci. Uzbekistan. 11: 30 (1948)
= Malus praecox (Pall.) Borkh.; Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1271 (1803), nom. superfl.
= Malus praecox var. paradisiaca (L.) Vulev; Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya 5: 347 (1973)
= Malus praecox f. pyramidale V.V.Byalt & Firsov; Hortus Botanicus 13: 159 (2018)
= Malus prasomila (L.) Poit. & Turpin; Pomol. Franç. 4: Pommier no. 39-40 (1846)
= Malus pumila f. gallica Nordh.; 342 (1940)
= Malus pumila Mill.; Gard. Dict. (ed. 8) no. 3 (1768), nom. rej.
= Malus pumila subsp. praecox Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. 8.: s.p. (1768)
= Malus pumila var. domestica (Suckow) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 715 (1906)
= Malus pumila var. joannis (Risso) D.Rivera; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot.: 157 (1997)
= Malus pumila var. mitis (Wallr.) Hayek; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 752 (1926)
= Malus pumila var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 716 (1906)
= Malus pumila var. paradisiaca (L.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 715 (1906)
= Malus pumila var. persicifolia Popov; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 22: 432 (1929)
= Malus pumila var. praecox (Pall.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 715 (1906), nomen
= Malus pumila var. subsessilis C.K.Schneid.; Bot. Gaz. 63: 400 (1917)
= Malus rambura Poit. & Turpin; Pomol. Franç. 4: Pommier no. 51 (1846)
= Malus santonum A.Sav.; C. R. Assoc. Fr. Av. Sci. 11: Rochelle, 1882 428 (1883)
= Malus schischkinii Poljakov; Trudy Almatinsk. Gosud. Zapoved. 7: 154 (1949)
= Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 216 (1847)
= Malus sieversii subsp. hissarica (Kudr.) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 15 (1971), without basionym ref.
= Malus sieversii subsp. hissarica (Kudr.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 24 (1974)
= Malus sieversii subsp. kirghisorum (Al.Fed. & Fed.) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 15 (1971), without basionym ref.
= Malus sieversii subsp. kirghisorum (Al.Fed. & Fed.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 23 (1974), without basionym page
= Malus sieversii subsp. kirghisorum (Al.Fed. & Fed.) Likhonos ex Korovina; Katalog Mir. Koll. Vsesoyuzn. Nauchno-Issl. Inst. Zashch. Rast. 351: 63 (1982)
= Malus sieversii var. anisophylla (Sumnev.) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 15 (1971), without basionym ref.
= Malus sieversii var. anisophylla (Sumnev.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 62(6): 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. chitralensis (Vassilcz.) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 7 (1992)
= Malus sieversii var. dilatata Kudr.; Fl. Uzbekistan. 3: 280 (1955)
= Malus sieversii var. dulcis Kudr.; Fl. Uzbekistan. 3: 280 (1955)
= Malus sieversii var. hemisphaerica Kudr.; Fl. Uzbekistan. 3: 280 (1955)
= Malus sieversii var. hissarica (Kudr.) Kudr.; Fl. Uzbekistan. 3: 280 (1955)
= Malus sieversii var. hissarica (Kudr.) Langenf.; Yablonya: Morfol. Evol. 172 (1991), isonym
= Malus sieversii var. hissarica (Kudr.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 61: 998 (1976)
= Malus sieversii var. jarmolenkoi (Poljakov) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. juzepczukii (Vassilcz.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. kirghisorum (Al.Fed. & Fed.) Langenf.; Yablonya: Morfol. Evol., Filog., Geogr., Sist. 174 (1991), isonym
= Malus sieversii var. kirghisorum (Al.Fed. & Fed.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. kudrjaschevii (Sumnev.) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 15 (1971), without basionym ref.
= Malus sieversii var. kudrjaschevii (Sumnev.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. linczevskii (Poljakov) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 15 (1971), without basionym ref.
= Malus sieversii var. linczevskii (Poljakov) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. longicarpa Bykov; Fl. Kazakhst. 4: 404 (1961)
= Malus sieversii var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 15 (1971)
= Malus sieversii var. pamiralaica Kudr.; Fl. Uzbekistan. 3: 280 (1955)
= Malus sieversii var. persicifolia (Popov) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. schischkinii (Poljakov) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. spherocarpa Bykov; Fl. Kazakhst. 4: 404 (1961)
= Malus sieversii var. tianschanica (Sumnev.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 827 (1977)
= Malus sieversii var. vvedenskyi Kudr.; Fl. Uzbekistan. 3: 280 (1955)
= Malus spumosa Poit. & Turpin; Poit. Pomol. Franc. 4: t. 262 (1846)
= Malus sylvestris Moench; Methodus (Moench) 682 (1794), nom. illeg., non Mill.
= Malus sylvestris subsp. mitis (Wallr.) Mansf.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 49(1211-1214): 45 (1940)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. paradisiaca (L.) Soó; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung., 18(1-2): 175 (1973)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. praecox (Pall.) Soó; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 9: 423 (1963)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. pumila (Mill.) Domin; Preslia 13-15: 133 (1935)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. pumila (Mill.) Vollm.; 454 (1914)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. sieversii (Ledeb.) Soó; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 9: 423 (1963)
= Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Suckow) Mansf.; Kulturpflanze, Beih. 2: 132 (1959)
= Malus sylvestris var. frutescens Münchh.; Hausvater 5: 247 (1770)
= Malus sylvestris var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 457 (1941)
= Malus sylvestris var. paradisiaca (L.) L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 457 (1941)
= Malus sylvestris var. paradisiaca (Mill.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 21 (1974)
= Malus sylvestris var. praecox (Mill.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 21 (1974)
= Malus sylvestris var. praecox (Pall.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 62(6): 824 (1977), isonym
= Malus sylvestris var. tomentosa Holandre; Fl. Moselle, ed. 2, 1: 246 (1843)
= Malus sylvestris var. tomentosa W.D.J.Koch ex Schur; Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 208 (1866), nom. illeg.
= Malus tatarica K.Koch; Dendrol. 1: 204 (1869)
= Malus tianschanica Sumnev.; Fl. Uzbekist. 3: 281, 795 (1955)
= Malus turbinioides A.Sav.; C. R. Assoc. Fr. Av. Sci. 11: Rochelle, 1882 429 (1883)
= Malus turkmenonum Juz. & Popov; Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 364, 493 (1939)
= Malus umbellata Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 235 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Malus upsalensis Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 394 (1893)
= Malus violacea Poit. & Turpin; Duhamel, Traité Arbr. Fruit. 5: no. 44 (1835)
= Malus viridis A.Sav.; C. R. Assoc. Fr. Av. Sci. 11: Rochelle, 1882 431 (1883)
= Pyrenia malus (L.) Clairv.; Man. Herb. 162 (1811)
= Pyrus apiosa Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 670 (1821), nomen
= Pyrus armeniacifolia Dochnahl; Obstk. 1: 16 (1855), nomen
= Pyrus astracanica (Dum.Cours.) DC.; Prodr. 2: 635 (1825)
= Pyrus cavillea (L.) Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 670 (1821)
= Pyrus cestiana Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 670 (1821)
= Pyrus chitralensis (Vassilcz.) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 100 (2018)
= Pyrus dioica Moench; Verz. 87 (1785), nom. rej.
