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Ver. 19.2
April 1st, 2024

310.0000 Family Anacardiaceae R.Br.; J. H. Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire: 431 (1818), nom. cons.
81 genera, ca. 900 spp. Phylogeny following Cole (2018) and Cole & Bachelier (2023, Anacardiaceae phylogeny poster)
Species listed in database: 938; hybrids: 5
= Blepharocaryaceae Airy Shaw; Kew Bull. 18: 254 (1965)
= Comocladiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 144 (1820)
= Julianiaceae Hemsl.; J. Bot. 44: 379 (1906), nom. cons.
= Lentiscaceae Horan.; Tetractys: 25 (1843)
= Pistaciaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 485 (1820)
= Podoaceae Baill. ex Franch.Pl.Delav.: 145 (1889)
= Rhoaceae Spreng. ex Sadler; Fl. Comit. Pest. 2: 135 (1826)
= Schinaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 3: 55 (1837)
= Spondiadaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 594 (1820)
= Vernicaceae Schultz Sch.; Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 488 (1832)
310.0714 Genus Pistacia L.; Sp. Pl.: 1025 (1753)
Distribution: Macaronesia, Mediterranean, Northeast and E-Africa, Crimea, Northern Caucasus, W- and Middle Asia eastward to NW-India, E- and Southeast Asia, Malesia, 1 S-USA to Honduras
Species listed in database: 10; hybrids: 1
= Lentiscus Mill.; Gard. Dict. Abridg. Ed. 4 (1754)
= Terebinthus (Tourn.) P.Browne; Hist. Jamaica. 345 (1756)
species :
Pistacia atlantica Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 364 (1799)
Name: Atlantic mastic tree (EN); Atlantische Pistazie (DE); Almacigo (ES)
Distribution: Malta [I]; European Turkey; Greece (Kiklades: Amorgos); Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria (incl. Hoggar); Tunisia; Libya; Canary Isl. (Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma Isl.); Tajikistan [I]; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (Chios, Dodecanese, Kos, Tilos, Symi, Chalki, Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Bamyan, Farah, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost, Parwan); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Kurram, Chitral, Gilgit); NW-India (Himachal Pradesh); USA [I] (California [I], Utah [I])
13 GRC mlt TUE 14 KRY UKR 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY 32 tzk 33 ARM AZE GEO 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN ISR JOR SIN TUR 40 IND PAK 76 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus atlantica (Desf.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 152 (1891)
= Lentiscus mutica (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 153 (1891)
= Pistacia atlantica f. oxycarpa Zohary; Palestine J. Bot., Jerusalem Ser. 5: 206 (1952)
= Pistacia atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech.f.; Fl. Iran 63: 5. (1969)
= Pistacia atlantica subsp. cypricola H.Lindb.; Årsbok-Vuosik. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 20(B7): 5 (1942)
= Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Rech.f.; Fl. Iran. 63: 4. (1969)
= Pistacia atlantica var. latifolia DC.; Prodr. 2: 61 (1825)
= Pistacia cabulica Stocks; Hook. Kew J. 4: 143 (1852)
= Pistacia chia Desf.; Tabl. Ecole Bot.: 199 (1804) (nom. nud.)
= Pistacia choulettei Gand.; Dec. Pl. Nov. 1: 44 (1875) nom. illeg.
