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V. 14.3
November 10th, 2022

228.0000 Family Violaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 57 (1802), nom. cons.
32 genera, ca. 1050 spp. Systematics following Wahlert et al. 2015
Species listed in database: 1046; hybrids: 202
= Alsodeiaceae J.Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 197 (1858)
= Leoniaceae A.DC., A. & C. DC., Prodr. 8: 668. med (1844)
228.2006 Genus Viola L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 933 (1753)
Distribution: cosmopolitan, but chiefly temp. regions. Systematics and synonymy see Marcussen et al. 2022. There remain many undescribed species in the Andes. Also, many synonymized species in sect. Borealiamericanae (Appalachians) deserve resurrection (H. E. Ballard).
Species listed in database: 631; hybrids: 201
= Chrysion Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 509 (1836)
= Cittaronium Rchb., Nom. 186 (1841)
= Crocion Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 214 (1914)
= Dischidium Rchb., Handb. 269 (1837)
= Erpetion DC. ex Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 2: t. 170 (1826)
= Ion Medik., Malvenf. 102 (1787)
= Jacea Opiz, Bercht. & Opiz, Okon.-Techn. Fl. Bohm. 2: II. 8 (1839)
= Lophion Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 516 (1836)
= Mnemion Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 510 (1836)
= Oionychion Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 210 (1914)
species :
Viola abbreviata J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 110: 36, figs. 21, 28, 35, 43, 49-51, 53-56, 61-62 (2019)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén, Mendoza)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola abyssinica Steud. ex Oliv.; Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)
Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo); Ethiopia; Madagascar; SE-Nigeria; Cameroon; E-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; South Sudan; Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda; Rwanda; Burundi; E-Zambia; Malawi; Mozambique; E-Zimbabwe; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo]
22 NGA 23 BIO BUR CMN RWA ZAI 24 ETH SSU 25 KEN TAN UGA 26 MLW MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 SAF 29 MDG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 17 Abyssinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola zongia Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 9: 300 (1868)
= Viola emirnensis Bojer ex Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)
species :
Viola acanthophylla Leyb. ex Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 442 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
species :
Viola acrocerauniensis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 22: 493 (1986)
Distribution: Albania
13 ALB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola acuminata Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 252 (1842)
subspecies :
subsp. acuminata
Distribution: China (Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea; Siberia (C-Siberia, E-Siberia); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuminata f. glaberrima (H.Hara) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 196 (1962)
= Viola acuminata f. shikokuensis Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola acuminata var. brevistipulata (W.Becker) Kitag., Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 451 (1979)
= Viola acuminata var. dentata W.Becker, Fl. Aziat. Ross. 8: 49 (1915)
= Viola acuminata var. glaberrima H.Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 12: 220 (1936)
= Viola acuminata var. intermedia Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 280 (1916)
= Viola brevistipulata ssp. minor (Nakai) F.Maek. & Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola brevistipulata var. minor Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 47: 260 (1933)
= Viola canina var. acuminata (Ledeb.) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 247 (1861)
= Viola laciniosa A.Gray, Narr. Capt. Perry´s Exped. 2: 308 (1856)
= Viola micrantha Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 5: 183 (1832)
= Viola micrantha var. brevistipulata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 383 (1917) [as proles]
= Viola turczaninowii Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 395 (1949)
variant :
var. austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Kitag.; Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 451 (1979)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuminata ssp. austroussuriensis W.Becker, Fl. Aziat. Ross. 8: 49 (1915)
= Viola acuminata var. austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 18 (2020), isonym
= Viola austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Kom., Alis. Key Pl. Far East. Reg. URSS 2: 767 (1932)
= Viola micrantha lusus austroussuriensis (W.Becker) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 384 (1917)
variant :
var. pilifera C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnanica, 13(3): 257 (1991)
Distribution: China (Gansu)
36 CHI
subspecies :
subsp. grandistipulata (W.Becker) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 18 (2020)
Distribution:
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola micrantha var. grandistipulata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 383 (1917) [as proles]
species :
Viola acutifolia (Kar. & Kir.) W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 96 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II 263 (1916)
Distribution: China (Xinjiang); Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. acutifolia Kar. & Kir., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 15: 163 (1842)
= Viola uniflora var. kareliniana Maxim., Fl. Mongol. 1: 81 (1899)
species :
Viola adenothrix Hayata; Ic. Pl. Formos. 3: 23 (1913)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kosanensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola royleana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola rupicola Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3: 106 (1923)
species :
Viola adunca Sm.; Cycl. [A. Rees] (London ed.) 37: Viola n. 63 (1817)
subspecies :
subsp. adunca
Name: Hookedspur violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Idaho, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); St. Pierre et Miquelon; Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Sonora)
70 ASK 72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae. V. aduncoides is probably a valid species.
Synonyms: hidden
= Lophion aduncum (Sm.) Nieuwl. & Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat., 4: 478 (1916)
= Viola adunca ssp. ashtoniae M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 233, pl. 11, figs. 4, 7 (1936)
= Viola adunca ssp. oxyceras (S.Watson) Piper, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 11: 395 (1906)
= Viola adunca ssp. radicosa M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 234, pl. 11, fig. 5 (1936)
= Viola adunca ssp. uncinulata (Greene) Applegate, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 22: 282 (1939)
= Viola adunca var. cascadensis (M.S.Baker) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 440 (1961)
= Viola adunca var. kirkii V.G.Duran, Leafl. W. Bot. 10: 319 (1966)
= Viola adunca var. oxyceras (S.Watson) Jeps.
= Viola adunca var. uncinulata (Greene) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 440 (1961)
= Viola aduncoides Á.Löve & D.Löve, Bot. Notiser, 128(4): 516 1975 (1976)
= Viola canina var. adunca (Sm.) A.Gray
= Viola canina var. oxyceras S.Watson
= Viola canina var. puberula S.Watson, Manual (Gray), ed. 6. 81 (1890)
= Viola cascadensis M.S.Baker, Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 173 (1949)
= Viola minima M.S.Baker, Leafl. W. Bot. 5: 141 (1949)
= Viola montanensis Rydb., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 263 (1900)
= Viola oreocallis Greene, Pittonia 4: 288 (1901)
= Viola oxyceras (S.Watson) Greene, Pittonia 3: 255 (1897)
= Viola puberula (S.Watson) Howell, Fl. N. W. Amer. [Howell] 1: 72 (1897)
= Viola subvestita Greene, Erythea 5: 39 (1897)
= Viola sylvestris var. puberula (S.Watson) E.Sheld., Bull. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 9: 17 (1894)
= Viola uncinulata Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 97 (1910)
subspecies :
subsp. bellidifolia (Greene) H.E.Ballard; ined.