= Pyrus divisa Link; Enum. Hort. Berol. 2: 38 (1822)
= Pyrus epirotica (L.) Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 670 (1821)
= Pyrus eryostyla (Moris) Guss.; Fl. Sicul. Prodr., Suppl.: 154 (1832)
= Pyrus fontanesia Poit. & Turpin; Duhamel, Traité Arbr. Fruit. 4: no. 79 (1835)
= Pyrus fontanesiana (Spach) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 423 (1841)
= Pyrus kirghisorum (Al.Fed. & Fed.) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 109 (2018)
= Pyrus malus Burgsd.; 198 (1787), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus f. translucens Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 276 (1894)
= Pyrus malus L.; Sp. Pl. 479 (1753)
= Pyrus malus subsp. conocarpa Schübl. & G.Martens; 315 (1834)
= Pyrus malus subsp. costata Schübl. & G.Martens; 315 (1834)
= Pyrus malus subsp. hortensis Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 290 (1913), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus subsp. megamila Schübl. & G.Martens; 317 (1834)
= Pyrus malus subsp. mitis (Wallr.) O.Bolòs & Vigo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 38 Bot. 1: 68 (1974)
= Pyrus malus subsp. mitis (Wallr.) Syme; Sm., Engl. Bot., ed. 3, 3: 256 (1864)
= Pyrus malus subsp. paradisiaca (L.) Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 290 (1913)
= Pyrus malus subsp. paradisiaca (L.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 315 (1834)
= Pyrus malus subsp. paradisiaca Cout.; 290 (1913), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus subsp. praecox (Pall.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 240 (1878)
= Pyrus malus subsp. prasomila (L.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 317 (1834)
= Pyrus malus subsp. pumila (Mill.) Asch. & Graebn.; Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 6(2): 75 (1906)
= Pyrus malus subsp. striata Schübl. & G.Martens; 317 (1834)
= Pyrus malus var. abortiva Druce; Rep. Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 7: 35 (1924)
= Pyrus malus var. amara Hartm.; Handb. Skand. Fl., ed. 2: 136 (1832)
= Pyrus malus var. apetala (Poit. & Turpin) L.H.Bailey; Stand. Cycl. Hort. 5: 2871 (1917)
= Pyrus malus var. appiana Schübl. & G.Martens; 316 (1834)
= Pyrus malus var. astracanica (Dum.Cours.) Loudon ex L.H.Bailey; Stand. Cycl. Hort. 5: 2870 (1917)
= Pyrus malus var. aucubifolia J.R.Booth ex G.Kirchn.; Petzold & Kirchner, Arbor. Muscav.: 320 (1864)
= Pyrus malus var. borsdorferiana Baumg.; 265 (1790)
= Pyrus malus var. calvillea L.; 686 (1762)
= Pyrus malus var. castanea Pers.; 40 (1806)
= Pyrus malus var. cestiana L.; 479 (1753)
= Pyrus malus var. domestica (Borkh.) Asch. & Graebn.; Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 6(2): 77 (1906)
= Pyrus malus var. domestica (Suckow) Borkh.; 174 (1790)
= Pyrus malus var. epirotica L.; 480 (1753)
= Pyrus malus var. eriostyla Moris; Stirp. Sard. Elench. 2: 3 (1828)
= Pyrus malus var. frutescens (Münchh.) Borkh.; Vers. Forstbot. Beschr.: 175 (1790)
= Pyrus malus var. fruticosa Dierb.; 45 (1827)
= Pyrus malus var. hortensis Willk.; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 194 (1874)
= Pyrus malus var. minor K.Koch; Linnaea 19: 43 (1847)
= Pyrus malus var. mitis Wallr.; Sched. Crit. 1: 215 (1822)
= Pyrus malus var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) Asch. & Graebn.; Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 6(2): 78 (1906)
= Pyrus malus var. paradisiaca L.; Sp. Pl. 1: 479 (1753)
= Pyrus malus var. praecox (Pall.) Boenn.; 145 (1824)
= Pyrus malus var. prasomila L.; Sp. Pl.: 479 (1753)
= Pyrus malus var. pumila (Mill.) A.Henry; Elwes & Henry, Trees Great Britain 6: 1570 (1912)
= Pyrus malus var. pumila (Mill.) Burgsd.; 197 (1787), nom. inval.
= Pyrus malus var. pumila Elwes; Trees Great Britain Irel. 6: 1570 (1912)
= Pyrus malus var. rossica Litv.; Fl. Sred. Pol. Ussr: 198 (1917)
= Pyrus malus var. rubelliana L.; 479 (1753)
= Pyrus malus var. sativa Merrem; 226 (1809)
= Pyrus malus var. sativa Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 3: 117-118 (1812), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus var. sativa Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 230 (1770), nomen
= Pyrus malus var. sieversii (Ledeb.) Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 32 (1873)
= Pyrus malus var. strepens Schübl. & G.Martens; 316 (1834)
= Pyrus malus var. tenuiflora (Boenn.) Bluff & Fingerh.; 604 (1825)
= Pyrus malus var. tomentosa Bluff & Fingerh.; 604 (1825), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus var. tomentosa Neilr.; Fl. Nied.-Oesterr.: 886 (1859), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus var. tomentosa W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 235 (1836)
= Pyrus malus var. translucens Hartwig; Ill. Gehölzb.: 266 (1892)
= Pyrus malus var. ussuriensis Rupr. ex Koehne; Deut. Dendrol.: 245 (1893)
= Pyrus malus var. wojejkowii Litv.; Fl. Sred. Pol. Ussr: 198 (1917)
= Pyrus niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) Hemsl.; Bot. Mag. 130: t. 7975 (1904)
= Pyrus paradisiaca (L.) Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 670 (1821)
= Pyrus paris M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 115 (2018), nom. nov.
= Pyrus pollveria Lej.; Fl. Spa 2: 311 (1813), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus praecox Pall.; Fl. Ross. 1: 22 (1784), nom. superfl., nom. rej.