= Pistacia mutica f. multijuga Engl.; DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 288 (1883)
= Pistacia mutica Fisch. & C.A.Mey.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 1: 338 (1838)
= Pistacia mutica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Engl.; DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 288 (1883)
= Pistacia mutica var. cypricola (H.Lindb.) H.Lindb.; Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. Ser. B, Opera Biol. 7: 22 (1946)
= Terebinthus atlanticus (Desf.) Dum.Cours.; Bot. Cult. 3: 575 (1802)
species :
Pistacia chinensis Bunge; Mém. Acad. Sci. St.-Pét. Sav. Etrang. 2: 89 (1833)
subspecies :
subsp. chinensis
Name: Chinese pistache
Distribution: Tajikistan [I]; China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong, Hebei, Beijing, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu); S-Tibet; Taiwan; Philippines (Luzon); Fiji [I]; USA [I] (Alabama [I], California [I], Georgia [I], Texas [I])
32 tzk 36 CHI TIB 38 TAI 42 PHI 60 fij 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus chinensis (Bunge) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 153 (1891)
= Pistacia chinensis f. latifoliolata Loes.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 34(1, Beibl. 75): 49 (1904)
= Pistacia formosana Matsum.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 15(169): 40-41 (1901)
= Pistacia philippinensis Merr. & Rolfe; Philipp. J. Sci. 3(3): 107-108 (1908)
= Rhus argyi H.Lév.; Mem. Real Acad. Ci. Barcelona 12(22): 22 (1916)
= Rhus gummifera H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 10: 474 (1912)
subspecies :
subsp. integerrima (J.L.Stewart) Rech.f.; Fl. Iranica 63: 8 (1969)
Distribution: Armenia; Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan); Pakistan (Chitral, Pakistani Punjab, Kurram, Peshawar, Murree, Salt Range, Gilgit); Nepal; N-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, ?Uttar Pradesh)
33 ARM 34 AFG 40 IND NEP PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus kakrasinghee (Royle) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 152 (1891)
= Pistacia chinensis var. integerrima (J.L.Stewart) Zohary; Palestine J. Bot., Jerusalem Ser. 5(4): 216 (1952)
= Pistacia chinensis var. integerrima (Stewart) Zohary; Palest. J. Bot. 5: 216 (1952)
= Pistacia integerrima J.L.Stewart; Brandis, For. Fl. 122, t. 22 (1874)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. stocksii Engl.; DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 291 (1883)
= Rhus integerrima Wall.; Cat. 286, n. 8474B (1848), nom. nud.
= Rhus kakrasingee Royle; Ill. B. Him. 1: 175 (1835), nom. nud.
species :
Pistacia eurycarpa Yalt.; Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 28: 11 (1967)
Distribution: Armenia; Turkey (SE-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, S-Iran, W-Iran); Lebanon (Antilebanon)
33 ARM 34 IRN IRQ LEB TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Pistacia atlantica var. kurdica Zohary; Pal. J. Bot. Jerusalem ser. 5: 206 (1952)
= Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica (Zohary) Rech.f.; Fl. Iran 63: 5. (1969)
species :
Pistacia falcata Becc. ex Martelli; Fl. Bogos. 24 (1886)
Distribution: Sudan; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Somalia; Saudi Arabia (Asir); Yemen
24 ERI ETH SOM SUD 35 SAU YEM
Synonyms: hidden
= Pistacia chinensis subsp. falcata (Becc. ex Martelli) Rech.f.; Fl. Iranica 63: 8 (1969)
= Pistacia chinensis var. falcata (Becc. ex Martelli) Zohary; Palestine J. Bot., Jerusalem Ser. 5: 217 (1952)
= Rhus falcata (Becc. ex Martelli) Penz.; Atti Congr. Bot. Genova 337 (1893)
species :
Pistacia khinjuk Stocks; J. Bot. (Hooker) & Kew Gard. Mist. 4: 143 (1852)
Distribution: Egypt (Eastern Desert, SE-Egypt); Sudan; Tajikistan; Turkey (SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Herat, Kabul, Kunar / Nuristan, Paktia / Khost); Syria (Jazira, NW-Syria); Sinai peninsula (S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sind, Waziristan, Chitral, Hazara, Gilgit); Nepal; NW-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir); Myanmar (Kachin)
20 EGY 24 SUD 32 TZK 34 AFG IRN IRQ JOR SIN SYR TUR 35 SAU 40 IND NEP PAK 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Pistacia acuminata Boiss. & Buhse; Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 12: 53 (1860)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. glaberrima Schweinf. ex Boiss.; Fl. Orient. Suppl. 154 (1888)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. glabra Schweinf. ex Engl.; DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 292 (1883)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. heterophylla Engl.; DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 290 (1883)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. macrocarpa Zohary; Palestine J. Bot. Jerusalem Ser. 5: 212 (1952)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. microphylla Boiss.; Fl. Orient. Suppl. 154 (1888)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. oblonga Bornm.; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 57B: 248 (1937)
= Pistacia khinjuk var. populifolia Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 2: 7 (1872)
species :
Pistacia lentiscus L.; Sp. Pl.: 1026 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. lentiscus
Name: Mastixstrauch (DE); Mastix Tree (EN); Lentisco (ES)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Monaco; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; Croatia; Montenegro; Albania; European Turkey; Greece (widespread except North); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera); East Aegaean Isl. (widespread, incl. Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria); Israel (coastal W-Israel, N-Israel)
12 BAL COR FRA GIB MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB CRO GRC ITA KRI MLT MNT PEL PTL SIC TUE 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY 34 CYP EAI ISR LEB SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus massiliensis (Mill.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, N. S. 17: 195 (1869)
= Lentiscus vulgaris Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s. 16: 356 (1868)
= Pistacia brevifolia Gand.; Dec. Pl. Nov. 1: 44 (1875)
= Pistacia gummifera Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 172 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Pistacia lentiscus f. lanceolata Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 393 (1913)
= Pistacia lentiscus f. latifolia (Coss.) Bolzon; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s. 20: 328 (1913)
= Pistacia lentiscus f. leptophylla Albo ex Fiori; Nuov. Fl. Italia 2: 117 (1923)
= Pistacia lentiscus f. massiliensis (Mill.) Fiori; Fiori et al., Fl. Anal. Italia 4: 157 (1907)
= Pistacia lentiscus subvar. brevifolia (Gand.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 147 (1878)
= Pistacia lentiscus subvar. subfalcata (Gand.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 147 (1878)
= Pistacia lentiscus var. angustifolia DC.; Prodr. 2: 65 (1825). nom. illeg.