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia); USA (Colorado, Montana, Wyoming)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola adunca var. bellidifolia (Greene) H.D.Harr., Man. Pl. Colorado 377, 641 (1954)
= Viola bellidifolia Greene, Pittonia 4: 292 (1901)
species :
Viola aethnensis Parl.; Fl. Ital. 9: 185 (1890)
subspecies :
subsp. aethnensis
Name: Ätna-Veilchen
Distribution: Sicily (Etna)
13 SIC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
subspecies :
subsp. messanensis (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 504 (1977)
Distribution: S-Italy; NE-Sicily
13 ITA SIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aethnensis ssp. calabra (A.Terracc.) Peruzzi, Inform. Bot. Ital. 42(2): 531 (2010)
= Viola bertolonii ssp. messanensis (W.Becker) A.Schmidt, Flora (Regensb.) 154: 159 (1964)
= Viola calabra (A.Terracc.) Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 191 (2018)
= Viola ferdinandea Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 199, fig. 10 (2018)
= Viola gracilis var. calabra A.Terracc., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 323 (1889)
= Viola heterophylla var. messanensis W.Becker
subspecies :
subsp. splendida (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 504 (1977)
Distribution: S-Italy (mountains near Salerno)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alburnica Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 187 (2018)
= Viola cervatiana Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 193, fig. 6 (2018)
= Viola cilentana Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 195, fig. 7 (2018)
= Viola gaviolii Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 202, fig. 12 (2018)
= Viola sirinica Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 220, fig. 21 (2018)
= Viola splendida W.Becker, Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 2: 750 (1902)
= Viola vulturis Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 226, fig. 25 (2018)
species :
Viola aetolica Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(6): 24 (1859)
Distribution: Albania; Greece; Macedonia
13 ALB GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterosepala Boiss. & Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 23 (1859)
= Viola saxatilis ssp. aetolica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek
= Viola alpestris ssp. aetolica (Boiss. & Heldr.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 345 (1910)
species :
Viola affinis Leconte; Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 138 (1828)
Name: Sand violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Ontario, Québec)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola affinis var. subarctica J.Rousseau
= Viola sororia ssp. affinis (Leconte) R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 78 (1992), without basionym ref., et Phytologia, 80(4): 295 (1996)
= Viola sororia var. affinis (Leconte) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 39 (1992)
species :
Viola aizoon Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 443 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío, Nuble)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cyathiformis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 355 (1925)
species :
Viola alaica Vved.; Acta Univ. As. Med. Ser. VIII b, Bot. Fasc. 3, 79 (1928)
Distribution: Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
32 KGZ TZK UZB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola oxycentra Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 682 (1949)
species :
Viola alba Besser; Prim. Fl. Galic. 1: 171 (1809)
subspecies :
subsp. alba
Name: Weißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Spain; Baleares; France; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Sachsen [I]); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovakia; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Poland; Sweden (Øland); European Russia; Greece; Turkey
10 SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 BAL FRA SPA 13 BIH CRO GRC NMA SLV SRB 14 RUS 34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba f. virescens (Jord.) Rhiner, 196 (1893)
= Viola alba ssp. stevenii (Besser) Gremli, 105 (1874)
= Viola alba ssp. thessala (Boiss. & Spruner) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 502 (1925)
= Viola alba ssp. virescens (Jord.) Murr, 202 (1923)
= Viola alba var. lactea Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 17 (1999), nom. nov.
= Viola alba var. picta (Moggr.) Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 16 (1999)
= Viola alba var. pungens Gren., 177 (1847)
= Viola alba var. stevenii (Besser) W.D.J.Koch, 62 (1843)
= Viola alba var. virescens (Jord.) Gremli, 86 (1878)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. albiflora W.Becker
= Viola dumetorum Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 16 (1852) non Phil.
= Viola hirta var. picta Moggr.
= Viola martii ssp. alba (Besser) Döll, 648 (1843)
= Viola nigricans Schur ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola odorata ssp. alba (Besser) Bonnier, Bonnier & R. C. V. Douin, 14 (1913)
= Viola odorata var. alba (Besser) Klett & Richt., 230 (1830)
= Viola praecox Heuff. ex Fuss, Fl. Transs. 81
= Viola thessala Boiss. & Spruner, Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 8: 51 (1849)
= Viola violacea Wiesb. ex Dichtl, Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3: 45 (1885)
= Viola virescens Jord. ex Boreau, Fl. Centre France, ed. 3 (Boreau) 2: 77 (1857)
variant :
var. scotophylla (Jord.) Gremli; 86 (1878)
Name: Dunkelblütiges Weißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: N-Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Austria; Hungary; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Sachsen [I]); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Greece; European Russia; Northern Caucasus
11 AUT GER HUN LIE SWI 13 CRO GRC ITA SLV 14 RUS 33 NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba f. albiflora (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Gams, 647 (1925)
= Viola alba f. scotophylla (Jord.) Rhiner, 197 (1893)
= Viola alba ssp. scotophylla (Jord.) Gremli, 105 (1874)
= Viola alba ssp. scotophylla (Jord.) Nyman, Consp. 78 (1878)
= Viola alba var. albiflora Wiesb. ex Dichtl, 45 (1885)
= Viola alba var. violacea Wiesb. ex Dichtl, 45 (1885)
= Viola scotophylla f. albiflora (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Murr, 102 (1900)
= Viola scotophylla f. violacea (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Murr, 102 (1900)
= Viola scotophylla Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 9 (1849)
subspecies :
subsp. bonaefidei Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot., 8: 85 (1991) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Remarks: Viola alba ssp. dehnhardtii x suavis ssp. barceloi. Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Viola
subspecies :
subsp. cretica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Marcussen; Pl. Syst. Evol. 237(1-2): 71 (2003)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cretica Boiss. & Heldr., Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 2(8): 51 (1849)
= Viola cretica ssp. glabra A.Tiniakou
subspecies :
subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) W.Becker; Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 8(2): 257 (1902)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Bulgaria; Corsica; France; Croatia; Italy; San Marino; Macedonia; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Slovenia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); East Aegaean Isl.; Albania; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Iran (N-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Syria (coastal W-Syria); Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; Ukraine; Crimea
12 COR FRA SAR 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA 14 KRY UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 33 AZE GEO 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola armena Boiss. & A.Huet, Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 5: 48 (1856)
= Viola cadevallii Pau, Mem. Acad. Ci. Artes Barcelona ser. 3, 2: 62 (1896)