= Pyrus prasomila (L.) Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 670 (1821)
= Pyrus pulverulenta K.Koch; Dendrol. 1: 208 (1869)
= Pyrus pumila (Mill.) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot. (Steud.) 671 (1821)
= Pyrus pumila var. domestica (Suckow) Asch. & Graebn.; Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 6(2): 77 (1906)
= Pyrus rubelliana Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 671 (1821)
= Pyrus saxatilis Schltdl. ex Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 2: 97 (1843)
= Pyrus sieversii Bunge; Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. 2: 222 (1830)
= Pyrus songorica Fisch. ex Juz.; Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 363 (1939)
= Sorbus malus (L.) Crantz; Stirp. Austr. ed. I. fasc. 2: 57 (1763), ed. II. 93
species :
Malus doumeri A.Chev.; Compt. Rend. clxx. 1129 (1920)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Laos; Vietnam
36 CHI 38 TAI 41 LAO VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Docynia doumeri (Bois) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 1001 (1907)
= Docynia indica var. doumeri (Bois) Chev.; Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 22: 379 (1942)
= Docynia indica var. laosensis (Cardot) Chev.; Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 22: 379 (1942)
= Docyniopsis laosensis (Cardot) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 3: 196 (1934)
= Eriolobus doumeri (Bois) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 728-729 (note) (1906)
= Malus asiatica var. argutiserrata Hu & F.H.Chen; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1(2): 225 (1951)
= Malus doumeri (Bois) A.Chev.; Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 170: 1129 (1920)
= Malus doumeri var. formosana (Kawak. & Koidz.) S.S.Ying; Mem. Coll. Agric. Nation. Taiwan Univ. 31(1): 33 (1991)
= Malus formosana (Kawak. & Koidz.) Kawak. & Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 25(292): 146-147, t. 4 (1911)
= Malus laosensis (Cardot) Chev.; C. R. Ac. Sci. 170: 1129 (1920)
= Malus melliana (Hand.-Mazz.) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 20(4): 414 (1939)
= Pyrus doumeri Bois; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 51: 113, f. (1904)
= Pyrus formosana Kawak. & Koidz.; Kaw. List Pl. Form. no 471 (1910)
= Pyrus formosana Kawak. & Koidz. ex Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 30: Att. I, 100 (1911)
= Pyrus laosensis Cardot; Notul. Syst. (Paris) 3: 345-346 (1918)
= Pyrus melliana Hand.-Mazz.; Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 60: 96 (1923)
species :
Malus fusca (Raf.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 723 (1906)
Name: Oregon crabapple
Distribution: Alaska; Canada (British Columbia); USA (California, Oregon, Washington State)
70 ASK 71 CDN 73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata subsp. fusca (C.K.Schneid.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 28 (1974)
= Malus diversifolia (Bong.) M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 215 (1847)
= Malus fusca var. diversifolia (Bong.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 724 (1906)
= Malus fusca var. levipes (Nutt.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. (C. K. Schneid.) 1: 724 (1906)
= Malus rivularis (Douglas ex Hook.) M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 215 (1847)
= Malus rivularis var. diversifolia (Bong.) Koehne; Deut. Dendrol.: 262 (1893)
= Malus rivularis var. levipes Koehne; Deut. Dendrol.: 262 (1893)
= Malus subcordata (Ledeb.) M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 192 (1847)
= Pyrus diversifolia Bong.; Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. VI. 2: 133 (1833)
= Pyrus fusca Raf.; Med. Fl. 2: 254 (1830)
= Pyrus fusca var. diversifolia (Bong.) L.H.Bailey; Stand. Cycl. Hort. 5: 2876 (1916)
= Pyrus fusca var. levipes (Nutt.) L.H.Bailey; Stand. Cycl. Hort. 5: 2876 (1916)
= Pyrus rivularis Douglas; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Hook.) 1: 203, t. 68 (1832)
= Pyrus rivularis var. levipes Nutt.; N. Amer. Sylv. (Nutt.) 2: 24 (1849)
= Pyrus subcordata Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 2: 95 (1843)
= Sinomalus fusca (Raf.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
= Sorbus rivularis (Douglas ex Hook.) Heynh.; Nom. Bot. Hort. 1: 773 (1840)
species :
Malus halliana Koehne; Gatt. Pomac. 27 (1890)
Name: Halls crabapple
Distribution: China (Anhui, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Japan [I]; USA [I] (North Carolina [I])
36 CHI 38 jap 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus domestica var. halliana (Koehne) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 30 (1974), as ´baccata var. halliana´
= Malus floribunda var. parkmanni Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 25(290): 76 (1911)
= Malus halliana f. parkmannii (F.L.Temple) Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 2: 286 (1915)
= Malus halliana var. parkmannii (F.L.Temple) Rehder; Man. Cult. Trees: 395 (1927)
= Malus parkmannii Koehne; Deut. Dendrol.: 261 (1893)
= Malus ×floribunda f. parkmannii (F.L.Temple) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 83 (1913)
= Malus ×floribunda f. pendula Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 83 (1913), nom. illeg.
= Malus ×floribunda var. parkmannii (F.L.Temple) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 25: 76 (1911)
= Pyrus halliana (Koehne) Voss; Vilm. Blumengaert. (ed. 3) 1: 277 (1894)
= Pyrus halliana var. obtusiloba Cardot; Notul. Syst. (Paris) 3: 345 (1918)
= Pyrus halliana var. parkmannii (F.L.Temple) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus malus var. parkmannii F.L.Temple; Gard. Monthly & Hort. 29: 35 (1887)
= Sinomalus halliana (Koehne) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus honanensis Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2(1): 51-52 (1920)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Shanxi)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Pyrus honanensis (Rehder) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 107 (2018)
= Sinomalus honanensis (Rehder) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3(4): 196 (1934)
species :
Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 14(3): 207 (1933)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang); NE-India [I] (Assam [I])
36 CHI 40 ind
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus domestica var. hupehensis (Pamp.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek., 5 2(3): 30 (1974)
= Malus hupehensis f. rosea (Rehder) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 208 (1933)
= Malus hupehensis var. mengshanensis G.Z.Qian & W.H.Shao; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 27(5): 522 (2007)
= Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis N.G.Jiang; Germpl. Malus: 29 (2001)
= Malus hupehensis var. shizongensis N.G.Jiang; Germpl. Malus: 29 (2001)
= Malus hupehensis var. taiensis G.Z.Qian; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 27(5): 522 (2007)
= Malus hupehensis var. taishanensis N.G.Jiang; Germpl. Malus: 29 (2001)
= Malus theifera Rehder; Pl. Wils. 2(2): 283-284 (1915)
= Malus theifera var. rosea Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 2: 284 (1915)
= Pyrus hupehensis Pamp.; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. s. 17(2): 291 (1910)
= Pyrus hybrida (Desf.) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot. 1: 670 (1821), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus theifera (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus theifera var. rosea (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Sinomalus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus indica (Wall.) B.B.Liu; PhytoKeys 229: 47-60 (2023)
Distribution: China (SW-Sichuan, NE-Yunnan); Nepal; Bhutan; NE-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar (Kachin, Shan); Thailand; Vietnam
36 CHI 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA THA VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Cydonia indica (Wall.) Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 2: 158 (1834)
= Docynia docynioides (C.K.Schneid.) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2(1): 58 (1920)
= Docynia griffithiana Decne.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 10: 131 (1874)
= Docynia hookeriana Decne.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 10: 131-132, t. 15 (1874)
= Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 10: 131 (1874)
= Docynia indica var. griffithiana (Decne.) Ghora; Bull. Bot. Surv. India 47(1-4): 150 (2006)
= Docynia rufifolia (H.Lév.) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 13(3): 310 (1932)
= Malus docynioides C.K.Schneid.; Bot. Gaz. 63(5): 400-401 (1917), nom. nov. superfl.
