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Ver. 19.2
April 1st, 2024

512.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35237; hybrids: 679
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
512.5173 Genus Reichardia Roth; Bot. Abh. 35 (1787)
Distribution: Canary Isl., Mediterranean, Ethiopia, W-Asia eastward to NW-India; 1 Caucasus
Species listed in database: 10; hybrids: 3
= Picridium Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 220 (1799)
species :
Reichardia albanica F.Conti & D.Lakusic; Phytotaxa 236(2): 125 (2015)
Distribution: Albania
13 ALB
species :
Reichardia crystallina (Sch.Bip. ex Webb & Berthel.) Bramwell; Cuad. Bot. Canar. 11: 22 (1970), preprint
Name: Cerraja de mar (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife, Gran Canaria)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium crystallinum Sch.Bip.; Webb & Berthel. Phyt. Canar. 2: 452 (1850)
species :
Reichardia dichotoma (DC.) Freyn; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 42: 267 (1892)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan (incl. Nachichevan); Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia); Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan)
13 BIH KOS MNT SRB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium dichotomum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. ex DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7(1): 183 (1838)
= Reichardia glauca V.A.Matthews; Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 34: 125 (1975) nom. illeg.
= Sonchus divaricatus Sieber ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 610 (1841)
species :
Reichardia famarae Bramwell & G.Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar., 18-19: 49 (1973) ex Gallego & Talavera, Lagascalia 9(2): 201 (1980)
Name: Cerraja de Famara (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura)
21 CNY
species :
Reichardia gaditana (Willk.) Samp.; Bol. Soc. Brot. 24: 68 (1909)
subspecies :
subsp. gaditana
Distribution: Spain; Gibraltar; Morocco; Algeria
12 GIB SPA 20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium gaditanum Willk.; Willk. & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. 2: 232 (1865)
= Picridium tingitanum var. gaditanum (Willk.) Pérez Lara; Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 16: 361 (1887)
= Picridium tingitanum var. hispanicum Kunze; Flora 29: 697 (1846)
= Reichardia gaditana (Willk.) Cout.; Fl. Port. 676 (1913), isonym
subspecies :
subsp. lusitanica (Cout.) P.Silva & Bacelar; Bol. Soc. Brot. 60: 156 (1987)
Distribution: Portugal
12 POR
Synonyms: hidden
= Reichardia gaditana var. lusitanica Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 676 (1913)
species :
Reichardia intermedia (Jan ex DC.) Cout.; Fl. Port. 676 (1913)
Name: Mittlere Reichardie (DE); Intermediate Brighteyes (EN)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares (Mallorca); Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; Greece (only Kiklades); Crete (C- & E-Crete); Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; East Aegaean Isl. (Chios, Samos, Dodecanese, Kasos, Karpathos, Rhodos); Turkey (S-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Israel (N-Israel)
12 BAL GIB POR SPA 13 GRC KRI MLT PEL SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN 34 CYP EAI ISR LEB TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium intermedium (Jan ex DC.) Sch.Bip.; Webb & Berthel., Phyt. Canar. 2: 451 (1850)
= Picridium intermedium var. janii Sch.Bip.; Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 2(2): 452 (1850), nom. superfl.
= Reichardia intermedia (Jan ex DC.) Dinsm.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 33: 109 (1933)
= Reichardia picroides subsp. intermedia (Sch.Bip.) Jahand. & Maire; Jahand. et al., Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 850 (1934)
= Reichardia picroides var. intermedia (Sch.Bip.) Fiori; Fiori et al., Fl. Anal. Italia 3: 425 (1904)
= Sonchus intermedius Jan ex DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7: 182 (1838)
= Sonchus picroides Sm.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. 8: 68 (1835)
species :
Reichardia ligulata (Vent.) G.Kunkel & Sunding; Monogr. Biol. Canar. 3: 80 (1972)
Name: Cerraja de costa (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl., Fuerteventura)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium ligulatum (Vent.) Kunze; Flora 29: 701 (1846)
variant :
var. crispa (Webb & Berthel.) Rivas Mart.; Itinera Geobot. 15(2): 706 (2002)
Distribution: Canary Isl.
