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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

147.0000 Family Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 266 (1820), nom. cons., nom. alt.
181-183 genera, ca. 2800 spp.
Species listed in database: 2519; hybrids: 29
= Acristaceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 252 (1913)
= Borassaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 318 (1832)
= Calamaceae Kunth ex Perleb; Clav. Class.: 13 (1838)
= Ceroxylaceae Vines; Stud. Text-book Bot. 2: 544 (1895)
= Chamaedoreaceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 252 (1913)
= Cocosaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 316 (1832)
= Coryphaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 317 (1832)
= Geonomataceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 252 (1913)
= Iriarteaceae O.F.Cook & Doyle; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 225 (1913)
= Lepidocaryaceae Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 196 (1838)
= Malortieaceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 252 (1913)
= Manicariaceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 13: 140 (1910)
= Moreniaceae O.F.Cook; A. P. Northrop, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 12: 24 (1902)
= Nypaceae Brongn. ex Le Maout & Decne.; Traité Général Bot.: 624 (1868)
= Palmae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 37 (1789), nom. cons.
= Phoenicaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 395, 1155 (1835)
= Phytelephantaceae Mart. ex Perleb; Clav. Class.: 11 (1838)
= Pseudophoenicaceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 243 (1913)
= Rhapidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 266 (1820)
= Sabalaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 317 (1832)
= Sagaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 316 (1832)
= Synechanthaceae O.F.Cook; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16: 252 (1913)
= Thrinaceae Becc.; Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta [Asiat. Palms, Coryph.] 13: 8 (1933)
147.3261 Genus Phoenix L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 1188 (1753)
Distribution: Tropical Old World: Macaronesia, S-Mediterranean, Africa, Arabia, India to S-China, W-Malesia and Philippines; many of them in desert climates
Species listed in database: 14
= Dachel Adans.; Fam. Pl. 2: 25 (1763)
= Elate L.; Sp. Pl.: 1189 (1753)
= Fulchironia Lesch.; R. L. Desfontaines, Tabl. École Bot., ed. 3: 29 (1829)
= Palma Mill.; Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4.: s.p. (1754)
= Phoniphora Neck.; Elem. Bot. 3: 302 (1790), opus utique oppr.
= Zelonops Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 2: 102 (1837)
species :
Phoenix acaulis Roxb.; [Hort. Bengal.: 73 (1814), nom. nud.] ex Buch.-Ham. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 783 (1832)
Distribution: China [I] (Guangdong [I], Guangxi [I], Yunnan); Nepal; India (almost throughout); Bangladesh; Myanmar; Laos; Trinidad & Tobago [I]
36 chi 40 BAN IND NEP 41 LAO MYA 81 trt
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix acaulis var. melanocarpa Griff.; Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 346 (1845)
species :
Phoenix atlantica A.Chev.; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. II. 7: 137 (1935)
Distribution: Cape Verde Isl. (Santo Antao Isl., Santa Luzia Isl., Sal Isl., Ilha da Boa Vista, Ilha de Maio, Ilha de Sao Tiago)
21 CVI
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix atlantidis A.Chev.; Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 199: 1153 (1934), nom. nud.
species :
Phoenix caespitosa Chiov.; Fl. Somala, 317 (1929)
Distribution: Eritrea; Djibouti; N-Somalia; Saudi Arabia; Yemen
24 DJI ERI SOM 35 SAU YEM
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix arabica Burret; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 73: 189 (1943)
species :
Phoenix canariensis H.Wildpret; Prov. Agric. Hort. Ill. 19: 293 (1882), nom. cons.
Name: Kanaren-Dattelpalme (DE); Palmera canaria (ES)
Distribution: Spain [I]; Gibraltar [I]; Croatia [I]; Morocco [I]; Algeria [I]; Tunisia [I]; Madeira [I] (Madeira [I]); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); D.R.Congo [Zaire] [I] (Tshopo etc.); Turkey [I]; Java [I]; Australia [I] (SW-Western Australia [I], SE-South Australia [I], N-Victoria [I], New South Wales [I]); New Zealand [I]; Niue [I]; Fiji [I]; Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Jaluit [I]); USA [I] (California [I], Florida [I]); Mexico [I]; Honduras [c]; Nicaragua [I]; Navassa Isl. [I]; Colombia [c]; Bolivia [c]; Argentina [I]
12 gib spa 13 cro 20 alg mor tun 21 CNY mdr 23 zai 34 tur 42 jaw 50 aus 51 nzl 60 fij nue 62 gum mic mrs 76 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 hon nic 81 nav 82 clm 83 bol 85 arg
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix canariensis Nabonnand; J. Hort. Prat. 2: 75 (1871), nom. nud.