= Pyrus indica Wall.; Pl. As. Rar. 2: 56, t. 173 (1831)
= Pyrus lobata K.Koch; Hort. Dendrol. 1: 182 (1853)
= Pyrus rufifolia H.Lév.; Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot. 25: 46 (1915)
species :
Malus ioensis (Alph.Wood) Britton; Britton & A. Brown, Fl. N. U. S. 2: 235 (1897)
Name: Prairie crabapple
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Wisconsin)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Chloromeles
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus coronaria subsp. ioensis (Alph.Wood) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 24 (1974)
= Malus coronaria var. ioensis (Alph.Wood) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 724 (1906)
= Malus ioensis f. fimbriata A.D.Slavin; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 363 (1931)
= Malus ioensis var. bushii Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 232 (1913)
= Malus ioensis var. creniserrata Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 231 (1913)
= Malus ioensis var. palmeri Rehder; Trees & Shrubs (Sarg.) 2: 142 (1911)
= Malus ioensis var. texana Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 142 (1911)
= Pyrus ioensis (Alph.Wood) Carruth.; Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 5: 48 (1877)
= Pyrus ioensis var. bushii (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus ioensis var. creniserrata (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus ioensis var. glabra Clute; Amer. Bot. (Binghamton) 26: 145 (1920)
= Pyrus ioensis var. palmeri (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus ioensis var. texana (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Pyrus iowensis MacMill.; Metasp. Minn. 284 (1892)
species :
Malus jinxianensis J.Q.Deng & J.Y.Hong; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25(4): 326 (1987)
Distribution: China (S-Liaoning: Jin Xian)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata var. jinxianensis (J.Q.Deng & J.Y.Hong) C.Y.Li; Clavis Pl. Chinae Bor.-Or. ed. 2 (ed. P. Y. Fu): 318 (1995)
= Pyrus jinxianensis (J.Q.Deng & J.Y.Hong) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 108 (2018)
= Sinomalus jinxianensis (J.Q.Deng & J.Y.Hong) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus kansuensis (Batalin) C.K.Schneid.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3(38-39): 178-179 (1906)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Henan, Shaanxi, Sichuan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Eriolobus kansuensis (Batalin) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 726 (1906)
= Malus kansuensis C.K.Schneid.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. Sp. 3: 178 (1906)
= Malus kansuensis f. calva Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 50 (1920)
= Malus kansuensis var. calva (Rehder) T.C.Ku & Spongberg; Fl. China 9: 186 (2003)
= Pyrus kansuensis Batalin; Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 13(1): 94-95 (1894)
= Sinomalus kansuensis (Batalin) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus komarovii (Sarg.) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2(1): 51 (1920)
Distribution: China (S-Jilin: Changbai Shan); North Korea; South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Crataegus komarovii Sarg.; Pl. Wils. 1(2): 183 (1912)
= Crataegus tenuifolia Kom.; Act. Hort. Petrop. 18: 435 (1901), nom. illeg.
= Malus komarovii var. funiushanensis S.Y.Wang; Fl. Honan. 2: 201 (1988)
= Pyrus koreana M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 109 (2018), nom. nov. for Crataegus komarovii Sarg.
= Sinomalus komarovii (Sarg.) Honda; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 47: 297 (1933)
= Sinomalus komarovii (Sarg.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 244 (2018)
= Sinomalus komarovii var. glabra Nakai; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 12 (1953)
= Sinomalus komarovii var. major Nakai; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 12 (1953)
= Sinomalus komarovii var. pilosa Nakai; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 12 (1953)
= Sinomalus tenuifolia (Kom.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 1: 12 (1932)
species :
Malus leiocalyca S.Z.Huang; Guihaia 9(4): 305 (1989)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Pyrus leiocalyca (S.Z.Huang) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 110 (2018)
species :
Malus longiunguis (Q.Luo & J.L.Liu) B.B.Liu; PhytoKeys 229: 47-60 (2023)
Distribution: China (Sichuan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Docynia longiunguis Q.Luo & J.L.Liu; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 31(4): 389 (2011)
species :
Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Rep. Russe 24: 146 (1925)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Khabarovsk, Primorye, Sakhalin); China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata subsp. mandshurica (Kom.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 28 (1974)
= Malus baccata subsp. sachalinensis (Kom. ex Juz.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 28 (1974)
= Malus baccata subsp. zhukovskyi (Ponomar.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 28 (1974)
= Malus baccata var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. (C. K. Schneid.) 1(5): 721 (1906)
= Malus mandshurica subsp. sachalinensis (Kom. ex Juz.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 58: 1640 (1973)
= Malus mandshurica subsp. zhukovskyi Ponomar.; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 46(2): 69 (1972)
= Malus mandshurica var. gordeievii Skvortsov; Izv. Glavn. Bot. Sada S.S.S.R. 25: 146 (1925)
= Malus mandshurica var. sachalinensis (Kom. ex Juz.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 62: 829 (1977)
= Malus mandshurica var. zhukovskyi (Ponomar.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 62(6): 829 (1977)
= Malus manshurica subsp. sachalinensis (Juz.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn., 58(11): 1640 (1973)
= Malus manshurica var. sachalinensis (Juz.) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 62(6): 829 (1977)
= Malus sachalinensis f. divaricata V.V.Byalt & Firsov; Hortus Botanicus 14: 44 (2019)
= Malus sachalinensis Kom. ex Juz.; Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 493 (1939)
= Pyrus baccata var. mandshurica Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 18(2): 170-171 (1873)
= Pyrus mandshurica (Maxim.) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 111 (2018)
= Pyrus sachalinensis (Kom. ex Juz.) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 120 (2018)
= Sinomalus mandshurica (Maxim.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 244 (2018)
= Sinomalus sachalinensis (Kom. ex Juz.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100: 245 (2018)
species :
Malus muliensis T.C.Ku; Acta Phytotax. Sin. Addit. 29(1): 83, f. 2 (1991)
Distribution: China (SW-Sichuan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Pyrus genesis M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 105 (2018), nom. nov.