= Pistacia lentiscus var. chia Duhamel; Traité Arbr. Arbust. 4: 72, [t. 8. delete] (1809)
= Pistacia lentiscus var. latifolia Coss.; Notes Pl. Crit. Ser. 1, 54 (1850)
= Pistacia lentiscus var. massiliensis (Mill.) Duhamel; Traité Arbr. Arbust. 4: 72 (1809)
= Pistacia lentiscus var. multiflora (Gand.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 147 (1878)
= Pistacia massiliensis Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 6 (1768)
= Pistacia multiflora Gand.; Dec. Pl. Nov. 1: 44 (1875)
= Pistacia subfalcata Gand.; Dec. Pl. Nov. 1: 44 (1875)
= Terebinthus lentiscus (L.) Moench; Methodus (Moench) 345 (1794)
subspecies :
subsp. emarginata (Engl.) Al-Saghir; Amer. J. Pl. Sci. 3(1): 27 (2012)
Distribution: Ethiopia; Somalia; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania
24 ETH SOM 25 KEN TAN UGA
Synonyms: hidden
= Pistacia aethiopica Dale & Greenway; (1961), nom. inval.
= Pistacia aethiopica Kokwaro; Kew Bull. 34(4): 755(1980)
= Pistacia lentiscus var. emarginata Engl.; Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 4: 286 (1883)
= Pistacia lentiscus var. falcatula Chiov.; L. A. di Savoia-Aosta, Esplor. Uabi-Uebi Scebeli: 396 (1932)
species :
Pistacia mexicana Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 7: 22, t. 608 (1824)
Name: American pistachio
Distribution: USA (S-Texas); Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas); Guatemala; Honduras
77 USA 79 MEX 80 GUA HON
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus mexicana (Kunth) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 153 (1891)
= Pistacia texana Swingle; J. Arnold Arb. 2: 107 (1920)
= Rhus mexicana (Kunth) A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2): 386 (1897)
species :
Pistacia terebinthus L.; Sp. Pl. 1025 (1753)
Name: Östlicher Terpentinstrauch (DE); Eastern Turpentine Tree (EN)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Andorra; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Monaco; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; San Marino [I]; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (widespread, Samothraki); Crete (widespread); Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; East Aegaean Isl. (Chios, Lesvos, Ikaria, Samos, Kos, Symi, Tilos, Karpathos, Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, S-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, Asir, Hejaz); Taiwan [I]
12 ADO BAL COR FRA GIB MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA SIC SLV sma SRB TUE 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 34 CYP EAI ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 35 SAU 38 tai
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus terebinthus (L.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 153 (1891)
= Lentiscus vulgaris Garsault; Fig. Pl. Anim. Med. t.87 (1764)
= Pistacia crassifolia Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 172 (1796). nom. illeg.
