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Ver. 18.4
Feb. 11th, 2024

452.0000 Family Apocynaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 143 (1789), nom. cons.
372 genera, ca. 6500 spp. According to modern authors and PCR Asclepiadaceae is only a subfamily of Apocynaceae.
Species listed in database: 6608; hybrids: 9
= Asclepiadaceae Borkh.; Bot. Wörterb. 1: 31 (1797), nom. cons.
= Carissaceae Bertol; Nuevo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 212 (1891)
= Cerberaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 119 (1820)
= Cynanchaceae G.Mey.; Chloris Han.: 245, 251 (1836)
= Ophioxylaceae Mart.; Consp. Regn. Veg.: 24 (1835)
= Pacouriaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 447 (1820)
= Periplocaceae Schltr.; K. Schum. & C. A. G. Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee: 351 (1905), nom. cons.
= Plumeriaceae Horan.; Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 70 (1834)
= Stapeliaceae Horan.; Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 70 (1834)
= Vincaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 299 (1818)
= Willughbeaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 256 (1858)
452.1251 Genus Vinca L.; Sp. Pl.: 209 (1753)
Distribution: Europe, Mediterranean, W-(incl. Caucasus) and Middle Asia to China
Species listed in database: 7
= Lochnera Rchb.; Consp. 134 (1828)
= Pervinca Mill.; Gard. Dict. Abridg. Ed. 4 (1754)
species :
Vinca difformis Pourr.; Mém. Acad. Sci. Toulouse 3: 333 (1788)
subspecies :
subsp. difformis
Name: Mittleres Immergrün (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Portugal; Spain; Gibraltar; Baleares; France; Corsica; Italy; Morocco; Algeria; Azores (Santa Maria Isl., Sao Miguel Isl., Terceira, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, Faial, Flores Isl.)
11 ger 12 BAL COR FRA GIB POR SPA 13 ITA 20 ALG MOR 21 AZO
Synonyms: hidden
= Pervinca media (Hoffmanns. & Link) Caruel; F. Parlatore, Fl. Ital. 6: 709 (1886)
= Vinca acutiflora Bertol.; Fl. Ital. 2: 751 (1836)
= Vinca major Brot.; Fl. Lusit. 1: 280 (1804), nom. illeg., non L. 1753
= Vinca major subsp. difformis (Pourr.) M.Laínz; Aport. Conoc. Fl. Gallega 6: 22 (1968)
= Vinca media Hoffmanns. & Link; Fl. Portug. 1: 376 (1820)
= Vinca media var. acutiflora (Bertol.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 497 (1881)
= Vinca obtusiflora Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 3: 20 (1889)
subspecies :
subsp. sardoa Stearn; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 65: 255 (1972)
Distribution: Sardinia
12 SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Vinca sardoa (Stearn) Pignatti; Giorn. Bot. Ital. 111: 50 (1977)
species :
Vinca erecta Regel & Schmalh.; Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 6: 330 (1879)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Afghanistan (Takhar)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 34 AFG
species :
Vinca herbacea Waldst. & Kit.; Descr. Icon. Pl. Hung. 1: 8 (1799)
Name: Herbaceous periwinkle
Distribution: Austria; Slovakia; Hungary; Croatia; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; ?Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); ?Cyprus; Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (Jazira, NW-Syria, Jbel Druze, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel, N-Negev Desert, Negev Desert); Jordania (W-Jordania); USA [I] (Massachusetts [I])
11 AUT HUN SLO 13 BUL CRO GRC KOS NMA ROM SRB TUE 14 KRY RUS UKR 33 ARM GEO NCS 34 EAI IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR 75 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Vinca bottae Jaub. & Spach; Ill. Pl. Orient. 2: 104 (1847)
= Vinca haussknechtii Bornm. & Sint. ex Bornm.; Mitth. Thur. Bot. Ver. N. Folge 6: 66 (1894)
= Vinca herbacea subsp. libanotica (Zucc.) Bornm.; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 31(2): 239 (1914)
= Vinca herbacea subsp. mixta Velen.; Fl. Bulg.: 380 (1891)
= Vinca libanotica Zucc.; Abh. Math.-Phys. Akad. Wiss. München 3: 247, t. 8 (1840)
= Vinca mixta Velen.; Fl. Bulg. (1891) 646, in add.
= Vinca pumila E.D.Clarke; Trav. 4: 555 (1818)
= Vinca semidesertorum Ponert; Feddes Repert. 82(9): 581 (1971)
= Vinca sessilifolia A.DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 8: 383 (1844)
species :
Vinca ispartensis Koyuncu & Ekici; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 52(5-6): 340 (2015)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Vinca major L.; Sp. Pl.: 209 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. major
Name: Großes Immergrün (DE); Greater Periwinkle (EN)
Distribution: England [I]; Ireland [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Liechtenstein [I]; Austria [I]; Slovakia [I]; Hungary [I]; Portugal [I]; Spain [I]; Andorra [I]; France; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica [I]; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta [I]; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Albania; European Turkey; Greece [I]; Crete [I]; Ukraine [I]; Crimea [I]; Morocco [c]; Algeria [c]; Azores [I] (Flores Isl. [I]); Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Gran Canaria [I], Tenerife [I], La Gomera [I], Hierro [I], La Palma Isl. [I]); South Africa [I]; St. Helena [I]; Kazakhstan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Northern Caucasus [I]; Transcaucasus [I]; East Aegaean Isl. (incl. Rhodos); Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains, N-Cyprus); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); China [I] (Jiangsu [I], Yunnan [I], Zhejiang [I]); Taiwan [I]; Pakistan [I]; India [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Lord Howe Isl. [I]; Norfolk Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Hawaii [I] (East Maui [I]); Canada [I] (British Columbia [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arkansas [I], Arizona [I], California [I], Georgia [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Mississippi [I], North Carolina [I], New Mexico [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Washington State [I]); Mexico [I]; Costa Rica [I]; Colombia [I]; Venezuela [I]; Ecuador [I]; Peru [I]; Bolivia [I]; Uruguay [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Antofagasta [I], Coquimbo [I], Valparaíso [I], Metropolitana de Santiago [I], O´Higgins [I], Maule [I], Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I]); Juan Fdz. Isl. [I]