= Sinomalus muliensis (T.C.Ku) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus ombrophila Hand.-Mazz.; Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math-Nat. 63: 8 (1926)
Distribution: China (SW-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Prameles ombrophila (Hand.-Mazz.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 243 (2018)
= Pyrus ombrophila (Hand.-Mazz.) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 114 (2018)
species :
Malus orientalis Uglitzk.; Trudy Sev.-Kavk. Inst. Spets. Tekh. Kult. 1(3): 18 (1932) ex Juz., Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 362, 492 (1939)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (Anatolia); Iran
33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus montana Uglitzk.; Trudy Sev. Kavk. Inst. Spets. Tekh. Kul´z 1: 5-35 (1932)
= Malus montana var. acuminata Botsch.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 498 (1960)
= Malus montana var. diversifolia Botsch.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 498 (1960)
= Malus orientalis f. lanata Botsch.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 499 (1960)
= Malus orientalis subsp. montana (Uglitzk.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 23 (1974). without basionym page
= Malus orientalis var. brevipedunculata Botsch.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 499 (1960)
= Malus orientalis var. lanceolata Botsch.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20: 499 (1960)
= Malus orientalis var. montana (Uglitzk.) Langenf.; Yablonya: 179 (1991)
= Malus orientalis var. subalpina Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 60(1): 58 (1975)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. orientalis (Uglitzk.) Browicz; Fl. Turkey 4: 158 (1972)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. orientalis (Uglitzk.) Soó; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 9: 423 (1963)
= Malus ×platycarpa var. hoopesii (Rehder) Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 227 (1913)
= Pyrus paradisii M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 115 (2018), nom. nov. for Malus orientalis Uglitzk.
= Pyrus sapientiae M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 120 (2018), nom. nov. for Malus montana Uglitzk.
= Pyrus ×platycarpa var. hoopesii (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
species :
Malus prattii (Hemsl.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 719, t. 397 p-p1. 398 k-m (1906)
Distribution: China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Docyniopsis prattii (Hemsl.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3(4): 196 (1934)
= Malus prattii var. glabrata G.Z.Qian; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 25(2): 132 (2005)
= Prameles prattii (Hemsl.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 243 (2018)
= Pyrus prattii Hemsl.; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895(97): 16 (1895)
species :
Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh.; Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1278 (1803)
Name: Plumleaf crabapple (EN), Kirsch-Apfel (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Poland [I]; Kazakhstan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; China (Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, ?Xinjiang); Taiwan [I]; Canada [I] (New Brunswick [I], Nova Scotia [I]); USA [I] (Connecticut [I], District of Columbia [I], Illinois [I], Massachusetts [I], Maine [I], Minnesota [I], New Hampshire [I], New York [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], South Carolina [I], Virginia [I], Vermont [I])
11 ger pol 32 kaz uzb 36 CHI 38 tai 72 cdn 74 usa 75 usa 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus domestica subsp. prunifolia (Willd.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek., 5 2(3): 31 (1974)
= Malus grandiflora (Asami) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 3: 191 (1934)
= Malus prunifolia var. grandiflora Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 18 (1927)
= Malus prunifolia var. longifolia Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 20 (1927)
= Malus prunifolia var. lutea Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 2: 303 (1951)
= Malus prunifolia var. obliquipedicellata X.W.Li & J.W.Sun; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 13(4): 336-337, f. s. n. (1993)
= Malus prunifolia var. ovicarpa Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 21 (1927)
= Malus prunifolia var. pendula (Neubert) Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 2: 303 (1951)
= Malus prunifolia var. pulverulenta Lavallée; Énum. Arbres: 103 (1877), nomen
= Pyrus ceratocarpa Wender.; Schrift. Marb. 2: 254 (1830)
= Pyrus polonica K.Koch; Dendrol. 1: 208 (1869)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. calvillea Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. chlorocarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. conocarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. intermedia Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. macrocarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. microcarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. oviformis Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. sanguinea Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1866(Suppl.): 37 (1867 publ. 1868)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. striata Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1866(Suppl.): 37 (1867 publ. 1868)
= Pyrus prunifolia var. xanthocarpa Regel; Index Seminum (Petr.) 1865: 53 (1866)
= Pyrus prunifolia Willd.; Phytographia 8 (1794)
= Pyrus sibirica K.Koch; Dendrol. 1: 208 (1869)
species :
Malus rockii Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 14(3): 206-207 (1933)
Distribution: China (SW-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); SE-Tibet; India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Uttarakhand)
36 CHI TIB 40 IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata subsp. himalaica (Maxim.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 28 (1974)
= Malus baccata var. himalaica (Maxim.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 721, f. 397 s. (1906)
= Malus dirangensis M.C.Joshi & S.M.Singh; Pl. Sci. (Lucknow) 12: 21 (1980), without Latin descr. or type.
= Malus himalaica (Maxim.) Vassilcz.; New Species of Apple for Cultivation: 160 (1963)
= Malus pallasiana var. himalaica (Maxim.) Al.Fed.; Derev. Kustarnik. URSS 3: 446 (1954)
= Malus pulcherrima var. scheideckeri (Späth ex Zabel) Boynton; Addisonia 10(4): 53 (1926)
= Malus rockii var. calvostylata G.Z.Qian; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 25(2): 133 (2005)
= Malus ×floribunda f. scheideckeri (Späth) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): ? (1913)
= Malus ×floribunda var. scheideckeri (Späth) L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 456 (1941)
= Pyrus baccata var. himalaica Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 19(2): 171 (1873)
= Pyrus pulcherrima var. scheideckeri (Späth) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus rockii (Rehder) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 118 (2018)
= Pyrus ×floribunda var. scheideckeri (Späth) L.H.Bailey; Cycl. Amer. Hort. 3: 1472 (1901)
= Pyrus ×scheideckeri (Späth) Späth; Gartenflora 53: 417 (1904)
= Sinomalus rockii (Rehder) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus sikkimensis (Wenz.) Koehne ex C.K.Schneid.; Illustr. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 719 (1906)
Distribution: China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); S-Tibet; Nepal; Bhutan; NE-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim); Myanmar
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata subsp. sikkimensis (Wenz.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 28 (1974)
= Malus sikkimensis (Wenz.) Koehne; Genera Pomac. 27 (1890)
= Malus sikkimensis (Wenz.) N.P.Balakr.; J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67: 58 (1970), isonym
= Pyrus pashia var. sikkimensis Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 49 (1873)
= Pyrus sikkimensis (Wenz.) Hook.f.; Fl. Br. Ind. 2: 373 (1878)
= Sinomalus sikkimensis (Wenz.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
= Sorbus sikkimensis Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 58 (1874)
species :
Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh.; Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1279 (1803)
Name: Asiatic apple
Distribution: China (Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang); USA [I] (District of Columbia [I])
36 CHI 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus domestica var. spectabilis (Borkh.) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 31 (1974)
= Malus microcarpa var. spectabilis (Aiton) Carrière; Étud. Gén. Pommier.: 114 (1883)
= Malus microcarpa var. spectabilis Carrière; Et. Pomm. Microcarp 114 (1883)
= Malus spectabilis f. riversii (J.R.Booth ex G.Kirchn.) Rehder; Bibliogr. Cult. Trees: 270 (1949)
= Malus spectabilis var. riversii Lavallée; Énum. Arbres: 103 (1877), nomen
= Malus spectabilis var. riversii Nash; J. New York Bot. Gard. 19: 195 (1918)
= Mespilus spectabilis (Aiton) K.Koch; Hort. Dendrol.: 182 (1853)
= Pyrus spectabilis Aiton; Hort. Kew. 2: 175 (1789)
= Pyrus spectabilis var. riversii J.R.Booth ex G.Kirchn.; Petzold & Kirchner, Arbor. Muscav.: 326 (1864)
= Pyrus tenorei Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 399 (1893), Koehne, Deutsche Dendrol. 260 (1893)
species :
Malus spontanea (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 28: 295 (1914)
Distribution: Japan (Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus halliana var. spontanea (Makino) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 331 (1916)
= Malus ×floribunda var. spontanea Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 24: (67) (1910)
= Pyrus spontanea Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, xxviii, 295 (1914)
= Sinomalus spontanea (Makino) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
species :
Malus sylvestris Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. 8, no. 1 (1768)
Name: Wild-Apfel, Holz-Apfel (DE), European crabapple (EN)
Distribution: England; Northern Ireland; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Saudi Arabia; Yemen; Taiwan [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I]); USA [I] (Utah [I]); Peru [I]; Argentina [I]
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB TUE 14 BLR EST LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 34 EAI IRN TUR 35 SAU YEM 38 tai 50 aus 76 usa 83 per 85 arg
Remarks: sylvestris agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Crataegus grata Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 357 (1796), nom. illeg.