= Phoenix canariensis var. porphyrococca Vasc. & Franco; Portugaliae Act. Biol., Sér. B, Sist. 2: 313 (1948)
= Phoenix cycadifolia Regel; Gartenflora 28: 131 (1879), nom. rej.
= Phoenix dactylifera var. jubae Webb & Berthel.; Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3: 289 (1847)
= Phoenix erecta Sauv.; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 66: 495 (1894), nom. inval.
= Phoenix jubae (Webb & Berthel.) Webb ex Christ; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 469 (1885)
= Phoenix macrocarpa Sauv.; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 66: 495 (1894), nom. inval.
= Phoenix menieri Cochet; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 78: 373 (1906), nom. illeg. superfl.
= Phoenix senegalensis Lesch. ex André; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 64: 563 (1892)
= Phoenix tenuis B.S.Williams; Choice Stove Greenh. Pl.: 273 (1870)
= Phoenix vigieri Naudin; Rev. Hortic. (1885) 541, in nota
species :
Phoenix dactylifera L.; Sp. Pl. 1188 (1753)
Name: Echte Dattelpalme (DE); Date (EN); Dattier (FR); Datil (ES)
Distribution: SE-Spain [I]; Croatia [c]; S-Europe [I]; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Lanzarote [I], Fuerteventura [I], Gran Canaria [I], Tenerife [I]); Cape Verde Isl. [I]; Gambia [I]; Burkina Faso [I]; Benin [I]; São Tomé [I]; Central African Republic [I]; Chad [I]; Sudan [I]; Somalia [I]; Soqotra [I]; Namibia [I]; Madagascar [I]; Mozambique Channel Isl. [Iles Éparses] [I] (Ile Europa [I]); Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Rodrigues [I]; Agalega Isl. [I]; Seychelles [I]; East Aegaean Isl. [I] (incl. Rhodos [I]); Turkey [I]; Iraq; S-Iran; Sinai peninsula; Saudi Arabia; Qatar; Oman; China [I] (Fujian [I], Guangdong [I], Guangxi [I], Yunnan [I]); S-Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan); Maldives [I]; Sri Lanka [I]; Bangladesh [I]; Myanmar [I]; Cambodia [I]; Java [I]; Australia [I] (Northern Territory [I], South Australia [I]); Rotuma Isl. [I]; Niue [I]; Fiji [I]; Banaba [Ocean] Isl. [I]; N-Line Isl. [I] (Tabueran [I]); Austral Isl. [I] (Tubuai [I]); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Majuro [I], Jaluit [I]); USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I]); Mexico [I]; Honduras [c]; Cayman Isl. [I]; Hispaniola [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I] (St. Croix [I]); Anguilla [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Colombia [c]; Isla Margarita [I]; Bolivia [c]
12 spa 13 cro 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 cny cvi mdr 22 ben bkn gam 23 caf sao 24 cha soc som sud 27 nam 29 aga mau mci mdg reu rod sey 34 eai IRN IRQ SIN tur 35 OMA QAT SAU 36 chi 40 ban mdv PAK srl 41 cbd mya 42 jaw 50 aus 60 fij nue oce rot 61 aui lin 62 gum mic mrs 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 hon 81 agu cay his pue trt ven vir 82 clm 83 bol
Synonyms: hidden
= Palma dactylifera (L.) Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. 8.: no. 1 (1768)
= Palma major Garsault; Fig. Pl. Anim. Med. t. 47 (1764)
= Phoenix atlantica var. maroccana A.Chev.; Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 2: 172 (1952)
= Phoenix chevalieri D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot. 1: 79 (1997)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. adunca D.Christ ex Becc.; Malesia 3: 357 (1890)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. costata Becc.; Malesia 3: 357 (1890)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. cylindrocarpa Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. gonocarpa Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. oocarpa Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. oxysperma Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. sphaerocarpa Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. sphaerosperma Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix dactylifera var. sylvestris Mart.; Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 258 (1838)
= Phoenix excelsior Cav.; Icon. 2: 13 (1793), nom. illeg.
