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Ver. 19.3
June 16th, 2024

455.0000 Family Viburnaceae Raf.; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 87 (1820), nom. cons.
5 genera, ca. 210 spp. Reclassification and inclusion of Sambucus and Viburnum based on PCR results and several recent studies
Species listed in database: 223; hybrids: 6
= Adoxaceae E.Mey.; Preuss. Pfl.-Gatt.: 198 (1839), nom. cons.
= Sambucaceae Batsch ex Borkh.; Bot. Wörterb. 2: 322 (1797)
= Tinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 635 (1820)
455.2101 Genus Sambucus L.; Sp. Pl.: 269 (1753)
Distribution: Temperate and subtropical regions, chiefly E-Asia and E-North America, tropical E-Africa (1), Australia and Tasmania (2)
Species listed in database: 22; hybrids: 1
= Ebulum Garcke; Fl. Deutschl. ed. VII. 184 (1865)
= Phyteuma Lour.; Fl. Cochin. 138 (1790)
= Tripetelus Lindl.; Mitch. Three Exped. 2: 14 (1839)
species :
Sambucus adnata Wall.; [Numer. List 15, no. 482 (1829), nom. nud.] ex DC., Prodr. 4: 322 (1830)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Guizhou, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan); Tibet; Nepal; Bhutan; N-India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Chumbi)
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus adnata var. puberula Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1920: 221 (1920), nom. inval.
= Sambucus gautschii Wettst.; Österr. Bot. Z. 40(6): 230-231 (1890)
= Sambucus schweriniana Rehder; Pl. Wilson. 1(2): 306-307 (1912)
species :
Sambucus africana Standl.; Smithson. Misc. Coll. 68: No. 5, 19 (1917)
Distribution: Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania
25 KEN TAN UGA
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus ebulus subsp. africana (Engl.) Bolli; Revis. Genus Sambucus (Diss. Bot., 223): 144 (1994)
= Sambucus ebulus var. africana Engl.; Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 18: 537 (1904)
species :
Sambucus australasica (Lindl.) Fritsch; Engl. & Prantl, Natürl. Pflanzenfam. 4: 4 162 (1891)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria)
50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus xanthocarpa F.Muell.; Trans. Phil. Soc. Vict. 1: 42 (1855)
= Tripetelus australasicus Lindl.; Mitch. Three Exped. 2: 14 (1839)
species :
Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl.; Linnaea 3: 140 (1828)
Distribution: N-Brazil (Amazonas); NE-Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia); SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo); S-Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina); Paraguay (Central, Guaira, Itapua, Paraguari); Uruguay (Montevideo, Rocha, Treinta y Tres); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fe)
84 BRA 85 ARG PAR URU
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus pentagynia Larrañaga; Escritos D. A. Larrañaga 2: 117 (1923)
species :
Sambucus canadensis L.; Sp. Pl. 269 (1753)
Name: American black elderberry (EN); Kanadischer Holunder (DE); Sauco de Canada (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. [I] (Gran Canaria [I]); Cameroon [I]; D.R.Congo [Zaire] [I]; Rwanda [I]; Burundi [I]; Ethiopia [I]; Bhutan [I]; India [I] (Arunachal Pradesh [I], Meghalaya [I], Sikkim [I], West Bengal [I]); Bangladesh [I]; Thailand [I]; Laos [I]; Vietnam [c]; Philippines [c]; Java [I]; Lesser Sunda Isl. [I] (Bali [I]); Cook Isl. [I] (Rarotonga [I], Mangaia [I], Aitutaki [I], Ngaputoru Group [I]); Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I]); Palau [I] (Koror [I]); Northern Marianas [I] (Agrihan [I]); Guam [I]; Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Pohnpei [I]); Fed. States of Micronesia [I] (Yap [I]); Marshall Isl. [I] (Majuro [I], Jaluit [I]); Hawaii [I] (Kauai [I], Oahu [I], Maui [I], Hawaii Isl. [I]); Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas); Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Costa Rica; Panama; Cuba [I]; Cayman Isl. [I]; Jamaica [I]; Dominican Republic [I]; Haiti [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I] (Tortola [I]); St. Barthélémy [I]; Saba [I]; St. Eustatius [I]; Guadeloupe [I]; Dominica [I]; Martinique [I]; St. Vincent [I]; Barbados [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Bolivia [I]
21 cny 23 bur cmn rwa zai 24 eth 40 ban bhu ind 41 lao tha vie 42 jaw lsi phi 61 coo sci 62 gum mic mrn mrs plu 63 haw 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX 80 COS GUA HON NIC PAN 81 bbd cay cub dom gdl his jam mar pue sab sba ste stv trt vir 83 bol
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus bipinnata Moench; Methodus: 506 (1794), nom. superfl.