= Malus acerba Mérat; Fl. Par. 1: 187 (1812)
= Malus acerba var. barcinonensis Sennen; Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1923: no. 4739 (1924)
= Malus aprilovii Dimitrov; Nauchni Trudove Selskost. Inst. "Vasil Kolarov" 25(4): 38 (1980)
= Malus barcinonensis (Sennen) Sennen; Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1928: 116 (1929)
= Malus brevipedunculata Bertsch; 225 (1961), nom. inval.
= Malus bulgarica Dimitrov; Nauchni Trudove Selskost. Inst. "Vasil Kolarov" 25(4): 33 (1980)
= Malus communis subsp. acerba (Mérat) Bonnier & Layens; 103 (1894), nom. illeg.
= Malus communis subsp. sylvestris (L.) Gams; Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 4: 745 (1922)
= Malus communis var. acerba (Mérat) Coss. & Germ.; Syn. Anal. Fl. Paris, ed. 2: 130 (1845)
= Malus communis var. austera (Wallr.) Wenz.; Jahrb. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 291 (1883)
= Malus communis var. glabra Coss. & Germ.; Fl. Descr. Anal. Paris: 186 (1845), nom. illeg.
= Malus communis var. sylvestris (L.) Beck; Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(1): 715 (1892)
= Malus communis var. sylvestris (L.) DC.; 429 (1805), nom. illeg.
= Malus longipedunculata Bertsch; 225 (1961), nom. inval.
= Malus malus (L.) Britton; Britton & Brown, Ill. Fl. Ed. 2, 2: 290 (1913)
= Malus rhodopaea Dimitrov; Nauchni Trudove Selskost. Inst. "Vasil Kolarov" 25(4): 36 (1980)
= Malus sylvestris subsp. acerba (Mérat) Mansf.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 49: 45 (1940)
= Malus sylvestris var. apetala L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 457 (1941)
= Malus sylvestris var. aprilovii (Dimitrov) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 6 (1992)
= Malus sylvestris var. astracanica L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 456 (1941)
= Malus sylvestris var. bulgarica (Dimitrov) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 6 (1992)
= Malus sylvestris var. eleyi (Bean) L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 457 (1941)
= Malus sylvestris var. glabra Holandre; Fl. Moselle, ed. 2, 1: 246 (1842)
= Malus sylvestris var. hortulana C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 715 (1906)
= Malus sylvestris var. lemoinei (Lemoine) L.H.Bailey; Hortus Sec.: 457 (1941)
= Malus sylvestris var. microphylla Browicz; Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31(2): 323 (1972)
= Malus sylvestris var. rhodopaea (Dimitrov) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 6 (1992)
= Pyrus acerba (Mérat) Lej.; Fl. Spa 2: 311 (1813)
= Pyrus acerba var. tenuiflora Boenn.; 145 (1824)
= Pyrus agriomelos Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Portug. 2: 496 (1840)
= Pyrus malus proles acerba (Mérat) Rouy & E.G.Camus; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 7: 15 (1901)
= Pyrus malus f. barcinonensis (Sennen) A.Bolòs; Veg. Com. Barcelona: 341 (1950)
= Pyrus malus subsp. acerba (Mérat) Syme; Sm., Engl. Bot., ed. 3, 3: 255 (1864)
= Pyrus malus subsp. sylvestris (L.) Ehrh.; Hannover. Mag. 18: 223 (1780)
= Pyrus malus subsp. sylvestris (L.) Schübl. & G.Martens; Fl. Würtemberg: 315 (1834)
= Pyrus malus var. acerba (Mérat) Coss. & Germ.; Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2: 229 (1799)
= Pyrus malus var. acerba (Mérat) Macreight; 75 (1837)
= Pyrus malus var. austera Wallr.; Sched. Crit. 1: 215 (1822)
= Pyrus malus var. glabra Neilr.; Fl. Nied.-Oesterr.: 886 (1859), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus var. glabra W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 1: 235 (1836), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus malus var. sylvestris L.; Sp. Pl.: 479 (1753)
= Pyrus pomum M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 116 (2018)
= Pyrus sylvestris (L.) Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 562 (1821 publ. 1822), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus sylvestris Münchh.; 246 (1770)
= Pyrus sylvestris var. pumila (Mill.) Münchh.; 246 (1770)
= Pyrus sylvestris var. sativa Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 562 (1821 publ. 1822)
species :
Malus toringo (Siebold) de Vriese; Tuinb.-Fl. 3: 368 (1856)
Name: Vielblütiger Apfel (DE), Japanese flowering crabapple (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Slovakia [I]; Belarus [I]; Russian Far East (Sakhalin); China (Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Zhejiang); North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); USA [I] (Connecticut [I], District of Columbia [I], Kansas [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I])
11 ger slo 14 blr 31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Crataegus cavaleriei H.Lév. & Vaniot; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 55: 58 (1908)
= Crataegus taquetii H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 10(257-259): 377 (1912)
= Malus baccata subsp. toringo (Siebold) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 25: 76 (1911)
= Malus hupehensis Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 184 (1934) non (Pamp.) Rehder
= Malus kaido (Carrière) Pardé; Arb. Nat. Barres 1: 189 (1906)
= Malus microcarpa Carrière; Éttud. Gén. Pommier. 61 (1883)
= Malus microcarpa var. kaido (G.Kirchn.) Carr; Étud. Gén. Pommier. 70 (1883)
= Malus sargentii f. toringo (Koidz.) T.Shimizu; J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 37(2): 120 (1989)
= Malus sargentii Rehder; Trees & Shrubs (Sarg.) 1: 71 (1903)
= Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson 2: 293 (1915)
= Malus sieboldii f. ascendens Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 40 (1927)
= Malus sieboldii Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 2: 293 (1915), nom. superfl.