10 grb ire 11 aut ger hun lie slo swi 12 ado cis cor FRA por SAR spa 13 ALB BIH CRO grc ITA KOS kri mlt MNT NMA SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 kry ukr 20 alg mor 21 azo cny mdr 27 saf 28 sth 32 kaz tzk uzb 33 ncs 34 CYP EAI LEB TUR 36 chi 38 tai 40 ind pak 50 aus lhi nfk 51 ctm nzl 63 haw 71 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 cos 82 clm ven 83 bol ecu per 85 arg cle jnf uru
Synonyms: hidden
= Pervinca major (L.) Garsault; Fig. Pl. Méd.: t. 448 (1764), opus utique oppr.
= Pervinca major (L.) Moench; 463 (1794)
= Vinca grandiflora Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 146 (1796)
= Vinca major f. variegata (Loudon) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 519 (2009)
= Vinca major var. rosea Thorsrud & Reisæter; 121 (1948), nom. inval.
= Vinca major var. variegata Loudon; Encycl. Trees Shrubs: 657 (1842)
= Vinca minor subsp. major (L.) Bonnier & Layens; 212 (1894)
= Vinca ovatifolia Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 497 (1812)
subspecies :
subsp. balcanica (Pénzes) Kozuharov & Petrova; Jordanov, Fl. Nar. Rep. Balg. 8: 427 (1982)
Distribution: Serbia; Kosovo; Albania; Bulgaria [I]
13 ALB bul KOS SRB
Synonyms: hidden
= Vinca balcanica Pénzes; Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 8: 329 (1962)
subspecies :
subsp. hirsuta (Boiss.) Stearn; J. Bot. 70(21): 27 (1932)
Distribution: Georgia [Caucasus]; Turkey
33 GEO 34 TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Vinca major var. hirsuta Boiss.; Cihac. Asie Min. Bot. 2: 67 (1860)
= Vinca pubescens d´Urv.; Mem. Soc. Linn Paris. 282 (1822)
species :
Vinca minor L.; Sp. Pl.: 209 (1753)
Name: Common periwinkle (EN), Kleines Immergrün (DE)
Distribution: England [I]; Ireland [I]; Denmark [I]; Norway [I]; Sweden [I]; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg [I], Berlin [I], Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg [I], Mecklenburg-Vorpommern [I], Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; France; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica; Italy; Sicily; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria [I]; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; Belarus [I]; C-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Kazakhstan; Tajikistan [I]; Northern Caucasus; Transcaucasus; China [I] (Jiangsu [I]); New Zealand [I]; Canada [I] (British Columbia [I], New Brunswick [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Québec [I]); USA [I] (Alabama [I], Arkansas [I], Arizona [I], Connecticut [I], District of Columbia [I], Delaware [I], Florida [I], Georgia [I], Iowa [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Kansas [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Minnesota [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], Nebraska [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Texas [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Vermont [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I], West Virginia [I]); Mexico [I]; Panama [I]
10 den grb ire nor swe 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 cis COR FRA POR SPA 13 BIH bul CRO ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB 14 blr est KRY lat lit RUS UKR 32 KAZ tzk 33 NCS 36 chi 51 nzl 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 77 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 pan
Synonyms: hidden
= Pervinca heterophyla Raf.; Autikon Bot. 184 (1840)
= Pervinca minor (L.) Garsault; Fig. Pl. Méd.: t. 448 (1764), opus utique oppr.
= Pervinca minor (L.) Moench; 463 (1794)
= Pervinca procumbens Gilib.; Exercit. Phyt. 1: 63 (1792)
= Pervinca repens Raf.; Autik. Bot.: 184 (1840)
= Vinca acutiflora Bertol. ex W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2: 557 (1844)
= Vinca ellipticifolia Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 1: 495 (1812)
= Vinca humilis Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 146 (1796)
= Vinca intermedia Tausch; Flora 19: 386 (1836)
= Vinca minor var. cuprea Döll; 812 (1859)
= Vinca minor var. facchinii Döll; 812 (1859)
= Vinca minor var. intermedia (Tausch) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 497 (1881)
= Vinca minor var. nummulariifolia P.Fourn.; 284 (1923)
= Vinca minor var. sabinka H.Scholz; Willdenowia 12: 291 (1982)
species :
Vinca soneri Koyuncu; Turkish J. Bot. 36(3): 248 (2012)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 18.4 (Feb. 11th, 2024)

Covering 354,025 accepted species,
9,095 hybrids, 47,879 accepted infraspecific taxa and 995,101 synonyms,
in total 1,406,100* names

[*about 25,000 dubious, "unplaced" names and about 4,000 invalid names (Art. 24.3) like "typicus" are deliberately omitted]


With complete, detailed distribution data (countries and regions) and literature references

Arranged in linear phylogenetic sequence reflecting true relationships

Fully searchable and continously updated

With 38,290 pictures of 15,532 species

Assembled through 40 years independently from other databases

In cooperation with Catalogue of Life