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Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

422.0000 Family Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh.; Bot. Wörterb. 2: 240 (1797), nom. cons.
60 genera, ca. 3150 spp. The family had been split up in the recent past, but was recombined and treated sensu lato in APG III (2009).
Species listed in database: 3271; hybrids: 68
= Aegicerataceae Blume; Nov. Pl. Expos.: 17 (1833)
= Anagallidaceae Batsch ex Borkh.; Bot. Wörterb. 1: 19 (1797)
= Ardisiaceae Juss.; Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 15: 350 (1810)
= Coridaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 332 (1858)
= Embeliaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 140 (1858)
= Hottoniaceae Döll; Fl. Baden 2: 641. med (1858)
= Lysimachiaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 95 (1789), Family
= Maesaceae (A.DC.) Anderb., Stahl & Källersjö; Taxon 49: 185 (2000), Family
= Myrsinaceae R.Br.; Prodr.: 532 (1810), nom. cons., Family
= Samolaceae Raf.; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 5: 349 (1820)
= Theophrastaceae G.Don; Edwards´s Bot. Reg. 21: ad t. 1764 (1835), nom. cons.
422.2101 Genus Samolus L.; Sp. Pl.: 171 (1753)
Distribution: cosmopolitan; 1 European part of Russia, Caucasus, Middle Asia
Species listed in database: 14
= Sheffieldia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.; Char. Gen. Pl., ed. 1: 9 (1775)
= Samodia Baudo; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. II. 20: 350 (1843)
species :
Samolus caespitosus Keighery; Nordic J. Bot. 8(4): 329 (1988)
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia)
50 AUS
species :
Samolus cinerascens (B.L.Rob.) Pax & R.Knuth; Engl., Pflanzenr., IV, 237: 340 (1905)
Distribution: Mexico (Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas)
79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Androsace cinerascens B.L.Rob.; Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 27: 180 (1892)
= Primula pringlei Derganc; Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 10: 111 (1904), nom. nov.
species :
Samolus dichondrifolius Channell; Rhodora 60: 2 (1958)
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila)
79 MEX
species :
Samolus ebracteatus Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 223. t. 129 (1818)
Name: Limewater brookweed, Larger water-pimpernel (Bahamas)
Distribution: USA (Florida, Kansas, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Texas); Mexico (Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi?, Queretaro, Hidalgo?, Veracruz, Tabasco?, Chiapas, Campeche, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, Coahuila, Yucatan, Quintana Roo); Guatemala; Panama; Bahamas; Cuba
74 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX 80 GUA PAN 81 BAH CUB
Synonyms: hidden
= Samodia ebracteatus (Kunth) Baudo; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. II. 20: 350 (1843)
= Samolus alyssoides A.Heller; Contr. Herb. Frankl. Coll. (Bot. Expl. S. Texas) 1: 74, t. 3 (1895)
= Samolus cuneatus Small; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 491 (1897)
= Samolus ebracteatus subsp. alyssoides (A.Heller) R.Knuth; Engl., Pflanzenr. (Engl.) 4, Fam. 237: 340 (1905)
= Samolus ebracteatus subsp. cuneatus (Small) B.R.Knuth; Engl., Pflanzenr. (Engl.) 4, Fam. 237: 340 (1905)
= Samolus ebracteatus var. alyssoides (A.Heller) Henrickson; Southwest. Nat. 28(3): 309 (1983)
= Samolus ebracteatus var. cuneatus (Small) Henrickson; Southwest. Nat. 28(3): 311 (1983)
= Samolus longipes Hook. ex Shuttlew.; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 3: 222 (1845)
variant :
var. breviflorus Henrickson; Southwest. Nat. 28(3): 313 (1983)
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Hidalgo, Morelos, Puebla, Guerrero, Oaxaca); Belize
79 MEX 80 BLZ
variant :
var. coahuilensis Henrickson; Southwest. Nat. 28(3): 312 (1983)
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, etc.)
79 MEX
species :
Samolus eremaeus S.W.L.Jacobs; J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 2(2): 187 (1980)
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia)
50 AUS
species :
Samolus junceus R.Br.; Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 428 (1810)
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia)
50 AUS
species :
Samolus latifolius Duby; Prodr. [A. DC.] 8: 74 (1844)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaíso, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos)
85 CLE
species :
Samolus parviflorus Raf.; Amer. Monthly Mag. 176 (1818)
Name: Water-pimpernel (Bahamas); Seaside brookweed (EN)
Distribution: Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas); Honduras; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Haiti; Peru; Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, Tarija)
72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX 80 HON 81 CUB HIS 83 BOL PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Samolus floribundus Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 181 (1818)
= Samolus pyrolifolius Greene; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 197 (1909)
= Samolus valerandi subsp. parviflorus (Raf.) Hultén; Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., ser. 4, 13(1): 148 (1970)
= Samolus valerandi var. americanus A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer., ed. 2, 2(1): 64 (1886)
= Samolus valerandi var. floribundus (Kunth) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; Prelim. Cat. 34 (1888)
= Samolus valerandi var. repens Brandegee; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 2, 3: 150 (1891)
species :
Samolus porosus (L.f.) Thunb.; Fl. Cap. 2: 32 (1818)
Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Campanula porosa L.f.; (1782)
= Samolus africanus Burm.f.; Fl. Ind. (N. L. Burman) Prodr. Fl. Cap.: 5 (1768)
= Samolus campanuloides R.Br. ex F.Dietr.; Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. 7: 463 (1821), nom. superfl.
= Samolus flexuosus Baudo; Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 20: 350 (1843), et ex R. Knuth, Pflanzenr. (Engl.) Primul. 342 (1905)
species :
Samolus repens (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Pers.; Syn. Pl. 1: 171 (1805)
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania); New Zealand (widespread, coastal, wetlands, incl. Stewart Isl.); Kermadec Isl.; Chatham Isl.; Auckland Isl.; New Caledonia; Chile (Biobío); Desventuradas Isl.
