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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

339.0000 Family Euphorbiaceae A.Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 384 (1789), nom. cons. (s. str.)
210 genera, ca. 6700 spp.
Species listed in database: 6472; hybrids: 56
= Acalyphaceae A.Juss. ex Menge; Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 172 (1839)
= Bertyaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 190 (1858)
= Cheilosaceae Doweld; Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxxi (2001)
= Crotonaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 258 (1858)
= Hippomanaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 244 (1858)
= Mercurialaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 237 (1820)
= Ricinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 547 (1820)
= Ricinocarpaceae Hurus.; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, ser. 3, Bot. 6: 224 (1954)
= Tithymalaceae Vent.; Tabl. Règne Vég. 3: 483 (1799)
= Tragiaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 4: 111 (1838)
= Trewiaceae Lindl.; Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 174 (1836)
339.3282 Genus Ricinus L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 1007 (1753)
Distribution: Mediterranean, Northeast, and tropical E-Africa, almost worldwide planted and escaped
Species listed in database: 1
= Cataputia Ludw.; Ectypa Veg.: 81 (1760)
species :
Ricinus communis L.; Sp. Pl. 1007 (1753)
Name: Rizinus, Wunderbaum (DE); Castor oil plant, Castor Bean (EN); Tartago (ES)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Slovakia [I]; Portugal [I]; Spain [I]; Gibraltar [I]; Baleares [I]; France [I]; Monaco [c]; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica [I]; Sardinia [I]; Italy [I]; Sicily [I]; Pantelleria [I]; Isole Pelagie [I] (Lampedusa [I]); Croatia [I]; Bosnia & Hercegovina [I]; Albania [I]; Romania [I]; Bulgaria [I]; European Turkey [I]; Greece [I]; Crete [I]; Estonia [I]; European Russia [I]; Morocco [I]; Algeria [I]; Tunisia [I]; Libya [I]; Egypt [I] (SE-Egypt [I]); Azores [I] (Santa Maria Isl. [I], Sao Miguel Isl. [I], Terceira [I], Graciosa [I], Pico [I], Faial [I], Flores Isl. [I], Corvo Isl. [I]); Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I], Porto Santo Isl. [I]); Islas Selvagens [I]; Canary Isl. [I] (Lanzarote [I], Fuerteventura [I], Gran Canaria [I], Tenerife [I], La Gomera [I], Hierro [I], La Palma Isl. [I]); Cape Verde Isl. [I] (Santo Antao Isl. [I], Sao Vicente Isl. [I], Santa Luzia Isl. [I], Ilha de Sao Nicolau [I], Ilha de Maio [I], Ilha de Sao Tiago [I], Fogo Isl. [I], Ilha Brava [I]); Gambia [I]; Guinea-Bissau [I]; Guinea [I]; Burkina Faso [I]; Togo [I]; Benin [I]; Cameroon [I]; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo] [I]; Principe Isl. [I]; São Tomé [I]; Gabon [I]; Central African Republic [I]; D.R.Congo [Zaire] [I]; Chad [I]; Sudan; South Sudan; Ethiopia; Somalia; Soqotra [I]; ?Kenya; Angola [I]; Zambia [I]; Zimbabwe [I]; Mozambique [I]; Namibia [I]; Botswana [I]; South Africa [I] (widespread); Eswatini [Swaziland] [I]; St. Helena [I]; Mozambique Channel Isl. [Iles Éparses] [I] (Juan de Nova Isl. [I]); Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Rodrigues [I]; Iles Glorieuses [I]; Seychelles [I]; Agalega Isl. [I]; Chagos Arch. [I] (Diego Garcia [I]); Kazakhstan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Northern Caucasus [I]; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; Armenia [I]; Azerbaijan [I]; East Aegaean Isl. [I] (incl. Rhodos [I]); Turkey [I] (SSW-Anatolia [I], WN-Anatolia [I]); Iraq [I] (SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia [I]); Iran [I] (S-Iran [I], W-Iran [I]); Afghanistan [I]; Lebanon [I] (coastal W-Lebanon [I]); Syria [I] (C-Syrian Desert [I], W-Syrian Mountains [I]); Israel [I] (coastal W-Israel [I], Rift Valley [I], Negev Desert [I], N-Israel [I]); Sinai peninsula [I] (N-Sinai [I], S-Sinai [I]); Jordania [I] (S-Jordania [I]); Saudi Arabia [I] (C-Saudi Arabia [I], Dahana [I], NE-Saudi Arabia [I], Nafud Desert [I], Hejaz [I], Asir [I], Nejd Desert [I]); Qatar [I]; Oman [I] (Dhofar [I], Mascat & Oman [I]); Yemen [I] (Aden Desert [I], coastal Hadhramaut [I], Inner Hadhramaut [I], N-Inner Yemen [I], SW-Yemen [I], Tihama [I], W-Yemen [I]); China [I] (Guangdong [I], Yunnan [I]); South Korea [I]; Bonin Isl. [I] (Hahajima [I]); Volcano Isl. [I] (Iwojima [I]); Taiwan [I]; Pakistan [I]; Nepal [I]; India [I] (throughout); Lakshadweep Isl. [Laccadives] [I]; Maldives [I]; Bangladesh [I]; Andaman Isl. [I]; Nicobar Isl. [I]; Myanmar [I]; Thailand [I]; Cambodia [I]; Vietnam [I]; peninsular Malaysia [I]; Singapore [I]; Borneo [I]; Philippines [I]; Java [I]; Lesser Sunda Isl. [I]; Cocos [Keeling] Isl. [I]; Christmas Isl. [Austr.] [I]; New Guinea [I]; Bismarck Arch. [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Northern Territory [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); Lord Howe Isl. [I]; Norfolk Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; New Caledonia [I]; Vanuatu [I]; Tonga [I] (Tongatapu [I], ´Eua [I], Vava´u [I]); Niue [I]; Fiji [I]; American Samoa [I] (Ta´u [I], Tutuila [I]); [Western] Samoa [I] (´Upolu [I], Savai´i [I]); Gilbert Isl. [I] (Butaritari [I], Tarawa [I]); Cook Isl. [I] (Rarotonga [I], Mangaia [I], Atiu [I], Mauke [I]); Marquesas Isl. [I] (Nuku Hiva [I], Ua Huka [I], Hiva Oa [I], Fatu Hiva [I]); Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I], Moorea [I], Raiatea [I]); Tuamotu Arch. [I] (Makatea Isl. [I], Rangiroa Atoll [I]); Austral Isl. [I]; Pitcairn Isl. [I]; Easter Isl. [I]; Palau [I] (Peleliu [I], Angaur [I]); Northern Marianas [I] (Saipan [I], Tinian [I], Aguijan [I], Rota [I], Agrihan [I], Alamagan [I], Sarigan [I], Anatahan [I]); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Yap [I], Truk [I], Udot [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Enewetok [I], Ailinglapalap [I], Jaluit [I]); Wake Isl. [I]; Hawaii [I] (Kauai [I], Oahu [I], Molokai [I], Lanai [I], Maui [I], Kahoolawe Isl. [I], Hawaii Isl. [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arizona [I], California [I], Connecticut [I], District of Columbia [I], Delaware [I], Florida [I], Georgia [I], Illinois [I], Kansas [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Michigan [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], North Carolina [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Pennsylvania [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I]); Mexico [I]; Belize [I]; Honduras [I]; Nicaragua [I]; Costa Rica [I]; Isla del Coco [I]; Bahamas [I]; Cuba [I]; Cayman Isl. [I]; Jamaica [I]; Dominican Republic [I]; Haiti [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Navassa Isl. [I]; Virgin Isl. [I]; Antigua [I]; Barbuda [I]; Montserrat [I]; Guadeloupe [I]; Dominica [I]; Martinique [I]; St. Lucia [I]; St. Vincent [I]; Tobago [I]; Trinidad [I]; Aruba [I]; Bonaire [I]; Curacao [I]; Colombia [I]; Venezuela [I]; Guyana [I]; Surinam [I]; French Guiana [I]; Ecuador [I]; Galapagos [I]; Peru [I]; Bolivia [I]; Brazil [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Arica y Parinacota [I], Antofagasta [I], Atacama [I], Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I], Metropolitana de Santiago [I], Biobío [I], Los Lagos [I]); Juan Fdz. Isl. [I]
11 ger slo 12 bal cis cor fra gib mco por sar spa 13 alb bih bul cro grc ita kri pel ptl rom sic tue 14 est rus 20 alg egy lby mor tun 21 azo cny cvi mdr sel 22 ben bkn gam gnb gui tog 23 bio caf cmn gab pri sao zai 24 cha ETH soc SOM SSU SUD 26 ang moz zam zim 27 bot nam saf swz 28 sth 29 aga cgs igl mau mci reu rod sey 32 kaz tzk uzb 33 arm aze geo ncs 34 afg eai irn irq isr jor leb sin syr tur 35 oma qat sau yem 36 chi 38 kor kzn oga tai 40 ban ind ldv mdv nep pak 41 and cbd mya ncb tha vie 42 bor cki jaw lsi mly nwg phi sng xms 43 bis 50 aus lhi nfk 51 ctm nzl 60 asa fij gil nue nwc sam ton van 61 aui coo eas mrq pit sci tua 62 gum mic mrn mrs plu wak 63 haw 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 blz coc cos hon nic 81 aba aru bah bon cay cub cur dom gdl his jam mar mts nav pue stl stv trt vir 82 clm frg guy sur ven 83 bol ecu gal per 84 bra 85 arg cle jnf uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Cataputia major Ludw.; Ectypa Veg.: t. 7 (1760)
= Cataputia minor Ludw.; Defin. Gen. Pl. ed. 3.: 81 (1760)
= Croton spinosus L.; Sp. Pl. 1005 (1753)
= Ricinus africanus Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 5 (1768)
= Ricinus angulatus Thunb.; Diss. Ricin. 6 (1815)
= Ricinus armatus Andrews; Bot. Rep, t. 430 (1805)
= Ricinus atropurpureus Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr. Euphorb.-Plukenetiin. Epiprinin.-Ricinin. 126 (1919)
= Ricinus badius Rchb.; Ic. Bot. Exot. 2: 21, t. 154 (1829)
= Ricinus borboniensis Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 147, IX: 126 (1919)
= Ricinus cambodgensis Benary; Gartenfl. 36: 102 (1887)
= Ricinus communis proles persicus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 289 (1941)
= Ricinus communis f. americanus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1017 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. argentatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 34 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. argyratus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 36 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atratus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(2): 32 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atrobrunneatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 37 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atrofulvatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 55 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atrofuscatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 53 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atrophoeniceus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 66 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atropunicatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 43 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. atropurpureatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 50 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. avellanatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 56 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. blumeanus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. canatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 47 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. canescens T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 48 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. carneatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 44 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. cervatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 43 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. cinerascens T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 27 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. cinereatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 65 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. denudatus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. epiglaucus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. erythrocladus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. exiguus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 68 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. fulvatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 68 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. fumatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 41 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. fuscatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 35 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. gilvus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 53 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. glaucus (Hoffmanns.