= Malus sieboldii var. arborescens Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 2: 294 (1915)
= Malus sieboldii var. incisa (Franch. & Sav.) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30(358): 331 (1916)
= Malus sieboldii var. koringo Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 331 (1916)
= Malus sieboldii var. sargentii (Rehder) Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 40 (1927)
= Malus sieboldii var. toringo (K.Koch) Siebold ex C.K.Schneid.
= Malus spectabilis var. toringo Lavallée; Énum. Arbres: 102 (1877), nomen
= Malus sphaerocarpa (Wender.) M.Roem.; Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 3: 214 (1847)
= Malus toringo f. koringo (Koidz.) T.Shimizu; J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 37: 120 (1989)
= Malus toringo Siebold; Cat. Rais. Gramin. Portugal 1856: 4 (1856)
= Malus toringo subsp. sargentii (Rehder) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 33 (1974)
= Malus toringo subvar. sargentii (Rehder) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 331 (1916)
= Malus toringo var. incisa (Franch. & Sav.) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 82 (1913)
= Malus toringo var. integrifolia (Franch. & Sav.) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 82 (1913)
= Malus toringo var. rosea Nakai; Chosen Shokubutsu 297 (1914)
= Malus toringo var. sargentii (Rehder) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 723 (1906)
= Photinia rubrolutea H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9(222-226): 460 (1911)
= Pyrus esquirolii H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(317-321): 189 (1913)
= Pyrus mengo Siebold ex K.Koch; Dendrol. 1: 213 (1869)
= Pyrus ringo var. kaido (G.Kirchn.) Wenz.; Linnaea 39: 37 (1874)
= Pyrus riversii K.Koch; Dendrologie 1: 209 (1869)
= Pyrus rivularis A.Gray; Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts 6: 388 (1857)
= Pyrus rivularis var. toringo (Siebold) Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 39 (1874)
= Pyrus sargentii (Rehder) Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 2: 293 (1914), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus sargentii (Rehder) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 120 (2018)
= Pyrus sieboldii f. latifolia Cardot; Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24: 70 (1918)
= Pyrus sieboldii f. tomentosa Cardot; Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24: 70 (1918)
= Pyrus sieboldii Regel; Index Sem. (St. Petersburg) 1858: 51 (1859), nom. superfl.
= Pyrus sieboldii var. arborescens (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus sieboldii var. incisa (Franch. & Sav.) Cardot; Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24: 70 (1918)
= Pyrus sieboldii var. integrifolia (Franch. & Sav.) Cardot; Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 24: 70 (1918)
= Pyrus spectabilis var. kaido G.Kirchn.; Arbor. Muscav. 326 (1864)
= Pyrus sphaerocarpa Wender.; Index Seminum (MB, Marburgensis) 1835: [5] (1835)
= Pyrus subcrataegifolia H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7(143-145): 199 (1909)
= Pyrus toringo (Siebold) Miq.; Prolus. Fl. Jap.: 229 (1867)
= Pyrus toringo var. incisa Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 350 (1878)
= Pyrus toringo var. integrifolia Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 350 (1878)
= Sinomalus sieboldii (Regel) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 245 (2018)
= Sorbus toringo K.Koch; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 1: 249 (1864)
species :
Malus toringoides (Rehder) Hughes; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1920: 205 (1920)
Distribution: China (SE-Gansu, W-Sichuan); SE-Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus bhutanica (W.W.Sm.) J.B.Phipps; Edinb. J. Bot. 51(1): 100 (1994)
= Malus transitoria var. toringoides Rehder; Pl. Wils. 2(2): 286 (1915)
= Pyrus bhutanica W.W.Sm.; Rec. Bot. Surv. India 4: 265 (1911)
= Pyrus toringoides (Rehder) Koidz.; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 73: 89, f. 42 (1923)
= Pyrus toringoides (Rehder) Osborn; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 73: 89 (1923)
= Pyrus transitoria var. toringoides (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Sinomalus bhutanica (W.W.Sm.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 244 (2018)
= Sinomalus toringoides (Rehder) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1(1): 11 (1932)
= Sorbus bhutanica (W.W.Sm.) N.P.Balakr.; J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67: 59 (1970)
species :
Malus transitoria (Batalin) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 726 (1906)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan); E-Tibet (Qamdo Xian)
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus centralasiatica Vassilcz.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Acad. Nauk SSSR 19: 202 (1959)
= Malus setok Vassilcz.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 19: 199 (1959)
= Malus transitoria var. centralasiatica (Vassilcz.) T.T.Yu; Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 394 (1974)
= Malus transitoria var. glabrescens T.T.Yu & L.T.Lu; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(4): 496 (1980)
= Malus transitoria var. setok (Vassilcz.) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 8 (1992)
= Pyrus transitoria Batalin; Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 13(1): 95-96 (1893)
= Sinomalus transitoria (Batalin) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3(4): 196 (1934)
species :
Malus tschonoskii (Maxim.) C.K.Schneid.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. Sp. 3: 179 (1906)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Cormus tschonoskii (Maxim.) Koidz.; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 23: 171 (1909)
= Docyniopsis tschonoskii (Maxim.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 3: 162 (1934)
= Eriolobus tschonoskii (Maxim.) Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs, 73 (1913)
= Macromeles tschonoskii (Maxim.) Koidz.; Fl. Symb. Or.-Asiat. 53 (1930)
= Pyrus hoggii Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 349 (1878)
= Pyrus tschonoskii Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 3, 19: 169 (1873)
species :
Malus turkmenorum Juz. & Popov; Kom., Fl. URSS 9: 493 (1939)
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Afghanistan
32 TKM 34 AFG
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus orientalis subsp. turkmenorum (Juz. & Popov) Langenf.; Yablonya: Morfol. Evol., Filog., Geogr., Sist.: 180 (1991)
= Malus sieversii subsp. turkmenorum (Juz. & Popov) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 23 (1974)
= Malus sieversii var. turkmenorum (Juz. & Popov) Ponomar.; Bot. Zhurn. 62(6): 827 (1977)
= Pyrus turkmenorum (Juz. & Popov) M.F.Fay & Christenh.; Global Fl. 4: 124 (2018)
species :
Malus yunnanensis (Franch.) C.K.Schneid.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3(38-39): 179 (1906)
Distribution: China (Guizhou, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan); Tibet; Myanmar (Kachin)
36 CHI TIB 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Cormus yunnanensis (Franch.) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 75 (1913)
= Docyniopsis yunnanensis (Franch.) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3(4): 196 (1934)
= Eriolobus yunnanensis (Franch.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 727, f. 403 e-g. 404 b-c (1906)
= Macromeles yunnanensis (Franch.) Koidz.; Fl. Symb. Orient.-Asiat.: 53 (1930)
= Malus yunnanensis var. veitchii Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 4: 115 (1923)
= Prameles yunnanensis (Franch.) Rushforth; Phytologia 100(4): 243 (2018)
= Pyrus veitchii Hort.; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 52: 288 (1912)
= Pyrus yunnanensis Franch.; Pl. Delavay. 228-229 (1890)
= Pyrus yunnanensis var. veitchii (Rehder) Osborn; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 78: 227 (1925)
species :
Malus zhaojiaoensis N.G.Jiang; J. Southw. Agric. Univ. 13(6): 599 (1991)
Distribution: China (Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Malus ×floribunda Siebold ex Van Houtte; Ann. Gén. Hort. 15: 161 (1865)
Distribution: China; Japan; USA (Massachusetts); etc.