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium ligulatum f. crispum Webb & Berthel.
species :
Reichardia macrophylla Vis. & Pancic; Pancic Fl. Princ. Serb. 460 (1874)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Kosovo; N-Albania
13 ALB BIH KOS MNT
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium macrophyllum (Vis. & Pancic) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2: I. 203 (1889)
species :
Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth; Bot. Abh. 35 (1787)
Name: Bitterkraut-Reichardie (DE); Common Brighteyes; Galatsida (EN)
Distribution: Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares (Ibiza & Formentera, Mallorca, Menorca); France; Monaco; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; North Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (widespread excl. North, on all islands); Crete (widespread); Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (NW-coastal Egypt); East Aegaean Isl. (widespread, incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria); Qatar [I]; Australia [I] (SW-Western Australia [I]); Hawaii [I] (Oahu [I], Molokai [I])
12 BAL COR FRA GIB MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KRI MNT NMA PEL PTL SIC SLV SMA TUE 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 34 CYP EAI LEB SYR TUR 35 qat 50 aus 63 haw
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium crassifolium Willk.; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 5: 862 (1847)
= Picridium intermedium var. gracile Sch.Bip.; Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3(2, 2): 452 (1844)
= Picridium intermedium var. robustum Willk.; Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 2: 233 (1865)
= Picridium istriacum Gand.; Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 19 (1883)
= Picridium lesbiacum P.Candargy; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 44: 147 (1897)
= Picridium lingulatum Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 390 (1841)
= Picridium macrogaranum Pancic ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 461 (1879)
= Picridium maritimum Rchb.f.; Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 19: 26. t. 56 (1860)
= Picridium mixtum Gand.; Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 19 (1883)
= Picridium perenne Fraas; Syn. Pl. Fl. Class. 197 (1845), nomen, Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 2: 215 (1902)
= Picridium picroides (L.) H.Karst.; Pharm. Med. Bot. 1145 (1883)
= Picridium rupestre Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 261 (1875)
= Picridium sadleri Gand.; Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 18 (1883)
= Picridium vulgare Desf.; Fl. Atl. 2: 221 (1799)
= Picridium vulgare var. crassifolium (Willk.) Willk.; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 2: 233 (1865)
= Picridium vulgare var. maritimum Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 390 (1839)
= Reichardia crassifolia (Willk.) Guarino & Pignatti; S. Pignatti, Fl. d´Italia 4: 923 (2019)
= Reichardia integrifolia Moench; Methodus 546 (1794)
= Reichardia intermedia subsp. gracilis (Sch.Bip.) Rivas Mart.; Itinera Geobot. 15: 706 (2002)
= Reichardia picroides var. crassifolia (Willk.) Ginzb.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 71: 82 (1922)
= Reichardia picroides var. cupaniana (Nicotra) Fiori; Nuov. Fl. Italia 2: 825 (1925)
= Reichardia picroides var. gracilis (Sch.Bip.) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Folia Bot. Misc. 6: 86 (1989)
= Reichardia picroides var. hypochoeriformis Ginzb.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 71: 75 (1922)
= Reichardia picroides var. integrifolia (Moench) Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 359 (1891)
= Reichardia picroides var. leontodontiformis Ginzb.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 71: 75 (1922)
= Reichardia picroides var. maritima (Boiss.) Fiori; Fiori et al., Fl. Anal. Italia 3: 425 (1904)
= Reichardia picroides var. robusta (Willk.) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Folia Bot. Misc. 6: 86 (1989)
= Scorzonera picroides L.; Sp. Pl. 792 (1753)
= Scorzonera variifolia Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 179 (1796)
= Sonchus chondrilloides Sm.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. 8: 67 (1835)
= Sonchus picroides (L.) Lam.; Encyc. 3: 398 (1786)
= Sonchus squamosus Lam.; Fl. Franc. 2: 87 (1779)
species :
Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth; Bot. Abh. 35 (1787)
subspecies :
subsp. tingitana
Name: Tanger-Reichardie (DE); Cerraja de vina (ES), False Sowthistle (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; E- & S-Spain; Baleares (Ibiza & Formentera, Mallorca, Menorca); Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); Hawaii [I] (Oahu [I], Molokai [I], Hawaii Isl. [I])
11 ger 12 BAL SPA 13 ITA PEL SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN 50 aus 63 haw
Synonyms: hidden
= Picridium arabicum Hochst. & Steud. ex DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7: 182 (1838)
= Picridium discolor Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 6 (1874)
= Picridium hispanicum (Jacq.) Poir.; Encyc. Suppl. 4: 410 (1816)
= Picridium ligulatum Vent.; Jard. Malm. 68. t. 68 (1804)
= Picridium orientale (L.) DC.; Fl. Franc. 4: 16 (1805)
= Picridium pinnatifidum Lag.; Gen. et Sp. Nov. 24 (1816)
= Picridium saharae Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 262 (1875)
= Picridium tingitanum (L.) Desf.; Fl. Atl. 2: 220 (1799)
= Picridium tingitanum var. subacaule Willk.; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 5: 862 (1847)
= Reichardia arabica (Hochst. & Steud. ex DC.) Fiori; Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It., n. s. 20: 393 (1913)
= Reichardia discolor (Pomel) Sennen; Campagn. Bot. Maroc Or. 1930-5, 142 (1936)
= Reichardia orientalis var. crispatula Sennen; Diagn. Nouv.: 195 (1930), nom. inval.