= Viola dehnhardtii Ten., Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap. (1830) 12, ex ej. Syll. 117
= Viola dehnhardtii var. atlantica Braun-Blanq. & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 14: 73 (1923)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. gomarica Emb. & Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc 2: 506 (1932)
= Viola maroccana (Maire) Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord, 23: 168 (1932)
= Viola pentelica Vierh., Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 64: 266 (1914)
= Viola pyrenaica var. maroccana Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 13: 14 (1922)
subspecies :
subsp. neusii Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot., 8: 83 (1991) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Remarks: Viola alba ssp. dehnhardtii x jaubertiana
species :
Viola albanica Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 141 (1900)
Distribution: Albania; N-Greece
13 ALB GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola albida Palib.; Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 17(1): 30 (1899)
Distribution: China (Anhui, ?Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shandong, ?Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang); Russian Far East (Ussuri); Japan (Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida f. rugata (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 528 (2017)
= Viola albida f. variegata F.Maek., Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 105 (1954)
= Viola albida f. viridis Y.N.Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 4 (2006)
= Viola albida var. chaerophylloides (Regel) F.Maek. ex Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola albida var. rugata Y.N.Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 16 (2005)
= Viola albida var. suavis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 49: 419 (1935)
= Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 19: 17 (1902), isonym
= Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) W.Becker, Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 2(2): 856 (1902)
= Viola chaerophylloides f. viridis (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 528 (2017)
= Viola dentariifolia Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 1: 1076 (1901)
= Viola dissecta subvar. albida (Palib.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 155 (1912)
= Viola dissecta subvar. simplicifolia Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 155 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. albida (Palib.) Nakai, Icon. Pl. Koisik. 1: 93, t. 47 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. chaerophylloides (Regel) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 153 (1912)
= Viola napellifolia Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(424): 86, 93 (1922)
= Viola pinnata f. pedata Miq.
= Viola pinnata f. triphylla Miq.
= Viola pinnata var. chaerophylloides Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 222 (1861)
= Viola prionantha var. incisa Kitag., Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 6(4): 123 (1942)
= Viola sieboldiana var. chaerophylloides (Regel) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32(382): 226 (1918)
variant :
var. eizanensis (Makino) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola eizanensis (Makino) Makino, J. Jap. Bot. 1: 15 (1917)
= Viola dissecta var. eizanensis Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 155 (1912)
variant :
var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chaerophylloides var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 87 (1905)
= Viola dissecta f. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino
= Viola dissecta var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Nakai, (1916)
= Viola napellifolia var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Nakai, (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. sieboldiana Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg ser. 3, 23: 313 (1877)
= Viola sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino, (1905)
species :
Viola alexandrowiana (W.Becker) Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 412 (1949)
Distribution: Siberia (C-Siberia); Mongolia
30 SIB 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola phalacrocarpa ssp. alexandrowiana W.Becker
species :
Viola alexejana Kamelin & Junussov; Dokl. Akad. Nauk Tadzh. SSR, 23(4): 208 (1980)
Distribution: Tajikistan
32 TZK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola allchariensis Beck; Jahres-Kat. Wien. Bot. Tauschver. 1894: 6 (1894)
Distribution: C-Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola alliariifolia Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 32 (1922)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glabella var. renifolia Koidz., (1917)
= Viola brevistipulata var. renifolia (Koidz.) Maek., (1954)
species :
Viola allochroa Botsch.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. & Zool. Acad. Sci. Uzbekistan. 11: 10 (1948)
Distribution: Kyrgyzstan (Tianshan); Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan
32 KAZ KGZ UZB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola alpina Jacq.; Enum. Stirp. Vindob. 159 (1762)
Distribution: E-Austria; Slovakia; Poland; Romania
11 AUT POL SLO 13 ROM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola baumgarteniana Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 87 (1866)
= Viola microphylla Schur, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 8: 394 (1858)
species :
Viola altaica Ker Gawl.; Edwards´s Bot. Reg. 54 (1815)
Name: Altai-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: China (Xinjiang); Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Kazakhstan; Germany [I]
11 ger 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ 36 CHI 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion grandiflorum Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 5: 514 (1836)
= Viola chrysantha Fisch. ex Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 770 (1841)
= Viola monochroa Klokov, Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 688 (1949)
= Viola pallasii Fisch. ex Steud., Nom. ed. I. 886 (1821)
= Viola speciosa Schrad. ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 708 (1832)
species :
Viola amamiana Hatus.; Sci. Rep. Yokosuka City Mus. 15: 13 (1969)
Distribution: Ryukyu Isl.
38 NNS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola ambigua Waldst. & Kit.; Pl. Rar. Hung. 2: 208 (1804)
Name: Steppen-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Germany; Hungary; Macedonia; Croatia; ?Slovenia; Serbia & Kosovo; Romania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Kazakhstan
11 AUT CZE GER HUN SLO 13 BUL CRO NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY RUS UKR 32 KAZ 33 GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ambigua ssp. campestris (M.Bieb.) Gams, 643 (1925)
= Viola campestris M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 171 (1808)
= Viola revoluta Heuff. ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 705 (1832)
= Viola suaveolens H.Perrier & Songeon, Billot, Annot. Fl. Fr. et Allem. 183
species :
Viola amurica W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 62 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 230-231 (1916)
Distribution: China (NE-Heilongjiang, E-Jilin); Russian Far East
31 RFE 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arcuata ssp. amurica (W.Becker) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China
species :
Viola anagae Gilli; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., 89(9-10): 595 1978 (1979)
Name: Anaga-Veilchen (DE); Violeta de Anaga (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola angkae Craib; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1925: 14 (1925)
Distribution: N-Thailand
41 THA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola angustifolia Phil.; Linnaea 28: 612 (1856)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola wikipedia J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores, Int. Rock Gard. 117: 47 (2019), nom. nov. illeg. superfl.
