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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

453.0000 Family Rubiaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 196 (1789), nom. cons.
589 genera, ca. 14.200 spp. mostly tropics, comparably few temperate
Species listed in database: 14178; hybrids: 48
= Aparinaceae Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Portug. 2: 3, 38 (1813-1829)
= Asperulaceae Cham. ex Spenn.; Handb. Angew. Bot. 2: 493 (1835)
= Catesbaeaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 111 (1820)
= Cephalanthaceae Raf.; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 86 (1820)
= Cinchonaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 234 (1802)
= Coffeaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 233 (1802)
= Coutareaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 168 (1820)
= Dialypetalanthaceae Rizzini & Occhioni; Lilloa 17: 253 (1948), nom. cons.
= Galiaceae Lindl.; Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 249 (1836)
= Gardeniaceae Dumort.; Anal. Fam. Pl.: 29, 32 (1829)
= Guettardaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 235 (1802)
= Hameliaceae Mart.; Consp. Regn. Veg.: 31 (1835)
= Hedyotidaceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot.: 57 (1822)
= Henriqueziaceae Bremek.; Acta Bot. Neerl. 6 (Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijksuniv. Utrecht 141): 371 (1957)
= Houstoniaceae Raf.; Good Book: 21 (1840)
= Hydrophylacaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 318 (1820)
= Lippayaceae Meisn.; Pl. Vasc. Gen.: Tab. Diagn. 156, Comm. 112 (1838)
= Lygodisodeaceae Bartl.; Ord. Nat. Pl.: 123, 207 (1830)
= Naucleaceae Wernham; New Phytol. 11: 225 (1912)
= Nonateliaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 420 (1820)
= Operculariaceae Juss. ex Perleb; Vers. Arzneikr. Pfl.: 207 (1818)
= Pagamaeaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 447 (1820)
= Psychotriaceae F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 49 (1830)
= Randiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 534 (1820)
= Sabiceaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 555 (1820)
= Spermacoceaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 256 (1820)
= Theligonaceae Dumort.; Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 17 (1829), nom. cons.
453.2742 Genus Valantia L.; Sp. Pl. 1051 (1753) (Vaillantia auct.)
Distribution: Canary Isl., Mediterranean, W-Asia to Caucasus (1) and N-Iran
Species listed in database: 7
= Meionandra Gauba; Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 86: 62 (1937)
= Vaillantia Hoffm.; Deutschl. Fl., ed. nov. 1(2): 274 (1804)
species :
Valantia aprica (Sm.) Tausch; Flora 12: 647 (1829)
Distribution: S-Albania; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete
13 ALB GRC KRI
Synonyms: hidden
= Galium apricum Sm.; Sibth. & Sm., Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 90 (1806)
= Galium apricum subvar. aristatum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2: 155 (1889)
= Galium apricum var. aristatum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 3: 81 (1875)
= Valantia aprica (Sm.) Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 2(10): 72 (1849), isonym
= Valantia aristata Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. 6: 65 (1846)
species :
Valantia calva Brullo; Bot. Notiser, 132(1): 61 (1979)
Distribution: Sicily
13 SIC
species :
Valantia columella (Ehrenb. ex Boiss.) Meikle; Fl. Cyprus 1: 776, 807 (1977)
Distribution: Egypt (N-Egypt); Cyprus (E-Cyprus, C-Mountains)
20 EGY 34 CYP
Synonyms: hidden
= Galium columella Ehrenb. ex Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 3: 81 (1875)
= Galium lanatum (Delile ex Coss.) Boiss.; Fl. Orient., Suppl.: 282 (1888)
= Meionandra columella (Ehrenb. ex Boiss.) Gauba; Österr. Bot. Z. 86: 62 (1937)
= Valantia lanata Delile ex Coss.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 278 (1865), nom. nud.
species :
Valantia deltoidea Brullo; Bot. Notiser, 133(1): 63 (1980)
Distribution: Sicily
13 SIC
species :
Valantia hispida L.; Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1307 (1759)
Name: Raue Vaillantie (DE); Raspilla enana (ES), Spiny Valantia (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; S-Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Croatia; Albania; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt (N-Egypt, SE-Egypt); Canary Isl. (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, Hierro, La Palma Isl.); Sudan; Ethiopia; Eritrea; Djibouti; Somalia; Soqotra; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (S-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains, E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus, S-Cyprus, W-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Syria (Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, Judean Desert, Negev Desert); Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai, S-Sinai); Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania); Saudi Arabia (Asir)
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB CRO GRC ITA KRI SIC TUE 20 ALG EGY LBY MOR TUN 21 CNY 24 DJI ERI ETH SOC SOM SUD 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SIN SYR TUR 35 SAU
Synonyms: hidden
= Galium blepharophoron Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 3: 249 (1818)
= Galium hispidum (L.) Gaertn.; Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 109 (1788)
= Valantia filiformis Lojac.; Fl. Sicul. 2(1): 10 (1903), nom. illeg.
= Valantia hispida f. robusta Sennen; Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1928: no. 6579 (1929)
variant :
var. eburnea (Brullo) Hand; Willdenowia 31(2): 394 (2001)
Distribution: Greece; Cyprus; Lebanon; Syria; Palestine
13 GRC 34 CYP LEB PAL SYR
Synonyms: hidden
= Valantia eburnea Brullo; Willdenowia, 20(1-2): 73 (1991)
species :
Valantia lainzii Devesa & Ortega Oliv.; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 143(3): 333 (2003)
Distribution: S-Spain (Granada)
12 SPA
species :
Valantia muralis L.; Sp. Pl. 1051 (1753)
Name: Mauer-Vaillantie (DE); Wall Valantia (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Pantelleria; Isole Pelagie (Lampedusa); Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Albania; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Crete; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Libya; Northern Caucasus; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (E-Cyprus, N-Cyprus); Israel (coastal W-Israel)
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH CRO GRC ITA KRI PEL PTL SIC TUE 20 ALG LBY MOR TUN 33 NCS 34 CYP EAI ISR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Galium vexans Rchb.f.; Rchb., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 17: 92 (1855)
= Valantia aculeata Ten.; Fl. Napol. 4: 33 (1830)
= Valantia glaberrima Gand.; Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 15 (1883)
= Valantia hirta A.Rich.; Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris. 5: 135, 297, t. 11, fig. 2 (1834)
= Valantia hispida var. incrassata Batt.; Batt. & Trab., Fl. Algérie, Dicot.: 402 (1890)
= Valantia incrassata Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 78 (1874)
= Valantia muralis subvar. aculeata (Ten.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 332 (1879)
= Valantia muralis var. aculeata (Ten.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2: 155 (1889)
= Valantia pantocsekii Gand.; Contr. Fl. Terr. Slav. Merid. 1: 15 (1883)
= Valantia quadriflora Moench; Methodus: 640 (1794), nom. superfl.
variant :
var. intricata (Lojac.) Brullo; Bot. Not. 132: 64 (1979)
Distribution: Sicily
13 SIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Valantia intricata Lojac.; Fl. Sicul. 2(1): 11 (1903)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life