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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

092.0000 Family Araceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 23 (1789), nom. cons.
123 genera, ca. 4100 spp.
Species listed in database: 4436; hybrids: 17
= Arisaraceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 4: 16 (1838)
= Caladiaceae Salisb.; Gen. Pl.: 5 (1866)
= Callaceae Rchb. ex Bartl.; Ord. Nat. Pl.: 25, 66 (1830)
= Colocasiaceae Vines; Stud. Text-book Bot. 2: 541 (1895)
= Cryptocorynaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 32 (1858)
= Dracontiaceae Salisb.; Gen. Pl.: 7 (1866)
= Lasiaceae Vines; Stud. Text-book Bot. 2: 540 (1895)
= Lemnaceae Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 729 (1822), nom. cons.
= Monsteraceae Vines; Stud. Text-book Bot. 2: 540 (1895)
= Orontiaceae Bartl.; Ord. Nat. Pl.: 24, 68 (1830)
= Pistiaceae Rich. ex C.Agardh; Aphor. Bot.: 130 (1822)
= Philodendraceae Vines; Stud. Text-book Bot. 2: 540 (1895)
= Pothaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 4: 16 (1838)
= Wolffiaceae Bubani; Fl. Pyren. 4: 22 (1902)
092.5307 Genus Monstera Adans.; Fam. 2: 470 (1763)
Distribution: Tropical America from Mexico to Brazil, Lesser Antilles
Species listed in database: 66
= Serangium W.Wood ex Salisb.; Gen. Pl. Fragm. 5 (1866)
= Tornelia Gut. ex Schltdl.; Linnaea 26: 382 (1853)
species :
Monstera acacoyaguensis Matuda; Madrono 10: 48 (1949)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas); Guatemala; Belize
79 MEX 80 BLZ GUA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera magnispatha Matuda; Rev. Soc. Mexico. Hist. Nat. 11: 97 (1950)
= Monstera magnispatha var. acacoyaguensis (Matuda) Matuda; Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. México 25: 172 (1954)
species :
Monstera acuminata K.Koch; Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1855(App.): 4 (1855)
Distribution: Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Veracruz); Guatemala; Belize; Honduras; Nicaragua
79 MEX 80 BLZ GUA HON NIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera belizensis Lundell; Lloydia 2: 76 (1939)
= Monstera chiapensis Matuda; Madrono 10: 48 (1949)
= Monstera dimidiata Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 372 (1860)
= Monstera grandifolia Standl. & Steyerm.; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, Bot. Ser. 23: 212 (1947)
= Monstera karwinskyi Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 99 (1859)
= Monstera viridispatha Matuda; Rev. Soc. Mexico. Hist. Nat. 11: 98 (1950)
species :
Monstera adansonii Schott; Wien. Zeitschr. 4: 1028 (1830), ex Endl. in Linnaea 6: Litt. 52 (1831)
subspecies :
subsp. adansonii
Name: Ceriman, Cerimen (Trinidad & Tobago); Seguine-couleuvre, Liane percee (Lesser Antilles)
Distribution: Saba; St. Kitts; Antigua; Guadeloupe; Marie-Galante; Dominica; Martinique; St. Lucia; St. Vincent; Grenada; Tobago; Trinidad
81 ABA DOM GDL GRE MAR SAB STK STL STV TRT
Synonyms: hidden
= Calla dracontium G.Mey.; Prim. Fl. Esseq.: 197 (1818), nom. illeg.
= Calla pertusa (L.) Kunth; Syn. 1: 129 (1822)
= Dracontium pertusum L.; Sp. Pl. 968 (1753)
= Monstera imrayana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 40 (1859)
= Monstera jacquinii Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 66 (1854)
= Monstera macrophylla Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 362 (1860)
= Monstera pertusa (L.) de Vriese; Hort. Spaarn-Berg.: 40 (1839), nom. illeg.
= Monstera pertusa f. jacquinii (Schott) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 1178 (1895)
= Monstera pertusa var. jacquinii (Schott) Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(2): 113 (1878)
= Monstera pinnatifida Schott; Wien. Zeitschr. 4: 1028 (1830), ex Endl. in Linnaea 6: Litt. 53 (1831)
= Monstera protensa Schott ex Engl.; DC. & A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 263 (1879), nom. nud.