species :
Viola anitae J.M.Watson; Int. Rock Gard. 108: [89], figs.13, 14, 42, 46, 47, 53-57, 59, 63 (2018)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 6 Rhizomandinium
species :
Viola annamensis Baker fil.; J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Thailand, 4: 128 (1921)
Distribution: C-Vietnam; Borneo (Kalimantan); NE-Thailand
41 THA VIE 42 BOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola rheophila Okamoto, Bull. Osaka Mus. Nat. Hist., 37: 10 (1984)
species :
Viola apoensis Elmer; Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 8: 2878 (1915)
Distribution: Philippines (Mindanao); New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diffusa ssp. apoensis (Elmer) D.M.Moore, Fl. Males., Ser. 1, 7(1): 202 (1971)
species :
Viola appalachiensis L.K.Henry; Castanea, 18: 131 (1953)
Name: Appalachian violet
Distribution: USA (Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola allegheniensis L.K.Henry, Castanea, 18: 53 (1953), non Roem. & Schult.
= Viola walteri var. appalachiensis (L.K.Henry) L.E.McKinney ex S.P.Grund & B.L.Isaac, Castanea 72(1): 59 (2007)
species :
Viola araucaniae W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 181 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Araucanía)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola arborescens L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
Distribution: SW-Portugal; Baleares; France; Spain; Sardinia; Morocco; Algeria
12 BAL FRA POR SAR SPA 20 ALG MOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 15 Xylinosium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arborescens f. latifolia (DC.) Fern.Casado, Lagascalia, 14(1): 136 (1986)
= Viola arborescens f. willkommii Fern.Casado, Lagascalia, 14(1): 136 (1986), without type, as nom. nov.
= Viola arborescens var. latifolia DC.
= Viola arborescens var. serratifolia Ging.
= Viola fruticans Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 3: 111 (1901)
= Viola longiviola Pourr. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 380 (1819)
= Viola suberosa Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 313 (1799)
species :
Viola argentina W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 184 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (Cordoba, La Rioja, San Juan)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola arguta Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 391 (1819)
Distribution: Colombia (Cesar, Magdalena); Peru; Ecuador
82 CLM 83 ECU PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arguta ssp. meridionalis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 93 (1907)
= Viola arguta var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 92 (1907)
= Viola arguta var. meridionalis (W.Becker) L.B.Sm. & A.Fernández, Caldasia 6: 164 (1954)
= Viola corchorifolia Dombey ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola punicea Ruiz & Pav. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 304 (1824)
species :
Viola arsenica Beck; Jahres-Kai. Wien. Bot. Tauschver. 1894: 6 (1894)
Distribution: S-Macedonia (Alsar, 40 km SW of Prilep)
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola arvensis Murray; Prodr. Stirp. Götting. 73 (1770)
subspecies :
subsp. arvensis
Name: Acker-Stiefmütterchen (DE), European field pansy (EN)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl.; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra; Hungary; Italy; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal; Malta; Norway; Poland; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Sweden; Crimea; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Korea [I]; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, W-Anatolia); European Turkey; Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Tenerife [I], La Gomera [I], La Palma Isl. [I]); Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; USA [I] (Arkansas [I], California [I], Connecticut [I], Delaware [I], Georgia [I], Iowa [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Kansas [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Minnesota [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], Nebraska [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Vermont [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I], West Virginia [I]); Canada (Alberta [I], British Columbia [I], Manitoba [I], New Brunswick [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Prince Edward Isl. [I], Québec [I], Saskatchewan [I]); Greenland [I]; St. Pierre et Miquelon [I]; China [I]; Australia [I] (New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Ecuador [I]; Colombia [I]; Bolivia [I]; Chile [I] (Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I]); Argentina [I]; Falkland Isl. [I]; South Africa [I]; New Zealand [I]
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 cny mdr 27 saf 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 chi 37 MON 38 kor 50 aus 51 nzl 70 gnl 72 spm 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 82 clm 83 bol ecu 85 arg cle 91 fal
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion arvense (Murray) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 217 (1914)
= Viola agrestis Jord., 15 (1846)
= Viola anglica Drabble
= Viola arvatica Jord.
= Viola arvensis ssp. andina W.Becker
= Viola arvensis ssp. communis Wittr., 81 (1897)
= Viola arvensis var. anglica (Drabble) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. arvatica (Jord.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. deseglisei (Jord. ex Boreau) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. latifolia (Drabble) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. segetalis (Jord.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola atlantica Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 215 (1874)
= Viola aurasiaca Pomel
= Viola deseglisei Jord. ex Boreau
= Viola gracilis var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt., Fl. Algèrie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 105 (1888)
= Viola latifolia Drabble
= Viola ruralis Jord. ex Boreau, 81 (1857)
= Viola segetalis Jord., 12 (1846)
= Viola segetalis Schur, 85 (1866), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor ssp. arvensis (Murray) Gaudin, 210 (1828)
= Viola tricolor ssp. arvensis (Murray) Wigand, Fl. Kurhessen: 82 (1859)
= Viola tricolor ssp. banatica (Kit.) Simonk., 112 (1887)
= Viola tricolor var. agrestis (Jord.) Gren., 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 465 (1867), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) DC., Prodr. [De Candolle] 1: 303 (1824), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) Pio, 30 (1813)
= Viola tricolor var. bannatica (Kit.) Rchb., 709 (1832)
= Viola tricolor var. bicolor Merrem, 104 (1809)
= Viola tricolor var. gracilescens (Jord.) Gren., 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. intermedia Wender., 62 (1846)
= Viola tricolor var. parviflora Hayne, t. 4 (1813)
= Viola tricolor var. segetalis (Jord.) Gren., 183 (1847)
subspecies :
subsp. megalantha Nauenb.; Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 81 (1986), nom. inval., et Haussknechtia 12: 53 (2010)
Name: Großblütiges Acker-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen); Hungary; Switzerland; Austria; Italy; France; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine
11 AUT GER HUN SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola megalantha (Nauenb.) G.H.Loos, Jahrb. Bochum. Bot. Vereins 1: 129 (2010)
= Viola megalantha (Nauenb.) Landolt, Fl. Indicativa 270 (2010), isonym, nom. inval.
