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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

513.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35205; hybrids: 668
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
513.3217 Genus Silybum Vaill. ex Adans.; Fam. 2: 116 (1763), Gaertn. Fruct. 2: 378. t. 162 (1791)
Distribution: C- and Southeast Europe, Mediterranean; Asia from Caucasus and Asia Minor eastward to India
Species listed in database: 2
= Mariacantha Bubani; Fl. Pyrenees 2: 149 (1900)
= Mariana Hill; Veg. Syst. 4: 19 (1762), nom. rej.
species :
Silybum eburneum Coss. & Durieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 2: 366 (1855)
Distribution: E-Spain; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Ethiopia [I]
12 SPA 20 ALG MOR TUN 24 eth
Synonyms: hidden
= Mariana eburnea (Coss. & Durieu) Pau; Bol. Soc. Iber. 28: 165 (1929)
= Mariana eburnea f. hispanica (Loscos & J.Pardo) Pau; Mem. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 12: 349 (1924)
= Silybum eburneum subsp. hispanicus (Willk.) Malag.; Las Subesp. y Variac. Geogr.: 16 (1973)
= Silybum eburneum var. hispanicum Loscos & J.Pardo ex Willk.; Ser. Inconf. Pl. Aragon.: 56 (1863)
= Silybum hispanicum Loscos & J.Pardo; Ser. Inconf. Pl. Aragon.: 56 (1863)
species :
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.; Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 378 (1791)
Name: Gewöhnliche Mariendistel, Echte Mariendistel (DE); St. Mary´s Thistle (EN); Caro mariano (ES)
Distribution: England; Northern Ireland; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Germany [I]; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares (Ibiza & Formentera, Mallorca, Menorca); France; Monaco; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; S-European Russia; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; NW-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (Desert Oases, Great Southwestern Desert, NE-Egypt, Nile Delta, Nile Valley, NW-coastal Egypt); Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Faial); Madeira (Madeira Isl., Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo Isl.); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); Ethiopia; South Africa [I] (Gauteng [I], E-Cape Prov. [I]); Siberia [I] (W-Siberia [I]); Russian Far East [I] (Primorye [I]); Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Balkh, Faryab, Qunduz, Samangan, Takhar); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, C-Syrian Desert, NW-Syria); Israel; Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, N-Sinai); Jordania (W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, NE-Saudi Arabia, Asir); Kuwait; Yemen (W-Yemen); South Korea [I]; Pakistan (N. W. Frontier Prov., Peshawar, Hazara, Pakistani Punjab, Rawalpindi, Mirpur, Kotli); NW-India (Jammu & Kashmir, Poonch, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu [I]); Sulawesi [I]; Java [I]; Lesser Sunda Isl. [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Lord Howe Isl. [I]; Norfolk Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Canada [I] (Alberta [I], British Columbia [I], New Brunswick [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Québec [I], Saskatchewan [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arizona [I], Arkansas [I], California [I], Connecticut [I], Indiana [I], Louisiana [I], Michigan [I], Mississippi [I], Nevada [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New Mexico [I], New York [I], North Carolina [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Vermont [I], Virginia [I], Washington [I], West Virginia [I]); Mexico [I]; Colombia [I]; Venezuela [I]; Ecuador [I]; Peru [I]; Bolivia [I]; Brazil [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I], Metropolitana de Santiago [I], O´Higgins [I], Maule [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I]); Juan Fdz. Isl. [I]; Falkland Isl. [I]
10 DEN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM ger HUN LIE NET POL SLO SWI 12 BAL CIS COR FRA GIB MCO POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS KRI MLT MNT NMA PEL PTL ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR est KRY lat lit MLD RUS UKR 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 AZO CNY MDR 24 ETH 27 saf 30 sib 31 rfe 32 KAZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 KUW SAU YEM 38 kor 40 IND PAK 42 jaw lsi sul 50 aus lhi nfk 51 ctm nzl 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 82 clm ven 83 bol ecu per 84 bra 85 arg cle jnf uru 91 fal
Synonyms: hidden
= Carduus lactifolius Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 4: 141 (1812), nom. superfl.
= Carduus mariae Crantz; Inst. 1: 248 (1766)
= Carduus marianus L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 823 (1753)
= Carduus versicolor Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 185 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Carthamus maculatus (Scop.) Lam.; Encycl. 1: 638 (1785)
= Centaurea dalmatica Fraas; Syn. Pl. Fl. Class.: 204 (1845)
= Cirsium maculatum Scop.; Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 130 (1771)
= Mariacantha maculosa Bubani; Fl. Pyren. 2: 150 (1899)
= Mariana lactea Hill; Herb. Brit. 1: 75 (1769), nom. superfl.
= Mariana mariana (L.) Hill; Hort. Kew. 61 (1768)
= Silybum intermedium Willk.; Index Seminum (TU, Dorpatensis) 1869: 6 (1869)
= Silybum leucanthum Jord. & Fourr.; Brev. Pl. Nov. fasc. 2: 83 (1868)
= Silybum maculatum (Scop.) Moench; Methodus: 555 (1794)
= Silybum mariae (Crantz) A.Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 436 (1821)
= Silybum mariae var. unicolor Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 436 (1821 publ. 1822)
= Silybum marianum subsp. anatolicum Meriçli; Istanbul Üniv. Eczac. Fak. Mecm. 19: 60 (1983)
= Silybum marianum var. albiflorum Eig; Bull. Inst. Agric. Nat. Hist. Tel-Aviv 6: 44 (1927)
= Silybum marianum var. longispinum Lamotte; Prodr. Fl. Plat. Centr. 2: 424 (1881)
= Silybum pygmaeum Cass.; Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. ed. 2. 50: 469 (1827)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life