= Monstera seemannii Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 40 (1859)
= Philodendron pertusum (L.) Kunth & Bouché; Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 11 (1848)
subspecies :
subsp. blanchetii (Schott) Mayo & I.M.Andrade; Feddes Repert. 124(1): 21 (2014)
Distribution: Brazil (Pernambuco, to Espírito Santo)
84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera blanchetii Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 367 (1860)
= Monstera maximiliani Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(2): 113 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. klotzschiana (Schott) Mayo & I.M.Andrade; Feddes Repert. 124(1): 24 (2014)
Distribution: Venezuela (Amazonas, Anzoategui, Bolívar, Monagas); Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Peru; Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz); N-Brazil (Amapa, Pará, Amazonas, Acre); NE-Brazil (Ceara, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia, Alagoas); WC-Brazil (Mato Grosso); SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina)
82 FRG GUY SUR VEN 83 BOL PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera adansonii var. klotzschiana (Schott) Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 40 (1977)
= Monstera brownii S.Moore; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., Bot., Ser. 2, 4: 502 (1895)
= Monstera coriacea Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 118 (1905)
= Monstera gaudichaudii Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid.: 368 (1860)
= Monstera klotzschiana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. iv.419 (1854)
= Monstera modesta Schott; Gen. Aroid. 75 (1858)
= Monstera oblongifolia Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 369 (1860)
= Monstera parkeriana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 41 (1859)
= Monstera peckoltii K.Krause; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54: Beibl. 118, 124 (1916)
= Monstera pertusa f. klotzschiana (Schott) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 1178 (1895)
= Monstera pertusa f. modesta (Schott) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 1178 (1895)
= Monstera pertusa var. klotzschiana (Schott) Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(2): 113 (1878)
= Monstera pertusa var. modesta (Schott) Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(2): 113 (1878)
= Monstera velloziana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 66 (1854)
subspecies :
subsp. laniata (Schott) Mayo & I.M.Andrade; Feddes Repert. 124(1): 28 (2014)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz); ?Guatemala; Belize; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle, Vaupés, Vichada); Venezuela (Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Falcon, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Yaracuy, Zulia); Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru; N-Brazil (Pará, Amazonas, Acre); NE-Brazil (Bahia)
79 MEX 80 BLZ COS HON NIC PAN 82 CLM FRG GUY SUR VEN 83 ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Heteropsis ovata Miq.; Del. Sem. Hort. Amstel. (1853), ex Walp. Ann. 5: 895
= Heteropsis surinamensis Miq.; Del. Sem. Hort. Amstel. (1853), ex Walp. Ann. 5: 895
= Monstera adansonii var. laniata (Schott) Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 38 (1977)
= Monstera crassifolia Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 40 (1859)
= Monstera ecuadorensis Engl. & K.Krause; H. G. A. Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 107 (1908)
= Monstera fenestrata Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5: 290 (1855)
= Monstera friedrichsthalii Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 65 (1854)
= Monstera holtoniana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 40 (1859)
= Monstera milleriana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 386 (1858)
= Monstera ovata (Miq.) Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 387 (1858)
= Monstera pertusa var. laniata (Schott) Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(2): 113 (1878)
= Monstera poeppigii Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 365 (1860)
= Monstera surinamensis (Miq.) Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 387 (1858)
= Tornelia laniata Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 179 (1858)
= Tornelia lindenii Schott ex Engl.; DC. & A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 259 (1879)
species :
Monstera alcirana Croat, M.Cedeño, Zuluaga & O.Ortiz; Webbia 75(2): 252 (2020)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera alfaroi Croat & M.Cedeño; Nordic J. Bot. 38(12)-e02970: 2 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera amargalensis Croat & M.M.Mora; Aroideana 27: 113 (2004)
Distribution: Colombia (Chocó)
82 CLM
species :
Monstera anomala Zuluaga & Croat; Phytotaxa 334(1): 2 (2018)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera aureopinnata Croat; Rodriguesia 56(88): 92 (2005)
Distribution: Colombia (Amazonas, Guaviare, Vaupés); Ecuador; Peru (Amazonas); N-Brazil (Amazonas)
82 CLM 83 ECU PER 84 BRA
species :
Monstera barrieri Croat, Moonen & Poncy; Rodriguesia 56(88): 61 (2005)