= Sambucus canadensis f. atroflavula House; Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 243-244: 41 (1923)
= Sambucus canadensis f. aurea (J.F.Cowell ex L.H.Bailey) Rehder; Bibliogr. Cult. Trees: 599 (1949)
= Sambucus canadensis f. chlorocarpa Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 188 (1911)
= Sambucus canadensis f. delicatissima Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 16: 256 (1907 publ. 1908)
= Sambucus canadensis f. engelmannii Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 188 (1911)
= Sambucus canadensis f. maxima (Hesse) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 36 (1909)
= Sambucus canadensis f. repens Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 216 (1920)
= Sambucus canadensis f. rosicalyx Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 216 (1920)
= Sambucus canadensis f. rubra E.J.Palmer & Steyerm.; Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 773 (1938)
= Sambucus canadensis subsp. laciniata (A.Gray) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 13: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus canadensis var. aurea J.F.Cowell ex L.H.Bailey; Cycl. Amer. Hort. 4: 1610 (1902)
= Sambucus canadensis var. glabra Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 215 (1920)
= Sambucus canadensis var. laciniata A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2): 9 (1884)
= Sambucus canadensis var. maxima (Hesse) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 635 (1911)
= Sambucus canadensis var. rubella Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 36 (1909)
= Sambucus canadensis var. submollis Rehder; Trees & Shrubs [Sarg.] (1911)
= Sambucus canadensis var. tarda Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 36 (1909)
= Sambucus cerulea var. arizonica Sarg.; Man. Trees, ed. 2: 885 (1922)
= Sambucus eberhardtii (Pierre) Danguy; Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 28: 378 (1922)
= Sambucus humilis Raf.; Ann. Nat. 1: 13 (1820), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus intermedia var. insularis Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 49:38,3 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) Bolli; Revis. Genus Sambucus (Diss. Bot., 223): 168 (1994)
= Sambucus nigra var. canadensis (L.) B.L.Turner; Sida, Bot. Misc. 24: 6 (2003)
= Sambucus orbiculata Greene; Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 99 (1910)
= Sambucus orbiculata var. glabra Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 219 (1920)
= Sambucus orbiculata var. puberula Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 219 (1920)
= Sambucus planteriensis Simon-Louis ex Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 169 (1889)
= Sambucus plantierensis Koehne; Deut. Dendrol.: 533 (1893)
= Sambucus pubens var. maxima Hesse; Gartenflora 47: 582 (1898)
= Sambucus rehderiana Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 220 (1920)
= Sambucus repens Raf.; Alsogr. Amer.: 47 (1838)
= Sambucus simpsonii Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shr. 2: 187. t. 175 (1911)
species :
Sambucus cerulea Raf.; Alsog. Am. 48 (1838)
Name: Blue elderberry (EN), Bereifter Holunder (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Canada (British Columbia); USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Mexico (Sonora, Coahuila)
11 ger 71 CDN 73 USA 76 USA 77 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus californica K.Koch; Dendrologie 2(1): 72 (1872)
= Sambucus cerulea f. fimbriata Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920)
= Sambucus cerulea f. glauca (Nutt.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920)
= Sambucus cerulea f. semperflorens Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920)
= Sambucus cerulea f. trifida Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920)
= Sambucus cerulea var. glabra Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920)
= Sambucus cerulea var. glauca (Nutt.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 37 (1909)
= Sambucus cerulea var. velutina (Durand & Hilg.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1909: 37 (1909)
= Sambucus coriacea Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 99 (1910)
= Sambucus decipiens M.E.Jones; Bull. Montana State Univ., Biol. Ser. 15(61): 46 (1910)
= Sambucus ferax A.Nelson; Bot. Gaz. 53: 225 (1912)
= Sambucus fimbriata Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 99 (1910)
= Sambucus glauca Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Am. 2: 13 (1841)
= Sambucus glauca var. velutina (Durand & Hilg.) I.M.Johnst.; Pl. World 22: 118 (1919)
= Sambucus maritima Greene; Pittonia 2: 297 (1892)
= Sambucus mexicana subsp. cerulea (Raf.) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 13: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus mexicana subsp. velutina (Durand & Hilg.) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 13: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus mexicana var. cerulea (Raf.) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 13: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus mexicana var. velutina (Durand & Hilg.) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 13: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus nigra subsp. cerulea (Raf.) Bolli; Revis. Genus Sambucus (Diss. Bot., 223): 174 (1994)
= Sambucus nigra var. cerulea (Raf.) B.L.Turner; Sida, Bot. Misc. 24: 6 (2003)
= Sambucus racemosa var. maritima (Greene) Jeps.; School Fl. Pacif. Coast: 85 (1902)
= Sambucus trifida A.Heller ex Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920), pro syn.