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. gracilis Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1021 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. guttatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 47 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. hybridus (Besser) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. incarnatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 46 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. inermis (Mill.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. intermedius Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. laevis (DC.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1021 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. macrophyllus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. maculatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 29 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. marmoreatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 40 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. murinatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 66 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. nigellus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 51 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. nigrescens T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 45 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. niveatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 39 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. oblongus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 31 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. obscurus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 42 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. oligacanthus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. ostrinatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 58 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. pardalinus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 31 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. picturatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 30 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. plumbeatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 62 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. pruinosus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1017 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. pullatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 49 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. punctatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 48 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. punctulatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 61 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. punicans T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 57 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. purpurascens (Bertol.) Pax; Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 147, XI: 122 (1919)
= Ricinus communis f. radiatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 64 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. rufescens T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 55 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. russatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 57 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. rutilans Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1017 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. scaber (Bertol. ex Moris) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1019 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. scriptus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 59 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. sordidus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 33 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. stigmosus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 28 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. striatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 63 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. subpurpurascens Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. subrotundus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 54 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. subviridus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1019 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. sulcatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 38 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. tigrinus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 39 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. umbrinus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 59 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. venosus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 37 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. vinatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 52 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. viridis (Willd.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. zebrinus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 60 (1956)
= Ricinus communis f. zollingeri Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis f. zonatus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 50 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subsp. africanus (Mill.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 647 (1881)
= Ricinus communis subsp. indicus Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 35 (1980)
= Ricinus communis subsp. manshuricus V.Bork.; Descr. Var. Azcherkraya 106 (1936)
= Ricinus communis subsp. mexicanus Popova; Bukasov S. M. Vozdelyv. Rast. Meksiki 409 (1931)
= Ricinus communis subsp. persicus Popova; Kleshchevina izd. VIR 27 (1930)
= Ricinus communis subsp. ruderalis Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 38 (1980), nom. illeg.