species :
Viola athois W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 2: 854 (1902)
Name: Athos-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: NE-Greece (Athos)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola atropurpurea Leyb.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 159 (1858)
Name: Escarapela, carabello [Chile]
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, Neuquen, San Juan); Chile (Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lehmannii ssp. cordifolia W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 92 (1907)
species :
Viola aurantiaca Leyb.; Flora, 47: 41 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, Maule)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola curicoensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 183 (1922)
species :
Viola aurata Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 492 (1893)
Name: Estrellita [Chile]
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola aurea Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 185. f. 54 (1863)
subspecies :
subsp. aurea
Name: Golden violet
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada)
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. aurea (Kellogg) J.C.Clausen, Madroño 17: 295 (1964)
= Viola purpurea var. aurea (Kellogg) M.S.Baker ex Jeps., Fl. Calif. (Jeps.) 2: 521 (1936)
subspecies :
subsp. arizonensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Madroño 12: 11 (fig. 2) (1953)
Distribution: USA (Arizona)
76 USA
subspecies :
subsp. mohavensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Madroño 12: 9 (-11) (1953)
Distribution: USA (Arizona, California, Nevada)
76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. mohavensis (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
= Viola purpurea ssp. mohavensis (M.S.Baker & Clausen ex S.F.Blake) Clausen, Madroño 17: 295 (1964)
species :
Viola auricolor Skottsb.; Svensk. Vet-Akad. Handl n. s. 56: No. 5. 130, 260 (1916)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Santa Cruz); Chile (Aisén)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola auricula Leyb.; Flora, 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola auriculata Leyb., Anal. Univ. Chil. (1863) II. 672, ex Phil. fil. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Chil. 20
species :
Viola austrosinensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 158(4): 756 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola babunensis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 600 (1985)
Distribution: Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola bakeri Greene; Pittonia 3: 307 (1898)
Name: Baker´s violet
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington State)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bakeri ssp. grandis M.S.Baker
= Viola bakeri ssp. shastensis M.S.Baker, Madroño 15: 203 (1960)
= Viola nuttallii var. bakeri (Greene) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 447 (1961)
= Viola praemorsa var. bakeri (Greene) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
species :
Viola balansae Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 1: 177 (1939), gallice, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 85: 599 (1939), latine
Distribution: N-Vietnam
41 VIE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola bambusetorum Hand.-Mazz.; Symb. Sin. 7(2): 377, f. 10: 1 (1931)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola emeiensis Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 381, f. 1, 9-10 (1992)
= Viola lianhuashanensis Ching J.Wang & K.Sun, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 260-262, f. 2, 1-8 (1991)
= Viola pseudobambusetorum Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 256 (1949)
species :
Viola bangii Rusby; Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, 6: 5 (1896)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz); Ecuador; ?Peru
83 BOL ECU
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nivalis Benth., Pl. Hartw. 160 (1843) nom. illeg.
species :
Viola banksii K.R.Thiele & Prober; Muelleria 18: 15 (2003)
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland); New Zealand [I]
50 AUS 51 nzl
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea var. elatines DC.
= Viola reniformis (Sweet) Endl.
species :
Viola baoshanensis W.S.Shu, W.Liu & C.Y.Lan; Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 42(3): 118, fig. 1 (2003)
Distribution: China (Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola barhalensis G.Knoche & Marcussen; Phytotaxa 275(1): 14 (2016)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola barroetana W.Schaffn. ex Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. 20 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola baxteri House; Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 254: 500 (1924)
Distribution: USA (New York, etc.)
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola beamanii Calderón; Phytologia, 52(2): 105 (1982)
Distribution: Mexico (Mexico State, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola beati J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Willdenowia 49(1): 36 (2019)
Distribution: NW-Argentina
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 11 Xylobasis
species :
Viola beckeriana J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Rock Gard. Quart. 71(2): 166 (2013)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola beckiana Fiala; Glasn. Mus. Bosni Herceg. 7: 423 (1895)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina
13 BIH
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola beckwithii Torr. & A.Gray; Pacif. Rail. Rep. 2: 119, t. 1 (1856)
Name: Beckwith´s violet
Distribution: USA (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola beckwithii ssp. glabrata M.S.Baker, Madroño 12: 18 (1953)
= Viola decora Kellogg, Pacif. Rural Press (1879), ex Curran, in Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: III 131 (1885)
variant :
var. cachensis C.P.Sm.; Muhlenbergia 7: 136 (1912)
Distribution: USA
species :
Viola behboudiana Rech.fil. & Esfand.; Anz. Österr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. 87: 297 (1950)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sind)
34 IRN 40 PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola makranica Omer & Qaiser, Pakistan J. Bot., 17(1): 137 (1985)
species :
Viola belophylla Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 55: 467 (1908)
Distribution: China (Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola monbeigii W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 248 (1928)
species :
Viola bertolonii Pio; De Viola 34 (1813)
Distribution: SE-France; NW-Italy
12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla Bertol., Rar. It. Pl. Dec. 3: 53 non Poiret
species :
Viola betonicifolia Sm.; Rees, Cyclop. 37 (1): Viola n. 7 (1817)
Distribution: Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, ?Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ?Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; SE-Tibet; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam; Java; Malaysia; Sumatra; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Alor, Bali, Timor); Australia (South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania); Sri Lanka; Philippines; Nepal; Bhutan; Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost); Pakistan (Kurram, N. W. Frontier Prov., Murree, Hazara, Chitral, Swat, Baltistan); India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Poonch, Kashmir, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sikkim); Bangladesh; Sri Lanka; Sulawesi
32 TZK UZB 34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 38 JAP TAI 40 BAN BHU IND NEP PAK SRL 41 MYA THA VIE 42 JAW LSI PHI SUL SUM 50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola betonicifolia f. pubescens H.Hara, Fl. E. Himalaya, 3rd. Rep.: 82 (1975)
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. australiensis W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54 Beibl. 120: 166 (1917), nom. superfl.
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. nepalensis (Ging.) W.Becker, B. Jahrb. 54 (Beibl. 120): 166 (1917)
= Viola betonicifolia var. albescens (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola betonicifolia var. cordifolia Hara, J. Jap. B. 49: 133 (1974)
= Viola betonicifolia var. yuanfengia S.S.Ying, New Taxa New Names 1: 82 (2019)
= Viola caespitosa D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 205 (1825)
= Viola hissarica Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 682 (1949)
= Viola inconspicua ssp. dielsiana W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 172 (1917)
= Viola longifolia R.Br. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola longiscapa DC. ex G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
= Viola lungtungensis S.S.Ying, New Taxa New Names 2: 60 (2019)
= Viola mandshurica var. albescens Nakai, (1922)
= Viola nilagirica Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 36: I. 556 (1863)
= Viola oblongosagittata var. violascens Nakai
= Viola patrinii Matsum. & Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 30 (1906) (non DC.)