Distribution: French Guiana
82 FRG
species :
Monstera bocatorensis Croat & M.Cedeño; Webbia 76(2): 266 (2021)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera boliviana Rusby; Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 494 (1910)
Distribution: Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL
species :
Monstera buseyi Croat & Grayum; Phytologia 82(1): 38 (1997)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera caribaea M.Cedeño, O.Ortiz & A.Hay; J. Pl. Taxon. & Geogr. (Webbia) 78(2): 109 (2023)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera cenepensis Croat; Rodriguesia 56(88): 95 (2005)
Distribution: Peru (Amazonas)
83 PER
species :
Monstera costaricensis (Engl. & K.Krause) Croat & Grayum; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74(3): 659 (1987)
Distribution: ?Nicaragua; Costa Rica
80 COS
Synonyms: hidden
= Rhodospatha costaricensis Engl. & K.Krause; Engl. Pflanzenreich, Arac.-Monster. 95 (1908)
species :
Monstera croatii M.Cedeño & A.Hay; Webbia 75(1): 124 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera deliciosa Liebm.; Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 19 (1849)
Name: Monstera, Pinanona, Casiman, Ceriman, Tarovine, Fruit salad plant, Swiss cheese plant
Distribution: Cameroon [I]; Mozambique [I]; St. Helena [I]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; China [I]; South Korea [I]; India [c]; Bangladesh [I]; Myanmar [I]; Singapore [I]; Java [I]; New Caledonia [I]; Fiji [I]; Nauru [I]; Cook Isl. [I] (Rarotonga [I], Mangaia [I], Aitutaki [I], Atiu [I]); Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I]); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Majuro [I]); USA [I] (Florida [I]); Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan); Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Cuba [I]; Jamaica [I]; Hispaniola [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I] (St. Croix [I]); Trinidad [I]; Colombia [I]; Ecuador [I]
23 cmn 26 moz 28 sth 29 mau reu 36 chi 38 kor 40 ban ind 41 mya 42 jaw sng 60 fij nru nwc 61 coo sci 62 gum mic mrs 78 usa 79 MEX 80 COS GUA HON NIC PAN 81 cub his jam pue trt vir 82 clm 83 ecu
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera borsigiana K.Koch; Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 5: 275 (1862)
= Monstera deliciosa var. borsigiana (K.Koch) Engl.; Pflanzenr., IV, 23B: 111 (1908)
= Monstera deliciosa var. sierrana G.S.Bunting; Gentes Herbarum 9: 320 (1965)
= Monstera lenneana K.Koch; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 277 (1852)
= Philodendron anatomicum Kunth & C.D.Bouché; Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1848: 11 (1848), pro syn.
= Philodendron fenestratum Linden; Cat. Pl. Exot. 14: 7 (1859)
= Philodendron pertusum Kunth & C.D.Bouché; Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1848: 11 (1848)
= Tornelia fragrans Gutierrez ex Schott; Gen. Aroid.: t. 74 (1858), nom. illeg.
species :
Monstera dissecta (Schott) Croat & Grayum; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74(3): 659 (1987)
Distribution: Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Magdalena); ?E-Ecuador; Peru; N-Brazil (Amazonas, Tocantins, Acre); WC-Brazil (Goiás)
80 COS GUA HON NIC PAN 82 CLM 83 PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera longipedunculata Matuda; Bol. Soc. Bot. Mexico 14: 22 (1952)
= Monstera peruviana Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 117 (1905)
= Tornelia dissecta Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 179 (1858)
species :
Monstera donosoensis Croat, M.Cedeño & O.Ortiz; Webbia 76(2): 269 (2021)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera dubia (Kunth) Engl. & K.Krause; Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 23B(37): 117 (1908)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas); Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Trinidad; Colombia (Antioquia, Caquetá, Cesar, Chocó, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Santander); Venezuela (Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Falcon, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Yaracuy, Zulia); ?Surinam; ?French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz); N-Brazil (Acre, Rondônia)
79 MEX 80 COS HON NIC PAN 81 TRT 82 CLM VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Marcgravia dubia Kunth; Nov. Gen. Sp. (H. B. K.) 7: 217 (1825) (Marcgraviaceae)
= Monstera acreana K.Krause; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 6: 114 (1914)
= Monstera irritans Simmonds; Kew Bull. 398 (1950) (1951)
species :
Monstera epipremnoides Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 118 (1905)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera filamentosa Croat & Grayum; Phytologia 82(1): 43 (1997)
Distribution: ?Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Chocó)
80 COS PAN 82 CLM
species :
Monstera florescanoana Croat, T.Krömer & Acebey; Revista Mex. Biodivers. 81(2): 225 (2010)