= Sambucus velutina Durand & Hilg.; Pacif. Rail. Rep. 5: 8
variant :
var. neomexicana (Wooton) Rehder; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 24: 228 (1915 publ. 1916)
Distribution: USA (Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma)
74 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus angustifolia May; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 50: 231 (1878)
= Sambucus cerulea f. vestita (Wooton & Standl.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 218 (1920)
= Sambucus glauca var. neomexicana (Wooton) A.Nelson; Coult. & Nelson, Man. Bot. Rocky Mt., ed. 2: 469 (1909)
= Sambucus intermedia Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 48: 400 (1876)
= Sambucus intermedia f. neomexicana (Wooton) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 30 (1909)
= Sambucus intermedia var. trifoliata Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 38 (1909)
= Sambucus neomexicana var. vestita (Wooton & Standl.) Kearney & Peebles; J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29: 492 (1939)
= Sambucus neomexicana Wooton; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 309 (1898)
= Sambucus vestita Wooton & Standl.; Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 175 (1913)
species :
Sambucus ebulus L.; Sp. Pl.: 269 (1753)
Name: Zwerg-Holunder, Attich (DE), Dwarf elderberry (EN)
Distribution: England [I]; Ireland [I]; Denmark [I]; Sweden [I]; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg [I], Berlin [I], Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern [I], Niedersachsen [I], Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt [I], Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; Baleares; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (widespread mainland, Evvoia, Andros, Thasos, Samothraki, Limnos, Kerkyra, Ionian Isl.); Crete; Estonia [I]; Lithuania [I]; Belarus [I]; C-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Turkmenistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (Lesvos, Samos); Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan); Cyprus (N-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (N-Israel); Canada [I] (Québec [I]); USA [I] (New Jersey [I], New York [I])
10 den grb ire swe 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO BAL CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 blr est KRY lit RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 mdr 32 TKM 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR 72 cdn 75 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Ebulum humile (Mill.) Garcke; Fl. Deutschl. ed. VII. 184 (1865)
= Sambucus cochinchinensis Spreng.; Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 1: 935 (1824)
= Sambucus deborensis (Kosanin) Kosanin; Bull. Inst. Jard. Bot. Univ. Belgrade 2: 128 (1932)
= Sambucus ebulus f. laciniata Vicolu; Flora si vegetatia Piemontului Lugojului (jud. Timis), Cluj -Napoca (1974)
= Sambucus ebulus f. xerophila Priszter; Bot. Közlem. 59(1): 45 (1972)
= Sambucus ebulus subsp. laciniata Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital.: 317 (1882)
= Sambucus ebulus var. citrina Cheshm.; Fitologiya 23: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus ebulus var. deborensis Kosanin; Bull. Inst. Jard. Bot. Univ. Belgrade 1: 241 (1930)
= Sambucus ebulus var. humilis (Mill.) Mérat; Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris: 122 (1812)
= Sambucus ebulus var. incarnata Cheshm.; Fitologiya 23: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus ebulus var. laciniata Pohl; 296 (1809)
= Sambucus ebulus var. laciniata Ten.; Fl. Napol. 1: 136 (1811)
= Sambucus ebulus var. viridis Petkovic; Glasn. Prir. Mus. Beogradu, Ser. B, Biol. Nauke 31: 120 (1976)
= Sambucus herbacea Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 250 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Sambucus humilis Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 5 (1768)
= Sambucus integerrima Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 2: 173 (1812)
= Sambucus loureiroana DC.; Prodr. 4: 323 (1830), nom. superfl.
= Sambucus nigra Lour.; Fl. Cochinch.: 181 (1790), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus paucijuga Steven; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(II): 277 (1848)
= Viburnum ebulus (L.) Martinovsky; Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 80: 255 (1931)
species :
Sambucus gaudichaudiana DC.; Prod. 4: 322 (1830)
Distribution: Australia (South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania)
50 AUS
species :
Sambucus javanica Reinw. ex Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 657 (1826)
subspecies :
subsp. javanica
Distribution: Bangladesh; Myanmar (Chin, Kachin, Sagaing, Shan); Thailand; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam; Sumatra; Borneo; Sulawesi; Philippines (Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Leyte, Mindanao); Java; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok); Vanuatu [I]
40 BAN 41 CBD LAO MYA THA VIE 42 BOR JAW LSI PHI SUL SUM 60 van
Synonyms: hidden
= Ebulum javanicum (Reinw.) Hosok.; Bot. & Zool., Tokyo 6: 719 (1938), reimpr.
= Phyteuma bipinnata Lour.; Fl. Cochinch.: 138 (1790)
= Phyteuma cochinchinensis Lour.; Fl. Cochinch.: 139 (1790)
= Sambucus angustifolia Noronha; Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 5(4): 27 (1790), nom. nud.
= Sambucus argyi H.Lév.; Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. 24: 292 (1914)
= Sambucus ebuloides Desv. ex DC.; Prodr. 4: 323 (1830)
= Sambucus henriana Samutina; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 71(8): 1121 (1986)
= Sambucus javanica var. meridionalis Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 222 (1920)
= Sambucus phyteumoides DC.; Prodr. 4: 323 (1830)
= Sambucus rubra Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.; Numer. List: no. 482 (1829), nom. inval.
= Sambucus thunbergiana Blume ex Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 265 (1866)
= Sambucus thunbergii G.Don; Gen. Syst. 3: 438 (1834)
subspecies :
subsp. chinensis (Lindl.) Fukuoka; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 22: 166 (1967)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Tibet; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Bonin Isl. (Chichijima, Otohtojima, Hahajima); Volcano Isl. (Kita-Iwojima); Taiwan; Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim); Myanmar (Kachin); Thailand; Vietnam
36 CHI TIB 38 JAP KZN NNS OGA TAI 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA THA VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Ebulum chinense (Lindl.) Nakai; J. Coll. Sci., Tokyo 42: 13 (1921)
= Ebulum formosanum (Nakai) Nakai; J. Coll. Sci., Tokyo 42: 14 (1921)
= Sambucus arisanensis Kaneh. & Sasaki; Rep. Dept. Forest. Gov. Res. Inst. Taihoku 9: 484 (1930), nom. nud.
= Sambucus chinensis Lindl.; Trans. Hort. Soc. London 6: 297 (1826)
= Sambucus chinensis var. formosana (Nakai) H.Hara; Ginkgoana 5: 295 (1983)
= Sambucus chinensis var. pinnatilobatus G.W.Hu; Novon 18(1): 63 (2008)
= Sambucus formosana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 31(367): 211 (1917)
= Sambucus hookeri Rehder; Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 1: 308 (1912)
= Sambucus japonica var. formosana Schwer.