= Ricinus communis subsp. sanguineus Popova; Kleshchevina izd. VIR 35 (1930)
= Ricinus communis subsp. scaber (Bertol. ex Moris) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 647 (1881)
= Ricinus communis subsp. sinensis Hiltebr.; Mirov. Rast. Res. 63 (1935)
= Ricinus communis subsp. sinensis Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 34 (1980), nom. illeg.
= Ricinus communis subsp. zanzibarinus Popova; Kleshchevina izd. VIR 43 (1930)
= Ricinus communis subvar. almeidae T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 58 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. americanus (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 44 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. blumeanus (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 46 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. epruinosus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 43 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. erythrocladus (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 64 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. glauceus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 27 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. gracilis (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 68 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. griseus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 33 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. macrophyllus (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 64 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. pruinosus (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 41 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. purpurascens (Bertol.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 50 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. roseus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 55 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. rutilans (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 40 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. subviridus (Müll.Arg.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 65 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. violaceus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 36 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. violeus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 30 (1956)
= Ricinus communis subvar. viridus (Willd.) T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 67 (1956)
= Ricinus communis var. aegyptiaceus (Popova) Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 40 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. africanus (Willd.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1019 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. amblyocalyx Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1019 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. americanus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1017 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. armatus (Andrews) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 459 (1841)
= Ricinus communis var. badius (Rchb.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1019 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. bailundensis J.M.Coult.; Bull. Soc. Portug. Sci. Nat. 1918: 82 (1918)
= Ricinus communis var. benguelensis Müll.Arg.; J. Bot. 1: 337 (1864)
= Ricinus communis var. borboniensis André; Pl. Feuill. Ornem. 206 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. brasiliensis Müll.Arg.; Mart., Fl. Bras. 11(2): 421 (1874)
= Ricinus communis var. brevinodis Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 32 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. caesius Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 287 (1941)
= Ricinus communis var. giganteus André; Pl. Feuill. Ornem. 206 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. glaucus Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 37 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. griseofolius Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 36 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. hybridus (Besser) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. indehiscens Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 33 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. inermis (Mill.) Pax & K.Hoffm.; Pflanzenr. IV, 147, XI: 122 (1919)
= Ricinus communis var. japonicus Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 35 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. krappa Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 459 (1841), nom. nud.
= Ricinus communis var. leucocarpus (Bertol.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. lividus (Jacq.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. macrocarpus T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 27 (1956)
= Ricinus communis var. macrophyllus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. megalospermus (Delile) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1017 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. mexicanus (Popova) Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 40 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. microcarpus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. microspermus Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 31 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. minor (Mill.) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 459 (1841)
= Ricinus communis var. nanus Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 38 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. purpurascens (Bertol.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. reichenbachianus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1019 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. rheedianus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. roseus Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 31 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. rubescens Herder; Index Seminum (LE, Petropolitanus) 1868: 91 (1869)
= Ricinus communis var. rugosus Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1018 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. sanguineus Baill.; Recueil Observ. Bot. 1: 342 (1861)
= Ricinus communis var. speciosus (Burm.f.) Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1021 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. spontaneus Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 39 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. subpurpurascens Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1020 (1866)
= Ricinus communis var. undulatus (Besser) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 459 (1841)
= Ricinus communis var. vasconcellosii T.Carvalho; Anais Junta Invest. Ultramar 11(4): 33 (1956)
= Ricinus communis var. violaceocaulis Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 34 (1980)
= Ricinus communis var. virens Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 290 (1941)
= Ricinus communis var. viridis Popova & Moshkin; Kleshchevina (Nauch. Trudy Vasknil): 32 (1980)
= Ricinus compactus Huber; Cat. Print. 1865: 8 (1865)
= Ricinus digitatus Noronha; Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5(4): 26 (1790), nom. nud.
= Ricinus europaeus T.Nees; Gen. Fl. Germ.: 38 (1833)
= Ricinus gibsonii H.J.Veitch; Gard. Chron., n.s., 2: 610 (1874)
= Ricinus giganteus Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr. Euphorb.-Plukenetiin. Epiprinin.-Ricinin. 126 (1919)
= Ricinus glaucus Hoffmanns.; Verz. Pfl. Nachtr. 2: 199 (1826)
= Ricinus hybridus Besser; Cat. Jard. Bot. Krzemieniec, Suppl. 2: 13 (1814)
= Ricinus inermis Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 6 (1768), Jacq. Misc. 2: 362
= Ricinus japonicus Thunb.; Diss. Ricin. 4 (1815)
= Ricinus krappa Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 459 (1841), nom. inval.
