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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

168.0000 Family Poaceae Barnhart; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7 (1895), nom. cons., nom. alt.
ca. 800 genera, ca. 12.000 spp. worldwide. Systematics following Soreng et al. (2017) and Soreng et al. (2022)
Species listed in database: 12061; hybrids: 384
= Aegilopaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 221 (1820)
= Agrostidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 264 (1820)
= Alopecuraceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 19 (1820)
= Andropogonaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 28 (1820)
= Anomochloaceae Nakai; Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 222 (1943)
= Anthoxanthaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 271 (1827)
= Arundinaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 60 (1843)
= Arundinellaceae Herter; Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 136 (1940)
= Asperellaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 106, 270 (1827)
= Avenaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 60. 31 (1820)
= Bambusaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 265 (1820)
= Bromaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 264 (1820)
= Cenchraceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 9, 268 (1827)
= Chaeturaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 106, 269 (1827)
= Chloridaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 265 (1820)
= Chondrosaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 269 (1827)
= Coleanthaceae Pfeiff.; Nomencl. Bot. 1(2): 818. ante (1873)
= Cynodontaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 51, 269 (1827)
= Cynosuraceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 271, 272 (1827)
= Echinariaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 271 (1827)
= Ehrhartaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 271 (1827)
= Eragrostidaceae Herter; Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 145 (1940)
= Festucaceae Spreng.; J. Sadler, Fl. Comit. Pest. 1: 28 (1825)
= Glyceriaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 271 (1827)
= Gramineae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 28 (1789), nom. cons.
= Holcaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 2: 252 (1833)
= Hordeaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 265 (1820)
= Laguraceae Link; Hort. Berol. 2: 250 (1833)
= Lepturaceae Herter; Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 147 (1940)
= Loliaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 6, 267 (1827)
= Melicaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 390 (1820)
= Miliaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 91, 270 (1827)
= Nardaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 413 (1820)
= Olyraceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 265 (1820)
= Ophiuraceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 3, 268 (1827)
= Oryzaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 265 (1820)
= Panicaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 264 (1820)
= Pappophoraceae Herter; Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 145 (1940)
= Parianaceae Nakai; Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 222 (1943)
= Paspalaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 47, 269 (1827)
= Phalaridaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 2: 250 (1833)
= Pharaceae Herter; Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 139 (1940)
= Phleaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 269 (1827)
= Saccharaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 265 (1820)
= Sesleriaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 60 (1843)
= Spartinaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 46, 268 (1827)
= Stipaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 264 (1820)
= Streptochaetaceae Nakai; Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 222 (1943)
= Triticaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 22, 268 (1827)
= Zeaceae A.J.Kern.; Pflanzenleben 2: 651 (1891)
= Zoysiaceae Link; Hort. Berol. 1: 8, 268 (1827)
168.4926 Genus Parapholis C.E.Hubb.; Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)
Distribution: W- and Southeast (Crimea) Europe, Mediterranean, W-(incl. Caucasus) and Middle Asia to NW-India
Species listed in database: 7; hybrids: 1
= Lepidurus Janch.; Wiener Bot. Z. 93: 85 (1944)
= Hainardia Greuter; Boissiera 13: 178 (1967)
= xHainardiopholis Castrov.; An. Inst. Bot. A. J. Cavanilles 36: 238 (1979 publ. 1980)
species :
Parapholis cylindrica (Willd.) Romero Zarco; Gramineas Peninsular Iberica 119 (2015)
Name: Walzenförmiger Dünnschwanz (DE); Common Barbgrass (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; ?Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; European Russia; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Azores (Santa Maria Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma Isl.); South Africa [I] (Cape Prov. [I]); Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Cyprus (N-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, Jazira, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, N-Israel); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Lord Howe Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; USA [I] (California [I], Louisiana [I], South Carolina [I], Texas [I]); Mexico [I]; Brazil [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Valparaíso [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I])
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA PEL SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 KRY RUS 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR 27 saf 33 AZE 34 CYP EAI IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR 50 aus lhi 51 nzl 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 84 bra 85 arg cle uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Hainardia cylindrica (Willd.) Greuter; Boissiera 13: 177 (1967)
= Lepturus cylindricus (Willd.) Trin.; Fund. Agrost. 123 (1820)
= Lepturus cylindricus var. asperulus Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 33: 99 (1942)
= Lepturus cylindricus var. gracilis (Coss. & Durieu) A.Camus; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, sér. 2, 69: 87 (1923)
= Lepturus cylindricus var. gracilis (Coss. & Durieu) Coss. & Durieu; Durieu, Expl. Sci. Algérie 2: 214 (1855)
= Lepturus ramosus (Cav.) Kunth; Révis. Gramin. 1: 152 (1829)
= Lepturus simplex (Gaudich.) Kunth; Enum. Pl. 1: 463 (1833)
= Lepturus subulatus (Savi) Kunth; Révis. Gramin. 1: 151 (1829)
= Lolium cylindricum (Willd.) Asch. & Graebn.; Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 761 (1901), nom. illeg.