= Sambucus javanica f. chinensis (Lindl.) H.Ohashi; J. Jap. Bot. 90(5): 347 (2015)
= Sambucus javanica f. formosana (Nakai) H.Ohashi; J. Jap. Bot. 90(5): 348 (2015)
= Sambucus javanica f. pinnatilobata (G.W.Hu) H.Ohashi; J. Jap. Bot. 90: 348 (2015)
= Sambucus javanica var. borealis Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 222 (1920)
= Sambucus javanica var. formosana (Nakai) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 222 (1920)
species :
Sambucus kamtschatica E.Wolf; Mitteil. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 32, 34 (1923)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus buergeriana Blume ex Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 474 (1926)
= Sambucus buergeriana var. miquelii (Nakai) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 474 (1926)
= Sambucus latipinna f. velutina (Nakai) U.C.La; Fl. Coreana (U. C. La) 8: 51 (2000)
= Sambucus latipinna var. miquelii (Nakai) Nakai; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 42(1): 11 (1921)
= Sambucus longipes Nakai; Kamik.-Tennenk.-Chosahok.: 40 (1928)
= Sambucus miquelii (Nakai) Kom.; Kom. & Klob.-Alis. Key Pl. Far East. Reg. USSR 2: 962 (1932)
= Sambucus racemosa f. nuda H.Hara; Ginkgoana 5: 291 (1983), nom. nov.
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. glabra Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 48 (1909)
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. kamtschatica (E.L.Wolf) Hultén; Fl. Kamtchatka 4: 139 (1930)
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. miquelii (Nakai) Nedol.; Konsp. Dendrofl. Ross. Dal´nego Vostoka 107 (1995)
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubescens Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 47 (1909), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus racemosa var. glabra (Schwer.) Miq. ex C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 638 (1909)
= Sambucus racemosa var. miquelii Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 31: 211 (1917)
= Sambucus racemosa var. pubescens Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 47 (1909), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus sachalinensis Pojark.; Kom., Fl. URSS 23: 726 (1958)
= Sambucus siberica subsp. miquelii (Nakai) Samutina; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 23: 169 (1986)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. miquelii (Nakai) H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 280 (1951)
= Sambucus velutina Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 40: 478 (1926)
= Sambucus williamsii var. miquelii (Nakai) Y.C.Tang; Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 72: 11 (1988)
species :
Sambucus lanceolata R.Br.; Buch, Phys. Beschr. Canar. Ins.: 195 (1825)
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl.)
21 MDR
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus lanceolata Banks ex Lowe; Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 4: 31 (1831), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus maderensis Lowe; Man. Fl. Mad. 1: 381 (1868)
= Sambucus nigra subsp. maderensis (Lowe) Bolli; Revis. Genus Sambucus (Diss. Bot., 223): 164 (1994)
= Sambucus nigra var. laciniata Lowe; Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 4: 31 (1831), nom. illeg.
species :
Sambucus mexicana C.Presl ex DC.; Prod. 4: 322 (1830)
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico); Mexico (Chihuahua, Sonora)
76 USA 77 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus bipinnata Schltdl. & Cham.; Linnaea 5: 171 (1830), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus canadensis var. mexicana (C.Presl ex DC.) Sarg.; Silva N. Amer. 5: 88 (1893)
= Sambucus cerulea var. mexicana (C.Presl ex DC.) L.D.Benson; Amer. J. Bot. 30: 240 (1943)
= Sambucus mexicana f. caudata Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 215 (1920)
= Sambucus mexicana var. bipinnata (Cham. & Schltdl.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 49: 34, 3 (1909)
= Sambucus mexicana var. plantierensis Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 34 (1909)
species :
Sambucus nigra L.; Sp. Pl.: 269 (1753)
Name: Schwarzer Holunder (DE); Black Elder (EN)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway [I]; Sweden [I]; Finland [I]; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (widespread mainland, Kerkyra, Ionian Isl., Thasos, Samothraki, Limnos, rare Kiklades); Crete [I]; Estonia [I]; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco [I]; Algeria [I]; Tunisia [I]; Azores (Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, Faial, Flores Isl., Corvo Isl.); Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Uzbekistan [I]; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (Lesvos, Chios, Ikaria, Samos, Kos, Nisyros, Simi, Rhodos); Turkey (E-Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (W-Iran); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Syria (NW-Syria); Israel (N-Israel); China [I] (Jiangsu [I], Shandong [I], Shanghai [I]); Pakistan [I]; Bangladesh [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Canada [I] (Ontario [I]); USA [I] (Connecticut [I], Pennsylvania [I], Virginia [I]); Ecuador [I]; Bolivia [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Maule [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I], Magallanes [I])
10 DEN fin GRB IRE nor swe 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS kri MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR est KRY RUS UKR 20 alg mor tun 21 AZO mdr 32 uzb 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 EAI IRN IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR 36 chi 40 ban pak 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 72 cdn 75 usa 78 usa 83 bol ecu 85 arg cle
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus alba Raf.; Alsogr. Amer.: 48 (1838)
= Sambucus arborescens Gilib.; Exerc. Phyt. 1: 5 (1792), opus utique oppr.