Distribution: Mexico (C-Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Monstera gambensis M.Cedeño & M.A.Blanco; Webbia 75(1): 127 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera gentryi Croat, M.Cedeño & O.Ortiz; Phytotaxa 514(3): 213 (2021)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera gigas Croat, Zuluaga, M.Cedeño & O.Ortiz; Webbia 76(2): 272 (2021)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera glaucescens Croat & Grayum; Phytologia 82(1): 44 (1997)
Distribution: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Chocó)
80 COS NIC PAN 82 CLM
species :
Monstera gracilis Engl.; DC. & A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 258 (1879)
Distribution: Colombia (Amazonas, Boyacá, Caquetá, Casanare, Cundinamarca, Guaviare, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés); Venezuela (Amazonas); Ecuador; N-Peru
82 CLM VEN 83 ECU PER
species :
Monstera guzmanjacobiae Diaz Jim., M.Cedeño, Zuluaga & Aguilar-Rodr.; Phytotaxa 437(1): 41 (2020)
Distribution: Mexico (Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Monstera integrifolia Zuloaga & Croat; Phytotaxa 334(1): 6 (2018)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera juliusii M.Cedeño & Croat; Phytotaxa 461(3): 186 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera kessleri Croat; Novon 15(1): 91 (2005)
Distribution: Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz)
83 BOL
species :
Monstera kikiae Zuluaga & M.Cedeño; Phytotaxa 527(2): 135 (2021)
Distribution: Colombia
82 CLM
species :
Monstera lamersiana M.Cedeño & A.Hay; J. Pl. Taxon. & Geogr. (Webbia) 78(2): 111 (2023)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera lechleriana Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 366 (1860)
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz); Belize; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Chocó, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle, Vichada); Venezuela (Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Miranda, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Yaracuy, Zulia); Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz); N-Brazil (Acre)
79 MEX 80 BLZ COS PAN 82 CLM VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera egregia Schott; J. Bot. 2: 53 (1864)
= Monstera henry-pittieri G.S.Bunting; Acta Bot. Venezuel., 10(1-4): 286 (1975)
= Monstera maxima Engl. & K.Krause; Engl. Pflanzenreich, Arac.-Monster. 107 (1908)
species :
Monstera lentii Croat & Grayum; Phytologia 82(1): 46 (1997)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera limitaris Cedeño; Phytotaxa 376(1): 38 (2018)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera luteynii Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 89 (1977)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera maderaverde Grayum & Karney; Econ. Bot. 66(2): 209 (2012)
Distribution: Brazil
84 BRA
species :
Monstera membranacea Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 55 (1977)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera minima Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 72 (1977)
Distribution: Panama; Colombia (Chocó)
80 PAN 82 CLM
species :
Monstera mittermeieri M.Cedeño; Phytotaxa 514(3): 217 (2021)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera molinae Croat & Grayum; Phytologia 82: 48 (1997)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS PAN
species :
Monstera momoi Zuluaga & M.Cedeño; Phytotaxa 527(2): 138 (2021)
Distribution: Colombia
82 CLM
species :
Monstera monteverdensis M.Cedeño & Croat; Phytotaxa 461(3): 188 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera obliqua Miq.; Linnaea 18: 79 (1844)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama; Tobago; Trinidad; Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Meta, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Valle, Vaupés); Venezuela (Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Bolívar, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Sucre, Tachira, Yaracuy); Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz); N-Brazil (Amapa, Pará, Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia); NE-Brazil (Maranhao); WC-Brazil (Mato Grosso)
80 COS PAN 81 TRT 82 CLM FRG GUY SUR VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Heteropsis obliqua Miq. ex Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3: II. 112 (1878)
= Monstera expilata Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 367 (1860)
= Monstera falcifolia Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 117 (1905)
= Monstera falcifolia var. latifolia K.Krause; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 614 (1932)
= Monstera fendleri Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 116 (1905)
= Monstera killipii K.Krause; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 614 (1932)
= Monstera microstachys Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5: 274 (1855)
= Monstera obliqua var. expilata (Schott) Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(2): 113 (1878)
= Monstera sagotiana Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 117 (1905)
= Monstera snethlagei K.Krause; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 272 (1925)
= Monstera unilatera Rusby; Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 494 (1910)
species :