= Viola patrinii var. caespitosa (D.Don) Ridl., J. Bot. 73(1): 17-18 (1935)
= Viola patrinii var. chinensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916)
= Viola patrinii var. laotiana H.Boissieu
= Viola patrinii var. napaulensis Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola phyteumifolia DC. ex G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
species :
Viola bhutanica Hara; J. Jap. Bot., 48 (12): 356 (1973)
Distribution: Bhutan; S-Tibet
36 TIB 40 BHU
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola biflora L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Zweiblütiges Veilchen (DE), Twinflower violet (EN)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Finland; France; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sachsen, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; ?Andorra; N-Spain; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Norway; Poland; Romania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; Ukraine; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Paktia / Khost); North Korea; Taiwan; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima Isl.); Siberia (E-Siberia); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Ussuri, Amur, etc.); N-Sumatra; Mongolia; Myanmar (Magway); China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan); Taiwan; Tibet; Pakistan (Kurram, Chitral, Hazara, Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan); India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal); Nepal; Bhutan; Alaska; USA (Colorado); Canada (Yukon)
10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 COR FRA SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO ITA MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB 14 RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 37 MON 38 JAP NKO NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 MYA 42 SUM 70 ASK 73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysion biflorum (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 510 (1836)
= Dischidium biflorum (L.) Opiz, Seznam, 38 (1852)
= Viola biflora f. glabrifolia Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1(7): 6 (1974)
= Viola biflora var. acuminata Maxim., Acta Hort. Petrop. 11: 62 (1890)
= Viola biflora var. hirsuta W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 42 (1918)
= Viola biflora var. nudicaulis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 42-43 (1918)
= Viola biflora var. uniflora (Krock.) Pohl, 231 (1809)
= Viola biflora var. valdepilosa Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7(2): 381 (1931)
= Viola biflora var. vegeta (Nakai) Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1(7): 6 (1974)
= Viola chingiana W.Becker, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38: 117 (1925)
= Viola crassa var. tayemonii (Hayata) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 10 (1992)
= Viola crassa var. vegeta Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 565 (1928)
= Viola kanoi Sasaki, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 19: 104 (1929)
= Viola lutea Lam., Fl. Franç. (Lam.) 2: 680 (1779)
= Viola microceras Rupr.
= Viola nudicaulis (W.Becker) S.Y.Chen, Fl. Xizangica 3: 297 (1986)
= Viola schachimardanica Khalk., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Akad. Nauk Uzb. SSR. 19: 58 (1974)
= Viola schulzeana W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 261-262 (1916)
= Viola tayemonii Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6: 3 (1916)
= Viola uniflora Krock., 516 (1790) non L.
= Viola wallichiana ssp. brevicornis W.Becker ex Limpr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 440 (1922)
species :
Viola binayensis Okamoto & K.Ueda; M. Kato, Taxon. Stud. Pl. Seram Is.: et in Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 143 (1986), without latin descr. or type, 37(1-3): 1 (1986), with latin descr. & type
Distribution: Moluccas (Seram)
42 MOL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola bissetii Maxim.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 54: I. 5 (1879)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bissetii var. kiusiana Terao, Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 28(1-3): 63 (1977)
= Viola vaginata var. angustifolia Yatabe, (1891)
species :
Viola blanda Willd.; Hort. Berol, t. 24 (1804)
Name: Sweet white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blanda var. palustriformis A.Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
= Viola leconteana G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 324 (1831)
species :
Viola bocquetiana Yild.; Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi, 1(1): 2 (1994)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola boissieuana Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 16: 127 (1902)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieuana var. pseudoselkirkii (Nakai) Yahara, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Bot., 14(2): 96 (1987)
= Viola pseudoselkirkii Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 195 (1925)
species :
Viola boliviana Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 18 (1889)
Distribution: Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz); Peru; Argentina (Jujuy)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bangiana W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 89 (1907)
= Viola huanucoensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 186 (1922)
= Viola truncata W.Becker, Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
species :
Viola bornmuelleri Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 574 (1985)
Distribution: Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola brachyphylla W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 73 (1924)
Distribution: Macedonia; N-Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola breviflora Jungsim Lee & M.Kim; Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 44(2): 84 (2014)
Distribution: South Korea
38 KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola breviflora f. albiflora M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 529 (2017)
species :
Viola brevipes (M.S.Baker) Marcussen; ined.
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan); Greenland; Mexico (Chiapas)
70 ASK GNL 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola palustris ssp. brevipes M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 235, pl. 11, fig. 6 (1936)
= Viola palustris var. brevipes (M.S.Baker) R.J.Davis, Madroño 11: 144 (1951)
species :
Viola brevistipulata (Fr. & Sav.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 265 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl.)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brevistipulata var. pubescens Nakai, (1928)
= Viola flaviflora Nakai, J. Jap. Bot., 15: 401 (1939)
= Viola brevistipulata var. kishidai (Nakai) F.Maek. & Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola kishidae Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 69 (1922)
= Viola pubescens var. brevistipulata Franch. & Sav., (1878)
variant :
var. acuminata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 557, 591 (1928)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flaviflora var. acuminata (Nakai) Nakai, (1939)
variant :
var. crassifolia (Koidz.) F.Maek. ex S.Akiyama, H.Ohba & Tabuchi; Fl. Japan, 2c: 187 (1999)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glabella var. crassifolia Koidz., (1917)
= Viola yubariana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 31 (1922)
variant :
var. hidakana (Nakai) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hidakana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 30 (1922)
= Viola brevistipulata ssp. hidakana (Nakai) Watan., (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata var. yezoana Toyok. ex H.Nakai, H.Igarashi & H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot., 71(6): 357 (1996) (nom. nov. for V. hidakana var. ciliata)
= Viola hidakana var. ciliata Nakai ex Tatew.
