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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

339.0000 Family Euphorbiaceae A.Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 384 (1789), nom. cons. (s. str.)
210 genera, ca. 6700 spp.
Species listed in database: 6472; hybrids: 56
= Acalyphaceae A.Juss. ex Menge; Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 172 (1839)
= Bertyaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 190 (1858)
= Cheilosaceae Doweld; Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxxi (2001)
= Crotonaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 258 (1858)
= Hippomanaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 244 (1858)
= Mercurialaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 237 (1820)
= Ricinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 547 (1820)
= Ricinocarpaceae Hurus.; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, ser. 3, Bot. 6: 224 (1954)
= Tithymalaceae Vent.; Tabl. Règne Vég. 3: 483 (1799)
= Tragiaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 4: 111 (1838)
= Trewiaceae Lindl.; Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 174 (1836)
339.3211 Genus Mercurialis L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 1035 (1753)
Distribution: Mediterranean, temp. Eurasia south to N-Thailand, S-China, and Taiwan
Species listed in database: 10; hybrids: 2
= Cynocrambe Hill; Brit. Herb.: 483 (1756)
= Discoplis Raf.; New Fl. 4: 9 (1838)
= Synema Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 154 (1867)
species :
Mercurialis annua L.; Sp. Pl. 1035 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. annua
Name: Einjähriges Bingelkraut (DE); Annual mercury (EN); Ortiga mansa (ES)
Distribution: England; Ireland [I]; Denmark [I]; Norway [I]; Sweden [I]; Finland [I]; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg [I], Berlin [I], Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hessen [I], Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal [I]; Spain; Gibraltar; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (widespread, incl. all islands); Crete; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, NW-coastal Egypt); Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, Faial, Corvo Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo Isl.); Islas Selvagens; Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); Angola [I]; South Africa [I]; St. Helena [I]; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; East Aegaean Isl. (widespread, incl. Rhodos, Kastellorhizo Isl.); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, Judean Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir); Qatar; United Arab Emirates; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Victoria [I]); New Zealand [I]; Canada [I] (New Brunswick [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Québec [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], California [I], District of Columbia [I], Delaware [I], Illinois [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], South Carolina [I]); Bahamas [I]; Jamaica [I]; Dominican Republic [I]; Haiti [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Antofagasta [I], Valparaíso [I]); Falkland Isl. [I]
10 den fin GRB ire nor swe 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 CIS COR FRA GIB por SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA PEL PTL ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 est KRY lat RUS UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR SEL 26 ang 27 saf 28 sth 33 GEO NCS 34 EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 QAT SAU UAE 50 aus 51 nzl 72 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 81 bah his jam 85 arg cle 91 fal
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis annua f. capillacea Hegi & Beger; 128 (1924)
= Mercurialis annua f. ciliata (C.Presl) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 147, VII: 274 (1914)
= Mercurialis annua f. cordata Wirtg.; Flora 33: 82 (1850)
= Mercurialis annua f. cuneatolanceolata Wirtg.; Flora 33: 82 (1850)
= Mercurialis annua f. lanceolata Wirtg.; Flora 33: 82 (1850)
= Mercurialis annua f. ovata Wirtg.; Flora 33: 82 (1850)
= Mercurialis annua f. verticillata Bolzon; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 20: 332 (1913)
= Mercurialis annua subvar. serrata Litard.; Briq., Prodr. Fl. Corse 2: 2 (1935)
= Mercurialis annua var. angustifolia Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 6: 296 (1830)
= Mercurialis annua var. camberiensis Chabert; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 38: 300 (1881)
= Mercurialis annua var. capillacea Guépin; Fl. Maine et Loire ed. 3: 401 (1845)
= Mercurialis annua var. dioica Moris; Fl. Sardoa 3: 478 (1859)
= Mercurialis annua var. laciniata Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 797 (1866)
= Mercurialis annua var. monoica Moris; Fl. Sardoa 3: 478 (1859)
= Mercurialis annua var. sancti-marini Pamp.; Boll. Mus. Republ. San Marino 4: 116 (1920)
= Mercurialis annua var. transsylvanica Schur; Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 600 (1866)
= Mercurialis annua var. variegata Löhr; Bot. Zeitung, 2. Abt. 68: 62 (1910)
= Mercurialis ciliata C.Presl; J. & C. Presl, Delic. Prag.: 56 (1822)
= Mercurialis ladanum Hartm.; Bot. Not. 1849: 67 (1849)
= Mercurialis monoica (Moris) B.M.Durand; Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. Biol. Vég., sér. 12, 4: 727 (1963)
= Mercurialis pinnatifida Sennen; Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 8: 146 (1909)
= Mercurialis tarraconensis Sennen; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 72: 16 (1925 publ. 1926)
= Synema annuum (L.) Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 154 (1867)
variant :
var. ambigua (L.f.) Mérat; Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris: 402 (1812)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Baleares; S-Europe; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya
12 BAL POR SPA 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis ambigua L.f.; Dec. Prim. Pl. Rar. Hort. Upsal. 15 (1762)
= Mercurialis annua lusus ambigua (L.f.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 797 (1866)
= Mercurialis annua subsp. ambigua (L.f.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital.: 622 (1882)
= Mercurialis annua subsp. ambigua (L.f.) Maire; (1924), isonym
= Mercurialis annua var. ambigua (L.f.) Duby; Bot. Gall. ed. 2, 1: 417 (1830), isonym
species :
Mercurialis canariensis Obbard & S.A.Harris; Kew Bull. 61(1): 103 (2006)
Name: Kanaren-Bingelkraut (DE); Mercurial canario (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife, Lanzarote)
21 CNY
species :
Mercurialis corsica Coss.; Not. Pl. Crit. 63 (1850)
Distribution: Corsica; Sardinia
12 COR SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis elliptica Duby; Bot. Gall. ed. II. 1: 417 (1830), nom. illeg.