Monstera oreophila Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 54 (1977)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Chocó)
80 COS PAN 82 CLM
species :
Monstera panamensis M.Cedeño & O.Ortiz; J. Pl. Taxon. & Geogr. (Webbia) 78(2): 111 (2023)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera pinnatipartita Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 197 (1857)
Distribution: Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Antioquia, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caquetá, Cesar, Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Risaralda, Tolima, Valle); Venezuela (Miranda, Zulia); Ecuador; Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba)
80 COS HON PAN 82 CLM VEN 83 BOL ECU
species :
Monstera pittieri Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 116 (1905)
Distribution: ?Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Chocó)
80 COS PAN 82 CLM
species :
Monstera planadensis Croat; Aroideana 33: 89 (2010)
Distribution: Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Nariño, Valle)
82 CLM
species :
Monstera praetermissa E.G.Gonc. & Temponi; Brittonia 56(1): 72 (2004)
Distribution: N-Brazil (Acre); NE-Brazil (Ceara, Pernambuco, Bahia); WC-Brazil (Goiás); SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná)
84 BRA
species :
Monstera punctulata (Schott) Schott ex Engl.; DC. & A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 259 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz); Guatemala; Belize; Costa Rica; Panama
79 MEX 80 BLZ COS GUA PAN
Synonyms: hidden
= Anadendrum punctulatum Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 393 (1860)
species :
Monstera siltepecana Matuda; Rev. Soc. Mexico Hist. Nat. 11: 97 (1950)
Distribution: Mexico (Queretaro, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas); Guatemala; Belize; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica
79 MEX 80 BLZ COS ELS GUA HON NIC
species :
Monstera spruceana (Schott) Engl.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 3: II. 115 (1878)
Distribution: ?Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Amazonas, Antioquia, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Tolima, Valle, Vaupés); Venezuela (Amazonas, Aragua, Bolívar, Delta Amacuro, Tachira, Yaracuy, Zulia); Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz); N-Brazil (Amapa, Pará, Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia)
80 COS PAN 82 CLM FRG GUY SUR VEN 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera steyermarkii G.S.Bunting; Acta Bot. Venezuel., 10(1-4): 288 (1975)
= Tornelia spruceana Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 40 (1859)
species :
Monstera standleyana G.S.Bunting; Baileya 14: 133 (1967)
Distribution: Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Chocó)
80 COS HON NIC PAN 82 CLM
species :
Monstera subpinnata (Schott) Engl.; DC. & A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 267 (1879)
Distribution: Colombia (Amazonas, Guaviare, Vaupés); Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando); N-Brazil (Pará, Acre)
82 CLM 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera latiloba K.Krause; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 615 (1932)
= Monstera uleana Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 118 (1905)
= Tornelia subpinnata Schott; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 357 (1860)
species :
Monstera tablasensis M.Cedeño; Aroideana 45(1): 162 (2022)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera tacanaensis Matuda; Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México, Bot. 43: 55 (1972)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas); Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama
79 MEX 80 COS GUA PAN
species :
Monstera tarrazuensis Croat & M.Cedeño; Nordic J. Bot. 38(12)-e02970: 5 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera tenuis K.Koch; Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1855(App.): 4 (1855)
Distribution: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS NIC PAN
Synonyms: hidden
= Monstera gigantea Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 18 (1905) (non (Roxb.) Schott)
species :
Monstera titanum Croat, M.Cedeño & O.Ortiz; Webbia 76(2): 275 (2021)
Distribution: Panama
80 PAN
species :
Monstera tuberculata Lundell; Lloydia 2: 78 (1939)
Distribution: Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz); Guatemala; Belize
79 MEX 80 BLZ GUA
variant :
var. brevinoda (Standl. & L.O.Williams) Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 92 (1977)
Distribution: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama
80 COS NIC PAN
Synonyms: hidden
= Philodendron brevinodum Standl. & L.O.Williams; Ceiba 1: 231 (1951)
species :
Monstera vasquezii Croat; Rodriguesia 56(88): 96 (2005)
Distribution: Peru (Amazonas)
83 PER
species :
Monstera wilsoniensis M.Cedeño & Grayum; Nordic J. Bot. 38(12)-e02970: 8 (2020)
Distribution: Costa Rica
80 COS
species :
Monstera xanthospatha Madison; Contr. Gray Herb., 207: 65 (1977)
Distribution: Colombia (Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda, Valle)
82 CLM
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life