= Pistacia palaestina Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 9: 1 (1849) et Fl. 2: 6 (1872)
= Pistacia terebinthus subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.; A. DC. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 990 (1883)
= Pistacia terebinthus var. angustifolia Lecoq & Lamotte; Prodr. Fl. Plat. Centr.: 180 (1877)
= Pistacia terebinthus var. heterophylla DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 6: 585 (1815)
= Pistacia terebinthus var. macrocarpa Zohary; Palestine J. Bot. Jerusalem Ser. 5: 209 (1952)
= Pistacia terebinthus var. oxycarpa Zohary; Palestine J. Bot. Jerusalem Ser. 5: 209 (1952)
= Pistacia terebinthus var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.; A. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 290 (1883)
= Pistacia terebinthus var. vulgaris Engl.; Monogr. Phan. [DC.] 4: 289 (1883)
= Terebinthus communis Dum.Cours.; Bot. Cult. 3: 575 (1802)
= Terebinthus vulgaris Dum.Cours.; Bot. Cult., ed. 2, 6: 222 (1811)
species :
Pistacia vera L.; Sp. Pl. 1025 (1753)
Name: Echte Pistazie (DE); Pistachio (EN)
Distribution: Spain [I]; Baleares [I]; France [I]; Sicily [I]; Croatia [I]; Morocco [I]; Libya [I]; Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; East Aegaean Isl. [c] (Rhodos [c]); Turkey; Iraq; Iran (NE-Iran: Mts.); Afghanistan (Badakshan, Badghys, Baghlan, Balkh, Herat, Kabul, Samangan, Takhar); Lebanon; Syria; Israel; China [I] (Xinjiang [I]); Pakistan [I]; Myanmar [I]
12 bal fra spa 13 cro sic 20 lby mor 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 34 AFG eai IRN IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR 36 chi 40 pak 41 mya
Synonyms: hidden
= Lentiscus vera (L.) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 153 (1891)
= Pistacia badghysi K.P.Popov; Izv. Akad. Nauk Turkm. SSR, Biol. Nauk, 1978(5): 5 (1978)
= Pistacia macrophylla Pers.; Syn. Pl. [Pers.] 2(2): 615 (1807), nom. illeg.
= Pistacia narbonnensis L.; Sp. Pl.: 1025 (1753)
= Pistacia narbonnensis var. bauhini Ten.; Index Seminum (NAP, Neapolitano) 1854: 4 (1854)
= Pistacia nemausensis Req. ex Planch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 11: xlvi (1864)
= Pistacia nigricans Crantz; Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 184 (1766)
= Pistacia officinarum Aiton; Hortus Kew. (Aiton) 3: 398 (1789), nom. illeg.
= Pistacia reticulata Willd.; Sp. Pl. 4: 751 (1806). nom. illeg.
= Pistacia trifolia L.; Sp. Pl. 1025 (1753)
= Pistacia variifolia Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 171 (1796). nom. illeg.
= Pistacia vera var. trifolia (L.) Poir.; Lam., Encycl. 5: 350 (1804)
= Terebinthus pistacia Dum.Cours.; Bot. Cult. 3: 575 (1802), nom. superfl.
species :
Pistacia weinmannifolia J.Poiss. ex Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 467 (1886)
Distribution: China (Yunnan, SW-Sichuan, SW-Guizhou, SW-Guangxi); SE-Tibet; Myanmar (Shan, Taninthayi); Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Perak, Pahang, Selangor)
36 CHI TIB 41 MYA VIE 42 MLY
Conservation Status: IUCN R
Synonyms: hidden
= Pistacia coccinea Collett & Hemsl.; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 28(189-191): 36-37 (1890)
= Pistacia malayana M.R.Hend.; Gard. Bull. Straits Settlements 7: 97 (1933)
= Pistacia weinmanniifolia var. locii T.D.Dai; J. Biol. (Vietnam) 3(3): 23 (1981)
= Pistacia weinmanniifolia var. malayana (M.R.Hend.) Zohary; Palestine J. Bot. Jerusalem Ser. 5: 202 (1952)
species :
Pistacia ×saportae Burnat; Fl. Alp. Marit. 2: 54 (1896)
Distribution: SE-France; Croatia; Turkey (SW-Anatolia); Cyprus (S-Cyprus); Israel (N-Israel)
12 FRA 13 CRO 34 CYP ISR TUR
Remarks: Pistacia lentiscus L. x P. terebinthus L.
Synonyms: hidden
= Pistacia lentisco-terebinthus Saporta & Marion; Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 5, 14(1): 2 (1871). nom. illeg.
= Pistacia ×hybrida Gasp. ex Parl.; Fl. Ital. 5: 383 (1875). nom. illeg.
= Pistacia saportae var. oxycarpa Zohary; Palestine J. Bot. Jerusalem Ser. 5: 204 (1952)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.2 (April 1st, 2024)

Covering 354,662 accepted species,
8,644 hybrids, 47,758 accepted infraspecific taxa and 996,179 synonyms,
in total 1,407,243* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life