= Manisuris cylindrica (Willd.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 779 (1891)
= Monerma cylindrica (Willd.) Coss. & Durieu; Expl. Sci. Algerie 2: 214 (1855)
= Monerma cylindrica var. gracilis Coss. & Durieu; Durieu, Expl. Sci. Algérie 2: 214 (1855)
= Monerma monandra P.Beauv.; Ess. Agrostogr.: 117 (1812)
= Monerma ramosa (Cav.) Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Mant. 2: 441 (1824)
= Monerma simplex Gaudich.; Voy. Uranie: 412 (1829)
= Monerma subulata (Savi) B.D.Jacks.; Index Kew. 2: 256 (1894)
= Monerma subulata (Savi) C.Presl; 35 (1818), nom. illeg.
= Ophiuros cylindricus (Willd.) P.Beauv.; Ess. Agrostogr.: 116 (1812)
= Ophiuros subulatus Link; Handbuch 1: 2 (1829), pro syn.
= Parapholis cylindrica (Willd.) Röser & Tkach; Taxon 69(2): 265 (2020), isonym
= Rottboellia adscendens Brot.; Fl. Lusit. 1: 84 (1804)
= Rottboellia cylindrica Willd.; Sp. Pl. 1: 464 (1797)
= Rottboellia ramosa Cav.; Anal. Ci. Nat. 3: 11 (1801)
= Rottboellia subulata Savi; Nuovo Giorn. Lett., ser. 2, 4: 250 (1806)
species :
Parapholis filiformis (Roth) C.E.Hubb.; Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Croatia; ?Montenegro; Albania; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Madeira (Madeira Isl., Porto Santo Isl.); Turkey (SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Israel (coastal W-Israel)
12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB CRO GRC ITA KRI PEL SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 MDR 34 ISR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Lepiurus filiformis (Roth) Dumort.; Observ. Gramin. Belg.: 146 (1824)
= Lepturus compressus (C.Presl) Steud.; Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 357 (1854)
= Lepturus filiformis (Roth) Trin.; Fund. Agrost. 123 (1820)
= Lepturus filiformis f. ramosissima Hausskn.; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 13-14: 71 (1899)
= Lepturus filiformis f. simplex Hausskn.; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 13-14: 71 (1899)
= Lepturus filiformis var. subcurvatus Lange; Bot. Tidsskr. 10: 189 (1877), nom. nud.
= Lepturus incurvatus subsp. filiformis (Roth) Hartm.; Handb. Skand. Fl., ed. 5: 284 (1849)
= Lepturus incurvatus var. filiformis (Roth) Bab.; Prim. Fl. Sarnicae: 116 (1839)
= Lepturus incurvus subsp. filiformis (Roth) Briq.; Prodr. Fl. Corse 1: 183 (1910)
= Ophiuros compressus C.Presl; Cyper. Gramin. Sicul.: 51 (1820)
= Ophiuros erectus (Savi) Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 88 (1821)
= Ophiuros filiformis (Roth) Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis] 2: 797 (1817)
= Ophiuros gracilis J.Gay; Roem. & Schult., Mant. 3: 663 (1827)
= Pholiurus filiformis (Roth) Schinz & Thell.; Vierteljahrsschr. Nat. Ges. Zürich 66: 265 (1921), in obs.
= Pholiurus incurvus subsp. filiformis (Roth) A.Camus; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n. s. 69: 86 (1922)
= Pholiurus incurvus var. filiformis (Roth) V.Täckh. & G.Täckh.; Bull. Fac. Sci. Egypt. Univ. 17: 312 (1941)
= Rottboellia arabica Willd. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 474 (1841), pro syn.