= Sambucus aurea (Sweet) Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 63: 384 (1891)
= Sambucus columnaris Lebas; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 56: 298 (1884)
= Sambucus dissecta K.Koch; Dendrol. 2: I. 71 (1872)
= Sambucus elegans K.Koch; Dendrol. 2: I. 71 (1872)
= Sambucus floribunda K.Koch; Dendrol. 2: I. 71 (1872)
= Sambucus florida Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 173 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Sambucus hirta Tausch; Flora 21: 737 (1838)
= Sambucus leucocarpa K.Koch; Dendrol. 2: I. 71 (1872)
= Sambucus linearis K.Koch; Dendrol. 2: I. 71 (1872)
= Sambucus lucida Tausch; Flora 21: 737 (1838)
= Sambucus medullosa Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 2 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Sambucus monstrosa Loudon; Hort. Brit. Suppl. 2: 671 (1833)
= Sambucus nigra f. alba (Weston) Rehder; Bibliogr. Cult. Trees: 599 (1949)
= Sambucus nigra f. albomarmorata Geerinck; Taxonomaniac 1: 19 (2001), nom. superfl.
= Sambucus nigra f. albovariegata (Weston) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 32 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra f. aurea (Sweet) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 33 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra f. chlorocarpa (Hayne) Geerinck; Taxonomaniac 1: 19 (2001)
= Sambucus nigra f. dissecta K.Koch; Dendrologie 2(1): 72 (1872)
= Sambucus nigra f. heterophylla (Pépin) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 32 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra f. leucocarpa Vollm.; 694 (1914)
= Sambucus nigra f. linearis (G.Kirchn.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 633 (1911)
= Sambucus nigra f. luteomarmorata Geerinck; Taxonomaniac 1: 19 (2001), nom. nov.
= Sambucus nigra f. luteovariegata (Weston) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 32 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra f. pendula Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 168 (1889)
= Sambucus nigra f. porphyrophylla E.C.Nelson; Plantsman 8: 190 (1986)
= Sambucus nigra f. pyramidalis (H.Jaeger) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 168 (1889)
= Sambucus nigra f. pyramidata (Lebas) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 30 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra f. rotundifolia (DC.) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 168 (1889)
= Sambucus nigra f. virescens (Desf.) Vollm.; 694 (1914)
= Sambucus nigra f. viridis (Weston) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 29 (1909)
= Sambucus nigra subsp. vulgaris Ehrh.; 220 (1780), nom. inval.
= Sambucus nigra var. alba Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 266 (1770)
= Sambucus nigra var. albida Sweet; Hort. Brit.: 194 (1826)
= Sambucus nigra var. albovariegata Nordh.; 615 (1940), nom. inval.
= Sambucus nigra var. albovariegata Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 266 (1770)
= Sambucus nigra var. aurea Sweet; Hort. Brit.: 194 (1826)
= Sambucus nigra var. aureovariegata Rehder; Man. Cult. Trees: 796 (1927)
= Sambucus nigra var. cannabinifolia Pépin; Hort. Universel 3: 231 (1842)
= Sambucus nigra var. chlorocarpa Hayne; Dendrol. Fl.: 39 (1822)
= Sambucus nigra var. decussata Gillot; Bull. Soc. Bot. France (Sess. Extr.): XII (1883)
= Sambucus nigra var. dimorphophylla Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 8: 69 (1903)
= Sambucus nigra var. heterophylla Pépin; Hort. Universel 3: 231 (1842)
= Sambucus nigra var. leucocarpa Hayne; Dendrol. Fl.: 39 (1822)
= Sambucus nigra var. leucocarpa Rchb.; 200 (1832), nom. inval.
= Sambucus nigra var. linearis G.Kirchn.; Petzold & Kirchner, Arbor. Muscav.: 447 (1864)
= Sambucus nigra var. luteovariegata Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 266 (1770)
= Sambucus nigra var. mileri Podp.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 50: 215 (1900)
= Sambucus nigra var. pendula (Dippel) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 633 (1911)
= Sambucus nigra var. pulla Aiton; Hort. Kew. 1: 374 (1789)
= Sambucus nigra var. pyramidalis H.Jaeger; Ziergehölze Gärt. Parkanl.: 497 (1865)
= Sambucus nigra var. pyramidata (Lebas) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 633 (1911)
= Sambucus nigra var. rotundifolia DC.; Prodr. 4: 323 (1830)
= Sambucus nigra var. rotundifolia F.Towns.; Fl. Hampshire: 159 (1883), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus nigra var. variegata Asch.; 266 (1860)
= Sambucus nigra var. variegata Hayne; Dendrol. Fl.: 39 (1822)
= Sambucus nigra var. virens M.Loehr; 293 (1852), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus nigra var. virescens (Desf.) Sweet; Hort. Brit.: 194 (1826)
= Sambucus nigra var. virescens (Desf.) W.D.J.Koch; 324 (1836)
= Sambucus nigra var. viridis Weston; Bot. Univ. 1: 266 (1770)
= Sambucus nigra var. vulgaris Hayne; Dendrol. Fl.: 38 (1822)
= Sambucus nigra var. vulgaris Merrem; 134 (1809), nom. inval.
= Sambucus pulverulenta K.Koch; Dendrol. 2: I. 71 (1872)
= Sambucus pyramidata Lebas; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 56: 298 (1884)
= Sambucus rotundifolia Lodd. ex Sweet; Hort. Brit., ed. 2: 257 (1830), nom. nud.