= Phoenix iberica D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón; Varied. Trad. Frut. Cuenca Río Segura Cat. Etnobot. 1: 73 (1997)
species :
Phoenix lallani R.Kr.Singh; J. Biodivers. Conservation 8(1): 93 (2024), nom. nov.
Distribution: Andaman Isl.
41 AND
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix andamanensis S.Barrow; Kew Bull. 53(3): 538 (1998), nom. illeg.
species :
Phoenix loureiroi Kunth; Enum. Pl. 3: 257 (1841)
Distribution: China (Hainan); Taiwan; NW-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamil Nadu); Myanmar (Bago, Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing); Thailand; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam; Philippines (Batanes: Sabtan); Fiji [I]
36 CHI 38 TAI 40 IND 41 CBD LAO MYA THA VIE 42 PHI 60 fij
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix hanceana Schaedtler; Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 31: 218 (1875)
= Phoenix hanceana var. formosana Becc.; Philipp. J. Sci. 3(6): 339 (1908)
= Phoenix hanceana var. philippinensis Becc.; Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 339 (1908)
= Phoenix humilis Royle ex Becc.; Malesia 3: 373 (1890), nom. illeg.
= Phoenix humilis var. hanceana (Schaedtler) Becc.; Malesia 3: 392 (1890)
= Phoenix humilis var. loureiroi (Kunth) Becc.; Malesia 3: 382 (1890)
= Phoenix pusilla Lour.; Fl. Cochinch.: 614 (1790) [nom. illeg.]
= Phoenix pygmaea Raeusch.; Nomencl. Bot. Pl. Illustr., ed. 3: 375 (1797), nom. inval.
variant :
var. pedunculata (Griff.) Govaerts; World Checkl. Palms 171 (170) (2005)
Distribution: Nepal; N-India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Nagaland, Odisha, Tamil Nadu); Bangladesh
40 BAN IND NEP
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix humilis Royle; [Ill. Bot. Himal.: 8, 14 (1833), nom. nud.] ex Becc. & Hook.f. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 416 (1892)
= Phoenix humilis var. pedunculata (Griff.) Becc.; Malesia 3: 384 (1890)
= Phoenix humilis var. robusta Becc.; Malesia 3: 384 (1890)
= Phoenix loureiroi var. humilis S.Barrow; Kew Bull. 53: 563 (1998)
= Phoenix ouseleyana Griff.; Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 347 (1845)
= Phoenix pedunculata Griff.; Palms Brit. E. Ind.: 139 (1850)
= Phoenix robusta (Becc.) Hook.f.; Fl. Brit. India 6: 427 (1892)
species :
Phoenix paludosa Roxb.; Hort. Beng. 73; Fl. Ind. 3: 789 (1832)
Distribution: NE-India (Assam, Odisha, West Bengal); Bangladesh; Andaman Isl. (Middle Andaman Isl., South Andaman Isl.); Nicobar Isl.; Myanmar; Thailand; Cambodia; Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu, Penang Isl., Perak); Sumatra
40 BAN IND 41 AND CBD MYA NCB THA VIE 42 MLY SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix andamanensis W.Mill; J. G. Sm. & N. Taylor in L. H. Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 5: 2594 (1916) [nom. illeg.]
= Phoenix siamensis Miq.; Verh. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 11: (1868) n. 5. p. 14
species :
Phoenix pusilla Gaertn.; Fruct. 1: 24. t. 9 (1788)
Distribution: S-India (Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu); Sri Lanka
40 IND SRL
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix farinifera Roxb.; Pl. Corom. 1: 53, t. 74 (1796)
= Phoenix zeylanica Trimen; J. Bot. 23: 267 (1885)
= Zelonops pusilla (Gaertn.) Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 2: 102 (1837)
species :
Phoenix reclinata Jacq.; Fragm. 1: 27. t. 24 (1801)
Name: Senegal Date Palm
Distribution: Senegal; Gambia; Guinea-Bissau; Guinea; Sierra Leone; Liberia; Burkina Faso; Ivory Coast; Ghana; Togo; Benin; Nigeria; Cameroon; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo]; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Congo [Brazzaville]; Central African Republic; D.R.Congo [Zaire]; Rwanda; Burundi; Sudan; South Sudan; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Somalia; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania; Angola; Zambia; Malawi; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; Namibia; Botswana; South Africa (Limpopo, Mpulamanga, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.); Eswatini [Swaziland]; Madagascar (widespread); Comores (Mayotte, etc.); Saudi Arabia (Asir, NE-Saudi Arabia); Yemen (Tihama, W-Yemen); Java [I]; USA [I] (Florida [I]); Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I]; Antigua [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Colombia [c]
22 BEN BKN GAM GHA GNB GUI IVO LBR NGA SEN SIE TOG 23 BIO BUR CAF CMN CON EQG GAB RWA ZAI 24 ERI ETH SOM SSU SUD 25 KEN TAN UGA 26 ANG MLW MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 BOT NAM SAF SWZ 29 COM MDG 35 SAU YEM 42 jaw 78 usa 81 aba pue trt vir 82 clm
Synonyms: hidden
= Fulchironia senegalensis Lesch.; R. L. Desfontaines, Tabl. École Bot., ed. 3: 29 (1829), nom. nud.