= Rottboellia compressa Guss. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 474 (1841), pro syn.
= Rottboellia erecta Savi; Due Cent. Piante: 34 (1804)
= Rottboellia filiformis Roth; Usteri, Ann. Bot. 10 (Neues Ann. Bot. 4): 38, no. 3 (1794)
= Rottboellia gracilis Mill. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 474 (1841), pro syn.
= Rottboellia subulata Salzm. ex Ball; J. Linn. Soc. 16: 733 (1878)
= Stenotaphrum compressum Druce; Rep. Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 1916: 648 (1917), nom. illeg. superfl.
species :
Parapholis gracilis Bor; Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 25: 63 (1963)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Azerbaijan (Talysh); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (E-Iran, N-Iran)
33 AZE NCS 34 IRN IRQ
Synonyms: hidden
= Lepturus incurvatus var. longiflorus Grossh.; Vestn. Tiflissk. Bot. Sada 47: 40 (1919)
= Parapholis incurva subsp. longiflora (Grossh.) Tzvelev; Zlaki SSSR: 529 (1976)
= Parapholis longiflora (Grossh.) Mussajev; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 72: 94 (1987)
species :
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E.Hubb.; Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)
Name: Gekrümmter Dünnschwanz (DE); Curved Hard-grass (EN); Balliquillo (ES)
Distribution: England; Belgium [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Pantelleria; San Marino; Slovenia [I]; Croatia [I]; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; European Russia; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Madeira (Madeira Isl., Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Fuerteventura, Lanzarote); South Africa [I] (Cape Prov. [I]); Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (E-Iran, N-Iran, S-Iran); Afghanistan (Badghys, Herat, Kandahar, Paktia / Khost); Cyprus (E-Cyprus, S-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, C-Syrian Desert, Jazira, NW-Syria); Israel (C-Israel, coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Negev Desert); Jordania (S-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, NE-Saudi Arabia, Nafud Desert); Kuwait; United Arab Emirates; China [I] (Fujian [I], Zhejiang [I]); South Korea [I]; Pakistan (Baluchistan, Peshawar, Pakistani Punjab, Rawalpindi); NW-India; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]; USA [I] (Alabama [I], California [I], Delaware [I], Louisiana [I], Maryland [I], Michigan [I], Mississippi [I], North Carolina [I], New Jersey [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Texas [I], Virginia [I]); Mexico [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I], Metropolitana de Santiago [I], Biobío [I])
10 GRB 11 bgm 12 BAL CIS COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BUL cro GRC ITA KRI PTL SIC slv SMA TUE 14 KRY RUS 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY MDR 27 saf 32 TKM TZK UZB 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 35 KUW SAU UAE 36 chi 38 kor 40 IND PAK 50 aus 51 nzl 73 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 85 arg cle uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Aegilops incurva L.; Sp. Pl 1051 (1753)
= Aegilops incurvata L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2.: 1490 (1763), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Agrostis incurvata (L.) Scop.; Fl. Carniol (ed. 2) 1: 62 (1772), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Avena carmelii Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Orient. 13: 50 (1854)
= Lepidurus incurvus (L.) Janch.; Wien. Bot. Z. 93: 85 (1944), in obs. nom. inval.
= Lepiurus incurvatus (L.) Dumort.; Observ. Gramin. Belg.: 140 (1824), nom. inval.
= Lepturus cylindricus var. incurvatus (L.) Hook.f.; Student Fl. Brit. Isl.: 455 (1870)
= Lepturus filiformis var. incurvatus (L.) Hook.f.; Student. Fl. Brit. Isl. 455 (1870)
= Lepturus incurvatus (L.) Trin.; Fund. Agrost. 123, t. 8 (1820)
= Lepturus incurvatus f. major Hausskn.; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 13-14: 71 (1899)
= Lepturus incurvatus f. minor Hausskn.; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 13-14: 71 (1899)
= Lepturus incurvatus Trin.; Fund. Agrost.: 123 (1820), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Lepturus incurvatus var. secundus Lojac.; Fl. Sicul. 3: 286 (1909)
= Lepturus incurvatus var. tortus Bab.; Prim. Fl. Sarnicae: 116 (1839), nom. inval.