= Reichardia orientalis var. minus Boiss.; (1875)
= Reichardia runcinata Moench; Methodus 546 (1794)
= Reichardia tingitana subsp. discolor (Pomel) Maire; Jahand. et al., Cat. Pl. Maroc 3: 850 (1934)
= Reichardia tingitana var. pinnatifida (Lag.) Pau & Font Quer; Exsicc. (Iter Marocc.) 1927: no. 735 (1928)
= Scorzonera ciliata Forssk.; Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 143 (1775)
= Scorzonera glauca Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 179 (1796)
= Scorzonera tingitana L.; Sp. Pl. 791 (1753)
= Sonchus hispanicus Jacq.; Pl. Rar. Hort. Schoenbr. 2: 9 (1797)
= Sonchus hispidulus Bové ex DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7: 182 (1838)
= Sonchus pinnatifidus Lag. ex DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7: 182 (1838), nom. inval.
= Sonchus tingitanus (L.) Lam.; Encyc. 3: 397 (1792)
subspecies :
subsp. orientalis (L.) Maire; Cavanillesia 2: 174 (1930)
Distribution: E-Crete (incl. Dragonada, Chrisi, Koufonisi); Libya; Egypt (Eastern Desert, Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, NW-coastal Egypt, SE-Egypt); Sudan; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Eritrea; Djibouti; Soqotra; Kenya; Tanzania; Iraq (NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia, S-Iraq); Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Farah, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Nangarhar); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon); Syria (C-Syrian Desert); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Judean Desert, S-Negev Desert, Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, Dahana, NE-Saudi Arabia, N-Saudi Arabia, Nafud Desert, Hejaz, Midyan, S-Saudi Arabia: Rub to Khali, Asir, Nejd Desert); Kuwait; Bahrain; Qatar; United Arab Emirates; Oman (Mascat & Oman); Yemen (Aden Desert, N-Inner Yemen, SW-Yemen, W-Yemen); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Waziristan, N. W. Frontier Prov., Kohat, Khyber, Pakistani Punjab, Lahore); India (Punjab, Uttar Pradesh)
13 KRI 20 EGY LBY 24 DJI ERI ETH SOC SUD 25 KEN TAN 34 AFG CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR 35 BAR KUW OMA QAT SAU UAE YEM 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Reichardia orientalis (L.) Hochr.; Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Genève 7-8: 238 (1904)
= Scorzonera orientalis L.; Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1191 (1759)
= Reichardia tingitana var. subintegra (Boiss.) Mamgain & R.R.Rao; J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 86(2): 273 (1989)
= Picridium tingitanum var. subintegra Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 3: 828 (1875)
species :
Reichardia ×baetica Gallego & Talavera; Lagascalia 9(2): 210 (1980)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
Remarks: Reichardia intermedia x tingitana
species :
Reichardia ×canariensis Gallego & Talavera; Lagascalia 9(2): 212 (1980)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife)
21 CNY
Remarks: Reichardia ligulata x tingitana
species :
Reichardia ×sventenia Gallego & Talavera; Lagascalia 9(2): 213 (1980)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura)
21 CNY
Remarks: Reichardia famarae x tingitana
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.2 (April 1st, 2024)

Covering 354,662 accepted species,
8,644 hybrids, 47,758 accepted infraspecific taxa and 996,179 synonyms,
in total 1,407,243* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life