= Sambucus virescens Desf.; Hist. Arbr. 1: 348 (1809)
= Sambucus vulgaris Neck.; Delic. Gallo-Belg. 1: 156 (1768)
variant :
var. laciniata L.; Sp. Pl. 270 (1753)
Distribution: scattered in the range of the nominate variety, also cultivated
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus laciniata (L.) Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 2 (1768)
= Sambucus nigra f. laciniata (L.) B.P.R.Chéron; Compton Rend. Soc. Bot. Ardèche 62: 15 (2018)
= Sambucus nigra f. laciniata (L.) Zabel; Beissner et al., Handb. Laubholzbeno. 437 (1903)
species :
Sambucus palmensis Link; Buch, Beschr. Canar. Ins. 151 (1825)
Name: Kanaren-Holunder
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus nigra subsp. palmensis (Link) Bolli; Revis. Genus Sambucus (Diss. Bot., 223): 167 (1994)
species :
Sambucus pendula Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 31: 212 (1917)
Distribution: South Korea
38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. pendula (Nakai) H.I.Lim & Chin S.Chang; Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 39(3): 190 (2009)
= Sambucus racemosa var. pendula (Nakai) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 320 (2017)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. pendula (Nakai) T.B.Lee; Ill. Woody Pl. Korea 342 (1966)
species :
Sambucus peruviana Kunth; Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 429 (1820)
Distribution: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Antioquia, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Quindío, Santander, Valle); Venezuela [I] (Aragua, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Merida, Miranda, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo); Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija); N-Brazil (Acre); WC-Brazil (Goiás); Argentina (Catamarca, Jujuy, Neuquen, Salta, Tucuman)
80 COS PAN 82 CLM ven 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus canadensis f. acutiloba (Ellw.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 36 (1909)
= Sambucus canadensis var. oreopola (Donn.Sm.) Rehder; Sarg., Trees & Shrubs 2: 188 (1911)
= Sambucus graveolens Willd. ex Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis] 6: 641 (1820)
= Sambucus nigra subsp. peruviana (Kunth) Bolli; Revis. Genus Sambucus (Diss. Bot., 223): 177 (1994)
= Sambucus oreopola Donn.Sm.; Bot. Gaz. 25: 146 (1898)
= Sambucus suaveolens DC.; Prodr. 4: 323 (1830), sphalm.
species :
Sambucus racemosa L.; Sp. Pl.: 270 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. racemosa
Name: Roter Holunder, Trauben-Holunder (DE), Red Elderberry (EN)
Distribution: England [I]; Denmark [I]; Norway [I]; Sweden [I]; Finland [I]; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; NE-Spain; Andorra; France; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; NE-Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; Ukraine; Kazakhstan [I]; Northern Caucasus; New Zealand [I]; Bolivia [I]
10 den fin grb nor swe 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 32 kaz 33 NCS 51 nzl 83 bol
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus callicarpa f. bicolor Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 226 (1920)
= Sambucus plumosa (Späth ex Carrière) Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 63: 408 (1891)
= Sambucus racemosa f. flavescens Sweet ex Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 48 (1909)
= Sambucus racemosa f. laciniata (W.D.J.Koch ex DC.) Zabel; Beissner et al., Handb. Laubholzbeno. 439 (1903)
= Sambucus racemosa f. ornata (Carrière) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 49 (1909)
= Sambucus racemosa f. plumosa (Späth ex Carrière) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 411 (1894)
= Sambucus racemosa f. plumosoaurea Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 19: 49 (1909 publ. 1910)
= Sambucus racemosa f. purpurea (Sweet) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 48 (1909)
= Sambucus racemosa f. serratifolia (Behnsch ex Carrière) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 411 (1894)
= Sambucus racemosa f. tenuifolia (Carrière) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 49 (1909)
= Sambucus racemosa plumosa Späth ex Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 58: 399 (1886)
= Sambucus racemosa serratifolia Behnsch ex Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 58: 399 (1886)
= Sambucus racemosa serratifolia-aurea Barbier; Nursery Cat. (Barbier & Co.) 1908: ? (1908)
= Sambucus racemosa var. flavescens (Sweet ex Schwer.) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 638 (1911)
= Sambucus racemosa var. incisa Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 19: 49 (1909 publ. 1910)
= Sambucus racemosa var. ornata (Carrière) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 638 (1911)
= Sambucus racemosa var. plumosa (Späth ex Carrière) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 638 (1911)
= Sambucus racemosa var. purpurea Sweet; Hort. Brit.: 194 (1826)
= Sambucus racemosa var. serratifolia (Behnsch ex Carrière) Bean; Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles 2: 497 (1914)
= Sambucus racemosa var. tenuifolia (Carrière) C.K.Schneid.; Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 638 (1911)
= Sambucus racemosa var. xanthocarpa Jeanp.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 62: 297 (1916), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus sylvestris Bubani; Fl. Pyren. 2: 329 (1899)
subspecies :
subsp. pubens (Michx.) Hultén; Fl. Aleutian Isl.: 308 (1937)
Distribution: Alaska; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming)
70 ASK CDN 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus arborescens Nutt.; Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 13 (1841), nom. inval.