= Lepturus incurvus (L.) Druce; List Brit. Pl. 85 (1908), Grossh. in Trud. Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Azerb. Fil., Baku, viii/48 (Fl. Kavkaza, i.) 324 (1939)
= Lepturus incurvus subsp. incurvatus (Hook.f.) Briq.; Prodr. Fl. Corse 1: 183 (1910), nom. inval.
= Lepturus rottboellii Münter; Index Seminum (GFW, Greifswald), ser. 2, Cat. 1: 4 (1856), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Nardus articulata L.; Sp. Pl.: 53 (1753)
= Ophiuros incurvatus (L.) P.Beauv.; Ess. Agrostogr. 116, 168, 176 (1812)
= Pholiurus incurvatus (Hook.f.) Hitchc.; Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 106 (1920), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Pholiurus incurvus (L.) Schinz & Thell.; Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 66: 265 (1921)
= Pholiurus incurvus subsp. incurvatus (Hook.f.) Maire; Jahand. et al., Cat. Pl. Maroc 4: 946 (1941), nom. inval.
= Rottboellia incurva (L.) Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis] 2: 799 (1817)
= Rottboellia incurvata L.f.; Suppl. Pl.: 114 (1782), nom. illeg. superfl.
species :
Parapholis marginata Runemark; Bot. Not. 115: 8 (1962)
Name: Gerandeter Dünnschwanz (DE); Margined Hard-grass (EN)
Distribution: E-Spain; SW-Spain; Baleares; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Croatia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Desert Oases, Eastern Desert, Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, NW-coastal Egypt); East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus); Sinai peninsula (N-Sinai, S-Sinai)
12 BAL SPA 13 CRO GRC KRI PEL SIC 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 34 CYP EAI SIN TUR
species :
Parapholis pycnantha (Hack.) C.E.Hubb.; Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)
Distribution: E-Spain; SW-Spain; Baleares (Menorca, Mallorca [I]); France; Italy; European Turkey; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Canary Isl. (Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria); East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, WN-Anatolia)
12 BAL FRA SPA 13 ITA TUE 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 CNY 34 EAI TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Lepturus filiformis var. pycnanthus Hack. ex Druce; Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isl. 1903: 8 & 33 (1904)
species :
Parapholis strigosa (Dumort.) C.E.Hubb.; Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946)
Name: Gestreifter Dünnschwanz (DE), Strigose sicklegrass (EN)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Germany; Portugal; Spain; France; Channel Isl.; Italy; Slovenia [I]; Croatia [I]; Greece; Libya; Australia [I] (New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]; USA [I] (California [I]); Chile [I] (Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Lagos [I])
10 DEN GRB IRE SWE 11 BGM GER NET 12 CIS FRA POR SPA 13 cro GRC ITA slv 20 LBY 50 aus 51 nzl 76 usa 85 cle
Synonyms: hidden
= Lepturus incurvatus subsp. vulgatus (Asch. & Graebn.) Rouy; G. Rouy & J. Foucaud, Fl. France 14: 339 (1913)
= Lepturus incurvatus var. gracillimus Le Gall; Fl. Morbihan: 767 (1852)
= Lepturus incurvatus var. strictus Fr.; Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. 3(Add.): 181 (1843)
= Lepturus incurvatus var. vulgatus Asch. & Graebn.; Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 764 (1902)
= Lepturus strigosus Dumort.; Observ. Gramin. Belg. 146 (1823)
= Pholiurus filiformis var. gracilis (J.Gay ex Schult. & Schult.f.) A.Camus; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, sér. 2, 69: 90 (1923)
= Pholiurus filiformis var. strictus (Fr.) A.Camus; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, sér. 2, 69: 90 (1923)
species :
Parapholis ×pauneroae (Castrov.) Romero Zarco; Gramíneas Península Ibérica 120 (2015)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
Remarks: Parapholis cylindrica x P. incurva
Synonyms: hidden
= Parapholis ×pauneroi (Castrov.) Röser & Tkach; Taxon 69(2): 265 (2020), isonym
= xHainardiopholis pauneroae Castrov.; Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 36: 238 (1980)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life