species :
Mercurialis elliptica Lam.; Encycl. Méth. Bot. 4: 119 (1797)
Distribution: C- & S-Portugal; S-Spain; Morocco
12 POR SPA 20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis elliptica var. leiogyna Maire & Wilczek; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 27: 258 (1936)
= Mercurialis elliptica var. trichogyna Maire & Wilczek; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 27: 258 (1936)
species :
Mercurialis huetii Hanry; Billotia 1: 21 (1864)
Distribution: E-Italy; S-Spain; SE-France; Morocco
12 FRA SPA 13 ITA 20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis annua proles huetii (Hanry) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 12: 135 (1910)
= Mercurialis annua f. huetii (Hanry) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 147, VII: 275 (1914)
= Mercurialis annua subsp. huetii (Hanry) Lange; M. Willkom & J. M. C. Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 509 (1877)
= Mercurialis annua subsp. huetii (Hanry) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 647 (1881)
= Mercurialis annua var. huetii (Hanry) Loret & Barrandon; Fl. Montpellier éd. 2: 596 (1876)
= Mercurialis annua var. huetii (Hanry) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 798 (1866)
= Mercurialis ovata subsp. huetii (Hanry) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2: 274 (1890)
species :
Mercurialis leiocarpa Siebold & Zucc.; Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(2): 145 (1845)
Distribution: China (Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan); South Korea; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Taiwan; Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim); N-Thailand; Vietnam
36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP 41 THA VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis leiocarpa var. transmorrisonensis (Hayata) H.Keng; J. Washington Acad. Sci. 41(6): 204 (1951)
= Mercurialis leiocarpa var. trichocarpa W.T.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 10: 39 (1988)
= Mercurialis transmorrisonensis Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 5: 199-200, f. 75 (1915)
species :
Mercurialis ovata Sternb. & Hoppe; Denkschr. Bayer. Bot. Ges. Regensb. 1: 170 (1815)
Name: Eiblättriges Bingelkraut (DE)
Distribution: Germany (Bayern); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; Greece (scattered N- & C-Greece, Kerkyra, Thasos, Athos, Evvoia, Andros); E-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia); Syria (W-Syrian Mountains)
11 AUT CZE GER HUN POL SWI 13 ALB BUL CRO GRC ITA ROM SLV 14 KRY RUS UKR 33 GEO NCS 34 SYR TUR
Remarks: perennis agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis livida Port. ex Baumg.; Enum. Stirp. Transs. 3: 344 (1846)
= Mercurialis ovata f. angustior Vollm.; Poeverl., 168 (1900)
= Mercurialis ovata f. croatica Degen; Magyar Bot. Lapok 4: 250 (1905)
= Mercurialis ovata var. livida (Port. ex Baumg.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2: 274 (1890)
= Mercurialis perennis subsp. ovata (Sternb. & Hoppe) Celak.; Prodr. Fl. Böhmen 2: 125 (1871)
= Mercurialis perennis var. ovata (Sternb. & Hoppe) Döll; 282 (1843)
= Mercurialis perennis var. ovata (Sternb. & Hoppe) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 796 (1866), isonym
species :
Mercurialis perennis L.; Sp. Pl. 1035 (1753)
Name: Ausdauerndes Bingelkraut
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; France; +Monaco; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Italy; Sicily; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; ?Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; ?North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; N-Greece; Estonia; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; W-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Algeria; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); Iran (N-Iran)
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA MCO POR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY RUS UKR 20 ALG 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN TUR
Remarks: perennis agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis alpina Schur; Enum. Pl. Transs. 600 (1866)
= Mercurialis annua Uspenski ex Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 3: 580 (1850), non L.