36 CHI 38 JAP 75 USA
Remarks: M. baccata x M. toringo
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus ×arnoldiana (Rehder) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 2: 57 (1920)
= Malus ×floribunda f. atrosanguinea Späth; Gartenflora 47: 145 (1898)
= Malus ×floribunda var. arnoldiana Rehder; Möller´s Deutsche Gärtn.-Zeitung 24: 27 (1909)
= Malus ×pulcherrima (Siebold) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 22: 69 (1908)
= Malus ×pulcherrima var. arnoldiana Nash; J. New York Bot. Gard. 19: 194 (1918)
= Pyrus pulcherrima var. arnoldiana (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus ringo var. floribunda (Siebold ex Van Houtte) Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 38 (1873)
= Pyrus ×arnoldiana (Rehder) Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 3: 320 (1933)
= Pyrus ×floribunda (Siebold ex Van Houtte) G.Nicholson; Hand-List Trees Shrubs: 181 (1894), nom. illeg.
= Pyrus ×floribunda var. atrosanguinea Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 2: 283 (1914)
species :
Malus ×dasyphylla Borkh.; Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1271 (1803)
Distribution: Austria; Austria [I]; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Slovenia; Croatia; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; Greece
11 AUT CZE HUN SLO 13 ALB BUL CRO GRC KOS NMA ROM SLV SRB
Remarks: M. domestica x M. sylvestris
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus communis subsp. dasyphylla (Borkh.) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 3: 397 (1893)
= Malus domestica var. dasyphylla (Borkh.) Langenf.; Daildarznieciba 8: 17 (1971), without basionym ref.
= Malus sylvestris var. dasyphylla (Borkh.) Ponomar.; Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts. 146: 4 (1992)
= Pyrus ×dasyphylla (Borkh.) Bluff & Fingerh.; Comp. Fl. Germ. ed. I. 1: 604
= Pyrus malus var. dasyphylla (Bluff & Fingerh.) Fiori; Fiori et al., Fl. Anal. Italia 1: 600 (1898)
= Pyrus malus var. dasyphylla (Borkh.) Gremli; Excursionsfl. Schweiz: 173 (1878)
species :
Malus ×dawsoniana Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 23 (1907)
Distribution: USA (Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Pyrus dawsoniana L.H.Bailey; Gent. Herb. 135 (1923)
species :
Malus ×kaido (Wenz.) Pardé; Arbor. Barres: 189 (1906)
Distribution: China (Commonly cultivated, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea [I]; Japan [I]
36 CHI 38 jap kor
Remarks: M. baccata x M. spectabilis
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus domestica var. micromalus (Makino) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 32 (1974)
= Malus microcarpa var. kaido (Wenz.) Carrière; Étud. Gén. Pommier.: 70 (1883)
= Malus spectabilis var. kaido (Wenz.) Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 46: 320 (1874)
= Malus spectabilis var. kaido Siebold; Cat. Rais. Gramin. Portugal 1856: 5 (1856)
= Malus spectabilis var. micromalus (Makino) Koidz.; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 34(2): 89 (1913)
= Malus ×kaido K.Koch; Dendrologie 1: 210 (1869), nomen
= Malus ×micromalus Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 22: 69 (1908)
= Pyrus micromalus L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus micromalus Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 22: 69 (1908)
= Pyrus ringo var. kaido Wenz.; Linnaea 38: 37 (1873)
= Pyrus ×kaido (Wenz.) Mouill.; Traité Arbr. Arbriss. 1: 524 (1893)
= Pyrus ×micromalus (Makino) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
species :
Malus ×oxysepala Czarna; Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 82(2): 154 (2013)
Distribution: Poland
11 POL
species :
Malus ×platycarpa Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 227 (1913)
Name: Bigfruit crab
Distribution: USA (Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Pyrus ×platycarpa (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 154 (1916)
= Malus coronaria var. platycarpa (Rehder) Likhonos; Kul´turnaya Fl. SSSR 14: 33 (1983)
species :
Malus ×soulardii (L.H.Bailey) Britton; Britton & A. Brown, Fl. N. U. S. 2: 235 (1897)
Name: Soulard crab
Distribution: USA (Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri)
74 USA 75 USA
Remarks: M. domestica x M. ioensis
Synonyms: hidden
= Pyrus ×soulardii L.H.Bailey; An. Gard. 12: 173 (1891), ex Sarg. Sylva N. Am. iv.(1892) 72
species :
Malus ×zumi (Matsum.) Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 1: 191 (1905)
Distribution: China; Japan; etc.
36 CHI 38 JAP
Remarks: M. mandshurica x M. toringo
Synonyms: hidden
= Malus baccata f. zumi (Matsum.) Matsum.; Index Pl. Jap. 2: 204 (1912)
= Malus sargentii var. zumi (Rehder) Likhonos; Trudy Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 52(3): 21 (1974)
= Malus sieboldii var. calocarpa Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 2: 294 (1915)
= Malus sieboldii var. zumi (Matsum.) Asami; Crab. Nect. Jap.: 41 (1927)
= Malus toringo var. zumi (Matsum.) H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot. 53(8): 234 (1978)
= Malus ×zumi var. calocarpa (Rehder) Rehder; J. Arnold Arbor. 7: 25 (1926)
= Pyrus sieboldii var. calocarpa (Rehder) L.H.Bailey; Rhodora 18: 155 (1916)
= Pyrus ×zumi Matsum.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 13: 1 (1899)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.2 (April 1st, 2024)

Covering 354,662 accepted species,
8,644 hybrids, 47,758 accepted infraspecific taxa and 996,179 synonyms,
in total 1,407,243* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life