variant :
var. laciniata (Boiss.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 266 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola uniflora var. laciniata Boiss., (1900)
= Viola laciniata (Boissieu) Koidz., Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto, 7: 113, cum descr. ampl. (1938)
= Viola yamamotoi Koidz. ex Yamam., (1939)
species :
Viola bridgesii Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 18 (1889)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cummingii W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
species :
Viola brittoniana Pollard; Bot. Gaz. 26: 332 (1898), et Man. Fl. N. States [Britton] 635 (1901)
Name: Northern coastal violet
Distribution: USA (Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atlantica Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 24(2): 92 (1897) non Pomel 1874
= Viola pedatifida ssp. brittoniana (Pollard) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 22 (1992)
= Viola pedatifida var. brittoniana (Pollard) R.J.Little & L.E.McKinney, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
species :
Viola bubanii Timb.-Lagr.; Congr. Sci. Fr. 19 Sess. (Toulouse) 1: 280 (1852)
Distribution: N-Spain; SW-France (Pyrenees); N-Portugal
12 FRA POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bubanii ssp. palentina (Losa) Rivas Mart.Izco & M.Costa, Trab. Dep. Bot. Fisiol. Veg. Univ. Madrid, 3: 102 (1971)
= Viola palentina Losa, Collect. Bot., Barcelona, 2: 295 (1950)
= Viola trinitatis Losa, Contrib. Estud. Fl. Veg. Prov. Zamora 80 (1949)
species :
Viola bulbosa Maxim.; Melanges Bot. 748 (1876)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai, ?Shaanxi, NW-Sichuan); Tibet; India (Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim)
36 CHI TIB 40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 3 Bulbosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola filifera Kom., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 235 (1914)
= Viola hookeri Franch., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 32: 5 (1886) non Thomson ex Hook. f.
= Viola multistolonifera Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 382, f. 1, 17-19 (1992)
species :
Viola bustillosia Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 211 (1846)
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
species :
Viola calcarata L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. calcarata
Name: Sporn-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; France; Germany (Bayern); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Italy; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Macedonia; Slovenia; Serbia & Kosovo
11 AUT GER LIE SWI 12 FRA 13 BIH ITA MNT NMA SLV SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion calcaratum (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 512 (1836)
= Viola alpina Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796)
= Viola apennina A.Terracc., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It. 21: 327 (1889), et in Ann. Ist. Bot. Roma 4: 77 1889-90 (1891)
= Viola calcarata f. albiflora (DC.) Gams, 610 (1925)
= Viola calcarata f. rotundifolia (Hegetschw.) Gams, 610 (1925)
= Viola calcarata var. albiflora DC., 302 (1824)
= Viola calcarata var. brevicornis Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. grandiflora Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. halleri DC., 302 (1824), nom. inval.
= Viola calcarata var. ramosa Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. rotundifolia (Hegetschw.) Rouy & Foucaud, 39 (1896)
= Viola calcarata var. serpentini H.Sund. ex Murr, 490 (1926)
= Viola calcarata var. subacaulis (Gaudin) Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola decumbens J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13(bis). 2(1): 413 (1791)
= Viola decumbens Moench, 73 (1802)
= Viola gracilis Biv., Stirp. Rar. Sic. 4: 25
= Viola macrantha A.Huet ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
= Viola madonia C.Presl ex Rchb., Pl. Crit. 3: 60
= Viola minae Strobl, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 225 (1877)
= Viola pallidiflora A.Huet ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. cavillieri (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 503 (1977)
Distribution: SE-Italy; NW-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cavillieri W.Becker, Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 3: 45, t. 2
subspecies :
subsp. villarsiana (Roem. & Schult.) Merxm.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 74: 30 (1967)
Distribution: SE-France; Italy
12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola villarsiana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 388 (1819)
subspecies :
subsp. zoysii (Wulfen) Merxm.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 74: 30 (1967)
Name: Zoys-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; SE-Austria; Slovenia
11 AUT 13 ALB SLV
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola zoysii Wulfen, Jacq. Coll. 4: 297 (1790)
species :
Viola calchaquiensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 226 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola calcicola R.A.McCauley & H.E.Ballard; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 7(1): 13, figs. 1-4 (2013)
Distribution: USA (Texas: Culberson Co.)
77 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola caleyana G.Don; Gen. Hist. 1: 329 (1831)
Distribution: Australia (E-New South Wales, Victoria, NE-Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
species :
Viola californica M.S.Baker; Madrono, 12: 13 (1953)
Distribution: USA (California)
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola cameleo H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1074 (1901)
Distribution: China (Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); N-India (Sikkim)
36 CHI 40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cameleo var. gongshanensis Y.S.Chen, Fl. China
= Viola gongshanensis S.H.Huang, nom. nud.
= Viola henryi var. cameleo (H.Boissieu) Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 233 (1949)
species :
Viola canadensis L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Canadian white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec, ?Newfoundland)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Lophion canadense (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 517 (1836)
= Lophion rydbergii (Greene) Nieuwl. & Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat., 4: 478 (1916)
= Viola canadensis ssp. rydbergii (Greene) House in Rydb., Fl. Colorado (Rydberg) 233 (1906)
= Viola canadensis var. corymbosa Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 143 (1838)
= Viola canadensis var. pubens Farw., Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 19: 248 (1917)
= Viola canadensis var. rydbergii (Greene) House
= Viola canadensis var. scariosa Porter, Trans. New York Acad. Sci. 8: 63 (1889)
= Viola discurrens Greene, Pittonia 5: 26 (1902)
= Viola geminiflora Greene, Pittonia 5: 29 (1902)
= Viola muriculata Greene, Pittonia 5: 28 (1902)
= Viola neomexicana Greene, Pittonia 5: 28 (1902)
= Viola rydbergii Greene, Pittonia 5: 27 (1902)
= Viola scouleri Douglas ex Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 773 (1841)
species :
Viola canescens Wall.; Fl. Ind., ed. 1820 2: 450-451 (1824)
Distribution: Pakistan (Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree, N. W. Frontier Prov., Pakistani Punjab); Nepal; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal); Bhutan; Myanmar; ?China (?Guangxi); S-Tibet
36 TIB 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 MYA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola serpens var. canescens (Wall.) Hook.fil. & Thomson, Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 184 (1872)
species :
Viola canina L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. canina
Name: Hunds-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl.; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Faeroe Isl.; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra; Hungary; Iceland; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal; Malta; Norway; Poland; Romania; Sardinia; Svalbard; Sweden; Crimea; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Siberia (C-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Turkey (E-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); European Turkey; Iran (N-Iran); Morocco
10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SVA SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 MOR 30 SIB 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abulensis M.Á.Fernández Casado & Nava, An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 44(2): 306 (1987)
= Viola alpina Huds., Fl. Angl. (Huds.) 331 (1762)
= Viola apetala F.W.Schmidt, Neue Abh. Böhm. Ges. 1: 61 (1791)
= Viola asarifolia Schreb. ex Muhl., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 3: 178 (1793)
= Viola canina f. elongata Rhiner, 197 (1893), nom. inval.