50 AUS 51 AUC CTM KER NZL 60 NWC 85 CLE DSV
Synonyms: hidden
= Samolus ambiguus R.Br.; Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 429 (1810)
= Samolus littoralis R.Br.; Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 428 (1810)
= Samolus parviflorus Nees; Pl. Preiss. [Lehm.] 1(3): 337 (1845) non Raf.
= Samolus platyphyllus F.Muell.; Syst. Census Austral. Pl.: 91 (1882)
= Samolus repens var. floribundus Benth.; Fl. Austr. (1868) non S. floribundus Kunth
= Samolus repens var. procumbens R.Knuth; Engl., Pflanzenr. (Engl.) 4, Fam. 237: 344 (1905)
= Sheffieldia incana Labill.; Nov. Holl. Pl. 1: 40, t. 54 (1805)
= Sheffieldia repens J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.; Char. Gen. Pl., ed. 1: 9 (1775)
variant :
var. strictus Cockayne; Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 58: 199, t. 9 (1915)
Distribution: Norfolk Isl.; New Zealand
50 NFK 51 NZL
species :
Samolus spathulatus (Cav.) Duby; Prodr. [A. DC.] 8: 74 (1844)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Aisén, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Androsace spathulata Cav.; Ic. 5: 56 (1799)
= Primula cavanii Derganc; Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 10: 111 (1904), nom. superfl.
= Primula cavanillesii Fedde; Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 10: 188 (1904), nom. superfl.
= Primula pistiifolia Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 6: 127 (1854)
species :
Samolus subnudicaulis A.St.-Hil. ex Compton; Rend. Acad. Sci. Par. (1838) II. 98
Distribution: S-Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina); Uruguay (Maldonado); Argentina (Cordoba, San Luis)
84 BRA 85 ARG URU
Synonyms: hidden
= Samolus nudicaulis Baudo; Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Ser. 2, 20: 350 (1843)
species :
Samolus vagans Greene; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nav. Sp. 7: 196 (1909)
Name: Chiricahua Mountain brookweed
Distribution: USA (Arizona); Mexico (Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Sonora)
76 USA 79 MEX
species :
Samolus valerandi L.; Sp. Pl.: 171 (1753)
Name: Gewöhnliche Salzbunge (DE); Seaside brookweed (EN); Jabonera de manantial (ES)
Distribution: Svalbard; England; Ireland; Denmark; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, +Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Malta; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Estonia; Belarus; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Desert Oases, Eastern Desert, Great Southwestern Desert, Nile Delta, NW-coastal Egypt); Azores (Sao Jorge, Flores Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma Isl.); Cape Verde Isl. (Santo Antao Isl., Sao Vicente Isl., Ilha de Sao Nicolau, Sal Isl., Ilha de Sao Tiago, Fogo Isl.); Mauritania; Nigeria; N-Chad (Tibesti); Sudan; Somalia; Angola; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Mozambique; Namibia; Botswana; South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Gauteng, Mpulamanga, KwaZulu-Natal, N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.); Eswatini [Swaziland]; Madagascar; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Badakshan, Baghlan, Bamyan, Farah, Faryab, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Takhar); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Sinai peninsula (S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (NE-Saudi Arabia, Asir); Bahrain; Oman (Dhofar, Mascat & Oman); Yemen (Inner Hadhramaut); China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Waziristan, Kurram, Peshawar, Dir, Swat, Hazara, Pakistani Punjab, Salt Range, Mirpur); NW-India (Poonch, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir); Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); USA [I] (Pennsylvania [I]); Ecuador; Peru; S-Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina); Paraguay (Central, San Pedro); Uruguay (Colonia, Maldonado, Montevideo); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Cruz, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucuman); Chile [I] (Atacama [I], Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I])
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE SVA SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN NET POL SLO SWI 12 BAL CIS COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MLT MNT NMA PTL ROM SIC SLV SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY MLD UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY CVI MDR 22 MTN NGA 24 CHA SOM SUD 26 ANG MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 BOT NAM SAF SWZ 29 MDG 32 KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 BAR OMA SAU YEM 36 CHI 38 JAP 40 IND PAK 50 aus 75 usa 83 ECU PER 84 BRA 85 ARG cle PAR URU
Synonyms: hidden
= Anagallis aquatica Endl. ex Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 3: 31 (1847)
= Samolus americanus Spreng.; Syst. 1: 702 (1824)
= Samolus aquaticus Clairv.; 56 (1811), nom. illeg.
= Samolus aquaticus Lam.; Fl. Fr. 3: 329 (1779)
= Samolus aquaticus St.-Lag.; Cariot, Étude Fl., éd. 8 2: 578 (1889), nom. illeg.
= Samolus beccabungae-facie Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 60 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Samolus bracteatus Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 344 (1812)
= Samolus bracteolosus Phil.; Anales Mus. Nac. Santiago de Chile 1: 51 (1891)
= Samolus caulescens Willd. ex Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 4 (1819)
= Samolus geniculatus Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 422 (1867)
= Samolus littoralis Schrank; Denkschr. Königl.-Baier. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 2: 34 (1822), nom. illeg.
= Samolus valerandi f. submersa Glück; 375 (1923)
= Samolus valerandi f. terrestris Glück; 375 (1923)
= Samolus valerandi var. africanus L.; Sp. Pl.: 172 (1753)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.4 (June 30th, 2024)

Covering 355,230 accepted species,
8,675 hybrids, 47,796 accepted infraspecific taxa and 997,888 synonyms,
in total 1,409,589* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,209 pictures of 15,787 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life