= Sambucus borealis Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 101 (1910)
= Sambucus callicarpa Greene; Fl. Francisc. (1891) 342
= Sambucus dimidiata Raf.; Alsogr. Amer.: 49 (1838)
= Sambucus leiosperma Leiberg; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 40 (1898)
= Sambucus pubens f. albicocca (Britton ex Millsp.) Britton ex Millsp.; Living Fl. W. Va: 360 (1913)
= Sambucus pubens f. calva Fernald; Rhodora 35: 310 (1933)
= Sambucus pubens f. dimidiata Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 46 (1909)
= Sambucus pubens f. dissecta (Britton) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 47 (1909)
= Sambucus pubens f. leucocarpa (Torr. & A.Gray) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 47 (1909)
= Sambucus pubens f. rosiflora (Carrière) Dans.; Naturaliste Canad. 72: 142 (1945)
= Sambucus pubens f. verrucosa Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 47 (1909)
= Sambucus pubens f. xanthocarpa (Cockerell) Fernald; Rhodora 35: 310 (1933)
= Sambucus pubens Michx.; Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 181 (1803)
= Sambucus pubens var. arborescens Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. 2: 13 (1841)
= Sambucus pubens var. dissecta Britton; Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 304 (1894)
= Sambucus pubens var. heptaphylla G.Don; Gen. Hist. 3: 438 (1834)
= Sambucus pubens var. leucocarpa Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 2(1): 13 (1841)
= Sambucus pubens var. pubescens Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 46 (1909)
= Sambucus pubens var. rosiflora (Carrière) Zabel; Beissner et al., Handb. Laubholzbeno. 438 (1903)
= Sambucus pubens var. spectabilis Zabel; Beissner et al., Handb. Laubholzbeno. 438 (1903)
= Sambucus pubens var. xanthocarpa (Cockerell) Nieuwl.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 310 (1914)
= Sambucus pubescens f. dimidiata Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 46 (1909 publ. 1910)
= Sambucus pubescens Pers.; Syn. Pl. 1: 328 (1805)
= Sambucus pubescens var. heptaphylla (G.Don) Hook. ex Mouill.; Traité Arbr. Arbriss. 2: 912 (1896)
= Sambucus racemosa f. albicocca Britton ex Millsp.; Prelim. Cat. Fl. W. Virginia 4: 374 (1892)
= Sambucus racemosa f. calva (Fernald) Scoggan; Fl. Canada 1: 52 (1978)
= Sambucus racemosa f. chrysocarpa Eames & R.K.Godfrey; Rhodora 18: 239 (1916)
= Sambucus racemosa f. dissecta (Britton) Scoggan; Fl. Canada 1: 52 (1978)
= Sambucus racemosa f. leucocarpa (Torr. & A.Gray) House; Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 243-244: 69 (1923)
= Sambucus racemosa f. oinocarpa Cockerell; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 18: 170 (1891)
= Sambucus racemosa f. pubens (Michx.) Regel; Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 7, 4(4): 75 (1861)
= Sambucus racemosa f. rosiflora (Carrière) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 411 (1894)
= Sambucus racemosa f. xanthocarpa Cockerell; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 18: 170 (1891)
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. arborescens (Torr. & A.Gray) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 13: 31 (1983)
= Sambucus racemosa var. arborescens (Torr. & A.Gray) A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2): 8 (1884)
= Sambucus racemosa var. callicarpa (Greene) Jeps.; Fl. W. Calif.: 471 (1901)
= Sambucus racemosa var. laciniata W.D.J.Koch ex DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 6: 500 (1815)
= Sambucus racemosa var. leucocarpa (Torr. & A.Gray) Cronquist; Fl. Pacific Northwest: 452 (1973)
= Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (Michx.) Koehne; Deut. Dendrol. 532 (1893)
= Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (Michx.) Trautv. & C.A.Mey.; Fl. Ochot. Phaenog. 46 (1856)
= Sambucus racemosa var. pubescens (Pers.) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 166 (1889)
= Sambucus racemosa var. rosiflora (Carrière) Dippel; Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 166 (1889)
= Sambucus rosiflora Carrière; Rev. Hort. (Paris) 41: 434 (1869)
= Sambucus rupestris Raf.; Alsogr. Amer.: 50 (1838)
= Sambucus verrucosa Raf.; Alsog. Am. 49 (1838)
variant :
var. melanocarpa (A.Gray) McMinn; Man. Calif. Shrubs 529 (1939)
Name: Rocky Mountain elder
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia); USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming)
71 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus melanocarpa A.Gray; Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 19: 76 (1883)
= Sambucus melanocarpa f. furstenbergii Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 43 (1909)
= Sambucus melanocarpa var. communis (Schwer.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 223 (1920)
= Sambucus melanocarpa var. furstenbergii (Schwer.) Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 29: 223 (1920)
= Sambucus pubens var. melanocarpa (A.Gray) Samutina; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 23: 173 (1986)
variant :
var. microbotrys (Rydb.) Kearney & Peebles; J. Washington Acad. Sci. 29: 492 (1939)
Distribution: USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, Nevada)
73 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus acuminata Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 100 (1910)
= Sambucus microbotrys Rydb.; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 503 (1901)
species :
Sambucus sibirica Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 478 (1926)
Distribution: E-European Russia; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye, Sakhalin); Kazakhstan; China (Xinjiang); Mongolia
14 RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 36 CHI 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. sibirica (Nakai) H.Hara; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 6: 383 (1956)
species :
Sambucus sieboldiana (Miq.) Graebn.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 584 (1901)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); South Korea; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Tanegashima Isl.); Ryukyu Isl.
