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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

513.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35205; hybrids: 668
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
513.5144 Genus Scolymus L.; Sp. Pl. 2: (1753)
Distribution: Canary Isl., Mediterranean, Southeast Europe, W-Asia (incl. Caucasus)
Species listed in database: 3; hybrids: 1
= Myscolus Cass.; Bull. Soc. Philom. 33 (1818)
species :
Scolymus grandiflorus Desf.; Fl. Atl. 2: 240 (1799)
Name: Großblütige Golddistel (DE); Large-flowered Golden Thistle (EN); Escolimo, Cardillo (ES)
Distribution: Baleares (Mallorca, Menorca); France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Malta; European Turkey; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Canary Isl. (Tenerife); East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Lebanon
12 BAL COR FRA SAR 13 ITA MLT PTL SIC TUE 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY 34 EAI LEB
Remarks: included by Flora Iberica in S. hispanicus s. l.
Synonyms: hidden
= Myscolus grandiflorus (Desf.) D.Dietr.; Syn. Pl. 4: 1333 (1847)
= Myscolus megacephalus Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 34: 84 (1825)
= Scolymus hispanicus subsp. grandiflorus (Desf.) P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 1027 (1940)
= Scolymus hispanicus subsp. grandiflorus (Desf.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 51 (1908)
species :
Scolymus hispanicus L.; Sp. Pl. 813 (1753)
Name: Spanische Golddistel (DE); Spanish Golden Thistle (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Switzerland; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares (Ibiza & Formentera, Mallorca, Menorca); France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia; Kosovo; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Desert Oases, NW-coastal Egypt); Azores (Faial); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro); Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (W-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, C-Syrian Desert, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, N-Israel); Jordania (S-Jordania); Australia [I] (New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], California [I], New York [I], Pennsylvania [I]); Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Valparaíso [I])
11 ger SWI 12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MLT PEL PTL ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 KRY UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY 33 GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 50 aus 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 85 arg cle
Synonyms: hidden
= Myscolus hispanicus (L.) D.Dietr.; Syn. Pl. 4: 1333 (1847)
= Myscolus microcephalus Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 34: 85 (1825)
= Scolymus angiospermus Gaertn.; Fruct. 2: 355. t. 157 (1791)
= Scolymus congestus Lam.; Fl. Franc. 2: 116 (1779), nom. illeg.
= Scolymus hispanicus subsp. occidentalis F.M.Vázquez; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 58(1): 91 (2000)
= Scolymus hispanicus var. aggregatus (Ruch.) F.M.Vázquez; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 58(1): 89 (2000)
= Scolymus perennis Gérard; Fl. Gallo-Prov.: 175 (1761)
= Scolymus perennis Gérard ex Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 753 (1821)
= Scolymus theophrasti Bubani; Fl. Pyrenees 2: 116 (1899)
= Scolymus vivax Sauvages ex DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 7: 76 (1838)
species :
Scolymus maculatus L.; Sp. Pl. 813 (1753)
Name: Gefleckte Golddistel (DE); Spotted Golden Thistle (EN); Cardo de leche (ES)
Distribution: England; Belgium; Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares (Mallorca, Menorca); France; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Egypt (Desert Oases, Great Southwestern Desert, Nile Delta); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); Sudan; Ethiopia; Eritrea; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, Jbel Druze); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Australia [I] (Queensland [I], New South Wales [I]); USA [I] (North Carolina [I])
10 GRB 11 BGM ger 12 BAL FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 BUL GRC ITA KRI MLT PEL SIC TUE 20 ALG EGY MOR TUN 21 CNY MDR 24 ERI ETH SUD 34 CYP EAI IRQ ISR LEB SYR TUR 50 aus 78 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Scolymus annuus Gérard; Fl. Gallo-Prov.: 175 (1761)
= Scolymus annuus Gérard ex Steud.; Nom. ed. I. 753 (1821)
= Scolymus clusii Bubani; Fl. Pyrenees 2: 117 (1899)
= Scolymus gymnospermus Gaertn.; Fruct. 2: 355 (1791)
= Scolymus paniculatus Ucria; Nuova Racc. Opusc. Aut. Sicil. 6: 255 (1793)
= Scolymus pectinatus Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 34: 87 (1825)
species :
Scolymus ×castaneus F.M.Vázquez & J.Blanco; Folia Bot. Extremadur. 5: 104 (103-105; fig. 10) (2011)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
Remarks: Scolymus hispanicus x S. maculatus
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life