= Mercurialis cynocrambe Scop.; Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 266 (1771)
= Mercurialis longifolia Host; Fl. Austriac. 2: 666 (1831), nom. illeg.
= Mercurialis nemoralis Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 390 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Mercurialis perennis f. angustifolia Beger; 131 (1924)
= Mercurialis perennis f. glabra Beck; Fl. Nieder-Österreich 1: 554 (1890)
= Mercurialis perennis f. ovatifolia Hausskn.; F. Vollmann, Fl. Bayern: 503 (1914)
= Mercurialis perennis f. robusta Gross; Mitt. Bot. Vereins Kreis Freiburg: 79 (1906)
= Mercurialis perennis f. saxicola Beck; Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 107 (1887)
= Mercurialis perennis f. sylvatica (Hoppe) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 12: 134 (1910)
= Mercurialis perennis subvar. alpina (Schur) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 647 (1881)
= Mercurialis perennis subvar. sylvatica (Hoppe) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 647 (1881)
= Mercurialis perennis var. angustifolia Murr; 192 (1923), nom. inval.
= Mercurialis perennis var. brachyphylla Willk.; Flora 35: 309 (1852)
= Mercurialis perennis var. intermedia M.Loehr; 598 (1852)
= Mercurialis perennis var. subalpina Schur; Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 600 (1866)
= Mercurialis sylvatica Hoppe; Flora 1: 472 (1818)
= Mercurialis sylvestris Bubani; Fl. Pyrenees 1: 89 (1897)
= Synema perenne (L.) Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 154 (1867)
species :
Mercurialis reverchonii Rouy; Le Naturaliste (1887) 199, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 34: 441 (1887), Debeaux, Syn. Fl. Gibralt. 185
Distribution: SW-Spain; Gibraltar; Morocco
12 GIB SPA 20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis annua var. serratifolia Ball; Spicil. Fl. Marocc. [Ball]: 664 (1878)
= Mercurialis reverchonii var. riatarum Maire; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 21-22: 16 (1929)
= Mercurialis reverchonii var. serratifolia (Ball) Maire; Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 21-22: 16 (1929)
= Mercurialis serratifolia (Ball) Pau; Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 21: 280 (1921)
species :
Mercurialis tomentosa L.; Sp. Pl. 1035 (1753)
Name: Filz-Bingelkraut (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France
11 ger 12 BAL FRA POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis sericea Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 390 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Mercurialis tomentosa var. angustifolia Sennen; Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1926: no. 5874 (1926)
= Mercurialis tomentosa var. latifolia Sennen; Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1926: no. 5874 (1926)
species :
Mercurialis ×longifolia Lam.; Encyc. 4: 119 (1797)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; France
12 FRA POR SPA
Remarks: Mercurialis annua x tomentosa
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis tomentosa var. bichei (Magnier) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2: 274 (1890)
= Mercurialis tomentosa var. pubescens Loscos & J.Pardo; Ser. Inconf. Pl. Aragon. 97 (1863)
= Mercurialis ×bichei Magnier; Scrin. fl. select. 6: 118, et in Nyman Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2: 274 (1889)
= Mercurialis ×bichei nothovar. malinvaldi (Sennen) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 12: 135 (1910)
= Mercurialis ×longifolia nothosubsp. malinvaldi (Sennen) Jauzein; Monde Pl., 85(439): 28 (1990)
= Mercurialis ×malinvaldi Sennen; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 49: 375 (1902)
species :
Mercurialis ×paxii Graebn.; Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 7. 408 (1916)
Distribution: Germany (Bayern); Austria; Czech Republic; Romania; Ukraine; Crimea; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]
11 AUT CZE GER 13 ROM 14 KRY UKR 33 GEO NCS
Remarks: Mercurialis ovata x perennis
Synonyms: hidden
= Mercurialis ovata var. longistipes Borbás; Balaton Tavának Növényföldr.: 406 (1900)
= Mercurialis ×longistipes (Borbás) Baksay; Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 49: 170 (1957), no basionym ref.
= Mercurialis ×taurica Juz.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 14: 17 (1951)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life