31 RFE 38 JAP KOR NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus buergeriana var. nakayamai Yanagita; J. Jap. Bot. 12: 422 (1936)
= Sambucus glabrescens (Nakai) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 479 (1926)
= Sambucus racemosa f. aurantiaca (Nakai) Murata; Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 32(1-4): 54 (1981)
= Sambucus racemosa f. dissecta Murata; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 32: 54 (1981), nom. illeg.
= Sambucus racemosa f. glaberrima (Nakai) Murata; Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 32(1-4): (1981)
= Sambucus racemosa f. macrophylla H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot. 57(4): 127 (1982)
= Sambucus racemosa f. nakaiana Murata; Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 32(1-4): 55 (1981), nom. nov.
= Sambucus racemosa f. ovatifolia H.Hara; Ginkgoana 5: 285 (1983), nom. nov.
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Blume ex Miq.) H.Hara; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, sect. III 6: 383 (1956)
= Sambucus racemosa var. major (Nakai) Murata; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 32: 55 (1981)
= Sambucus racemosa var. sieboldiana Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 265 (1866)
= Sambucus racemosa var. stenophylla (Nakai) Murata; Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 32(1-4): 55 (1981)
= Sambucus sieboldiana (Miq.) Blume ex Graebn.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 584 (1901)
= Sambucus sieboldiana (Miq.) Blume ex Schwer.; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., No. 18, 50 (1909)
= Sambucus sieboldiana f. glaberrima (Nakai) H.Hara; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 2: 51 (1952)
= Sambucus sieboldiana f. latifolia (Nakai) H.Hara; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 2: 51 (1952)
= Sambucus sieboldiana f. xanthocarpa (Nakai) Rehder; Bibliogr. Cult. Trees: 601 (1949)
= Sambucus sieboldiana Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 265 (1866)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. glaberrima Nakai; Trees Shrubs Japan, Revis. Ed. 2, 1: 572 (1927)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. glabrescens Nakai; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 42: 10 (1921)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. latifolia Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 473 (1926)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. pubescens Nakai; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 42(1): 10 (1921)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. stenophylla Nakai; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 42(1): 11 (1921)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. xanthocarpa Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 31: 213 (1916)
= Viburnum racemosa f. stenophylla (Nakai) H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot. 57: 126 (1982)
species :
Sambucus tigranii Troitsky; Trudy Gosud. Univ. S. S. R. Armenii ser. 2, 1: 45 (1936)
Distribution: Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia
33 ARM GEO
species :
Sambucus wightiana Wall. ex Wight & Arn.; Prodr. Fl. Penins. Ind. Or. 1: 388 (1834)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan); Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Astor); India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand)
34 AFG 40 IND PAK
species :
Sambucus williamsii Hance; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 5: 217 (1866)
Distribution: Siberia (Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Primorye); China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Mongolia; South Korea
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Sambucus barbinervis Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 477 (1926)
= Sambucus buergeriana (Nakai) Blume ex Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 474 (1926)
= Sambucus buergeriana f. cordifoliata Skvortsov & W.Wang; Ill. Fl. Ligneous Pl. N. E. China: 567 (1955)
= Sambucus coreana (Nakai) Kom. & Aliss.; Opred. Rast. Dal´nevost. Kraia 2: 962 (1932)
= Sambucus foetidissima f. flava Skvortsov & Wei Wang; Ill. Fl. Lign. Pl. N.-E. China 567 (1955)
= Sambucus foetidissima Nakai & Kitag.; Rep. 1st. Sci. Exp. Manchoukuo 4(1): 12 (1934)
= Sambucus junnanica J.J.Vassil.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 8: 200 (1940)
= Sambucus latipinna f. velutina U.C.La; Fl. Coreana 8: 51 (2000)
= Sambucus latipinna Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 30: 290 (1916)
= Sambucus latipinna var. coreana (Nakai) Nakai; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 42(1): 11 (1921)
= Sambucus latipinna var. pendula Skvortsov; Ill. Man. Woody Pl. N.-E. Forest. Inst. 576 (1955)
= Sambucus manshurica Kitag.; Rep. Inst. Sci. Research Manchoukuo 4: 117 (1940)
= Sambucus microsperma Nakai; Kamik.-Tennenk.-Chosahok.: 40 (1928)
= Sambucus peninsularis Kitag.; Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 3(App. 1): 409 (1939)
= Sambucus potaninii J.J.Vassil.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 8: 199 (1940)
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. dahurica E.L.Wolf; Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 33: 31 (1923)
= Sambucus racemosa subsp. manshurica (Kitag.) Vorosch.; A. K. Skvortsov (ed.), Florist. issl. v razn. raionakh SSSR: 192 (1985)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. buergeriana Nakai; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 42(Art. 2): 9 (1921)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. coreana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 31: 213 (1917)
= Sambucus sieboldiana var. pinnatisecta G.Y.Luo & P.H.Huang; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 7(2): 147 (1987)
= Sambucus williamsii subsp. coreana (Nakai) Samutina; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 23: 176 (1986)
= Sambucus williamsii var. coreana (Nakai) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 477 (1926)
species :
Sambucus ×strumpfii Gutte; Haussknechtia 11: 113 (2006)
Distribution: Germany (Thüringen)
11 GER
Remarks: Sambucus nigra x racemosa
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.3 (June 16th, 2024)

Covering 355,120 accepted species,
8,650 hybrids, 47,763 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,061 synonyms,
in total 1,408,594* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life