= Ricinus laevis DC.; Not. Jard. Genev. 1: 31 (1823)
= Ricinus leucocarpus Bertol.; Giorn. Arcad. 21: (1824) 192 (bis)
= Ricinus lividus Jacq.; Misc. Austriac. 2: 360 (1781)
= Ricinus macrocarpus proles indicus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 283 (1941)
= Ricinus macrocarpus proles japonicus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 285 (1941)
= Ricinus macrocarpus proles sanguineus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 280 (1941)
= Ricinus macrocarpus Popova; Fl. Cult. Pl., USSR, ed. Vavilov et al., VII. (Oleiferous Plants) 278 (1941),rossice.
= Ricinus macrocarpus var. nudus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 287 (1941)
= Ricinus macrophyllus Bertol.; Giorn. Arcadico Sci. 21: 192 (1824)
= Ricinus medicus Forssk.; Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 164 (1775)
= Ricinus medius J.F.Gmel.; Syst. Nat. ed. 13[bis].: 1615 (1792)
= Ricinus megalosperma Delile; Cailliaud, Voy. Méroé 4: 89 (1827)
= Ricinus messeniacus Heldr.; Exsicc. (Herb. Graec. Norm.) 1899: no. 1480 (1899)
= Ricinus metallicus Pax & K.Hoffm.; Engl., Pflanzenr. Euphorb.-Plukenetiin. Epiprinin.-Ricinin. 126 (1919)
= Ricinus microcarpus proles aegypticus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 291 (1941)
= Ricinus microcarpus proles indostanicus Popova; Wulff, Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 290 (1941)
= Ricinus microcarpus Popova; Fl. Cult. Pl., USSR, ed. Vavilov et al., VII. (Oleiferous Plants) 287 (1941),rossice.
= Ricinus microcarpus var. atrovirens Popova; Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 290 (1941)
= Ricinus microcarpus var. spontaneus Popova; Kul´t. Fl. SSSR 7: 288 (1941)
= Ricinus minor Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 7 (1768)
= Ricinus nanus Balb.; Cat. Hort. Bot. Taurin. 65 (1813)
= Ricinus obermannii Groenland; Rev. Hort. (Paris), sér. 4, 7: 601 (1858)
= Ricinus peltatus Noronha; Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5(4): 2 (1790), nom. nud.
= Ricinus perennis Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 2: 459 (1841)
= Ricinus persicus Popova; Bull. Applied Bot., Leningrad 16: 229 (1926)
= Ricinus purpurascens Bertol.; Misc. Bot. 9: 4 (1851)
= Ricinus ruber Miq.; Fl. Ned. Ind. 1: 390 (1859)
= Ricinus rugosus Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 4 (1768)
= Ricinus rutilans Müll.Arg.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 15(2): 1017 (1866)
= Ricinus sanguineus Groenland; Rev. Hort. (Paris), sér. 4, 7: 601 (1858)
= Ricinus scaber Bertol. ex Moris; Stirp. Sard. Elench. 1: 41 (1827)
= Ricinus speciosus Burm.f.; Fl. Ind. 207 (1768)
= Ricinus spectabilis Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 623 (1826)
= Ricinus tunisensis Desf.; Cat. Hort. Par. ed. III. 340 (1829)
= Ricinus undulatus Besser; Cat. Hort. Bot. Krzem. 90 (1811)
= Ricinus urens Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. 8.: no. 3 (1768)
= Ricinus viridis Willd.; Sp. Pl. 4: 564 (1806)
= Ricinus vulgaris Garsault; Fig. Pl. Anim. Med, t. 66 (1764), Descr. Pl. Anim. 50 (1767), Thell. in Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 8: 784
= Ricinus vulgaris Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 1 (1768)
= Ricinus zanzibarensis Hort.; ex Illustr. Hortic. 41: 99 (1894), fig. 19
= Ricinus zanzibarinus Popova; Fl. Cult. Pl., USSR, ed. Vavilov et al., VII. (Oleiferous Plants) 292 (1941), rossice
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life