= Phoenix abyssinica Drude; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21: 119 (1895)
= Phoenix baoulensis A.Chev.; Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 32: 224 (1952)
= Phoenix comorensis Becc.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: Beibl. 87, 5 (1906)
= Phoenix djalonensis A.Chev.; Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Colon. 32: 223 (1952)
= Phoenix dybowskii A.Chev.; Etudes Fl. Afr. Centr. Franc. 1: 331 (1913), nomen, et ex A. Chev., Rev. Bot. Appliq. 32: 224 (1952)
= Phoenix equinoxialis Bojer; Hortus Maurit.: 306 (1837)
= Phoenix leonensis Lodd.; Nursery Cat. 13: [3] (1823), nom. nud.
= Phoenix reclinata var. comorensis (Becc.) Jum. & H.Perrier; Fl. Mad. 30: 20 (1945)
= Phoenix reclinata var. madagascariensis Becc.; Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 87: 4 (1906)
= Phoenix reclinata var. somalensis Becc.; E. Chiovenda, Res. Sci. Somalia Ital.: 176 (1916)
= Phoenix spinosa Schumach. & Thonn.; H. C. F. Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 437 (1827)
species :
Phoenix roebelenii O´Brien; Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 6: 475, f. 68 (1889)
Name: Robelini (Dominican Republic); Palma de datil enana (Puerto Rico); Pygmy date palm
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan); ?Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Niue [I]; Cook Isl. [I] (Rarotonga [I]); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Majuro [I]); Honduras [I]; Hispaniola [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I] (St. Croix [I]); Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Colombia [c]
36 CHI 41 LAO THA VIE 60 nue 61 coo 62 gum mic mrs 80 hon 81 his pue trt vir 82 clm
species :
Phoenix rupicola T.Anderson; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 13 (1871)
Name: Datil del sur (Cuba), Datil de las rocas (Puerto Rico)
Distribution: Bhutan; NE-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, West Bengal); Bangladesh; Thailand [I]; Java [I]; Cuba [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]
40 BAN BHU IND 41 tha 42 jaw 81 cub pue trt vir
species :
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.; [Hort. Bengal.: 73 (1814), nom. nud.], Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 787 (1832)
Name: Datil silvestre (Puerto Rico)
Distribution: Mauritius [I]; China [I] (Fujian [I], Guangdong [I], Guangxi [I], Yunnan [I]); Pakistan; NW-India (almost throughout); Sri Lanka [I]; Bangladesh; Myanmar [I]; Java [I]; Rotuma Isl. [I]; Fiji [I]; N-Line Isl. [I] (Kiritimati [I]); Society Isl. [I] (Raiatea [I]); Guam [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I]
29 mau 36 chi 40 BAN IND PAK srl 41 mya 42 jaw 60 fij rot 61 lin sci 62 gum 81 pue vir
Synonyms: hidden
= Elate sylvestris L.; Sp. PI.: 1189 (1753)
= Elate versicolor Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 264 (1796)
species :
Phoenix theophrasti Greuter; Bauhinia 3: 243 (1967)
Distribution: Greece (Kiklades: Milos, Amorgos, Anafi); Crete (scattered); East Aegaean Isl. (Karpathos, Chalki); Turkey (SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia)
13 GRC KRI 34 EAI TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Phoenix theophrasti subsp. golkoyana Boydak; Forestist 69(2): 141 (2019)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life