= Viola canina f. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Döll, 649 (1843)
= Viola canina f. lucorum (Rchb.) Döll, 649 (1843)
= Viola canina f. pinetorum Woerl., 167 (1889)
= Viola canina ssp. calcarea (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens, 160 (1834)
= Viola canina ssp. coerulea Kirschl., 9, nom. inval., pro parte (1840)
= Viola canina ssp. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Schübl. & G.Martens, 160 (1834)
= Viola canina ssp. flavicornis (Sm.) Syme, 21 (1864)
= Viola canina ssp. lucorum (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens, 159 (1834)
= Viola canina ssp. reichenbachii A.T.Grimme, 132 (1958), nom. inval.
= Viola canina ssp. ruppii Schnittsp., 25 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina var. angustifolia Fresen., 182 (1832)
= Viola canina var. calcarea Rchb., 60 (1823)
= Viola canina var. caulescens Tosco ex Ariello & Bellia, Rea, 8: 24 (1977)
= Viola canina var. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Rchb., 60 (1823)
= Viola canina var. lucorum Rchb., 60 (1823)
= Viola canina var. procera Klett & Richt., 235 (1830), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina var. pusilla Bab., 34 (1843)
= Viola canina var. reichenbachii Kirschl., 10 (1840), nom. inval.
= Viola canina var. rotundifolia Rhiner, 197 (1893), nom. inval.
= Viola canina var. ruppii Mert. & W.D.J.Koch, 263 (1826)
= Viola celtica Sauzé & Maillard ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola cetia Beck ex Borbás, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 42: 287 (1892). nomen
= Viola ericetorum Schrad. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 240 (1821)
= Viola ferrariensis Campana, Cat. Pl. Ferrar., ex Pio, Viola Spec. Bot. Med. 22
= Viola flavicornis Sm., Engl. Fl. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola hornemanniana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 370 (1819)
= Viola lancifolia Besser, Prim. Fl. Galiciae Austriac. i. 173 (1809)
= Viola leucoceras Borbás ex J.Murr, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 134 (1890)
= Viola litoralis Spreng., Nov. Prov. 43 (1819)
= Viola longipes Nutt.in Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 140 (1838)
= Viola lucorum (Rchb.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., 851 (1909)
= Viola nummularifolia F.W.Schmidt, Fl. Boem. 3: 47 non Vill.
= Viola procumbens Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. ii. 123 (1782)
= Viola pseudocanina Schur, Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn, 15: II. 113 (1877)
= Viola pulchella Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 310 (1796)
= Viola pumila Fr. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola pumila var. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) DC., 299 (1824)
= Viola punctata Schwein., Am. J. Sci. Ser. I. 5: 67 (1822)
= Viola pusilla Tourlet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 50: 306 (1903)
= Viola radicans DC. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola ramosa Gaterau, Descr. Pl. Montaub. 154 (1789)
= Viola schmidtiana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 363 (1819)
= Viola silvatica ssp. ericetorum (Schrad.) Nyman, 77 (1878)
= Viola sylvestris Lam., Fl. Fr. 2: 680 (1779) nom. illeg.
= Viola wahlenbergii Beurl. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 77 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. silvensis (Font Quer) O.Bolòs & Vigo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 38 Bot., 1: 80 (1974)
Distribution: NE-Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola montana ssp. silvensis Font Quer, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 4: 301 (1954)
subspecies :
subsp. einseleana (F.W.Schultz ex Nyman) Erben; Carinthia II II 192/112(2): 565 (2002) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Europe
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola einseleana F.W.Schultz ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 77 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. contracta (Vl.V.Nikitin) Vl.V.Nikitin; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 86(1): 135 (2001)
Distribution: N-European Russia
14 RUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina var. contracta Vl.V.Nikitin, Fl. Vostochnoi Evropy, 9: 193 (1996)
species :
Viola capillaris Pers.; Syn. 1: 256
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 3 Rubellium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola stipularis Cav., Icon. (Cavanilles) 6: 21 (1800)
variant :
var. araucana (Phil.) Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 433 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dumetorum var. araucana Phil.
variant :
var. dumetorum (Phil.) Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 433 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dumetorum Phil., Linnaea 28: 612 (1856)
species :
Viola caspia (Rupr.) Freyn; Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. 2, 2: 840 (1902)
Distribution: Azerbaijan (Talysh); Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan (Swat); NW-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 33 AZE 40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fedtschenkoana var. muzaffarabadensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2,40: 59 (1923)
= Viola fedtschenkoana W.Becker, B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 31 (1915)
= Viola isopetala Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 681 (1949)
= Viola neglecta M.Bieb., Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 172 (1808), nom. illeg.
= Viola sylvatica var. caspia Rupr.
species :
Viola caucasica (Rupr.) Kolen. ex Juz.; Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. (Sci. Phys. Math.), ser. 7, 15, 2: 156 (1869)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Azerbaijan; Georgia [Caucasus]
33 AZE GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola cazorlensis Gand.; Bull. Assoc. Fr. Bot. 5: 226 (1902)
Distribution: SE-Spain (Jaén, Murcia)
12 SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 14 Delphiniopsis
species :
Viola cenisia L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1325 (1763)
Name: Mont-Cenis-Veilchen
Distribution: E-France; Switzerland; Italy (W-Alps, C-Alps)
11 SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpina All., Fl. Pedem. ii. 98 (1785)
= Viola integrifolius Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées 179 (1867)
= Viola scardica Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
species :
Viola cephalonica Bornm.; Mitt. Thür. Bot. Ver. nov. ser., 37: 50 (1927)
Distribution: W-Greece (Kefallenia)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae. Status uncertain, probably to Viola gracilis
species :
Viola cerasifolia A.St.-Hil.; Pl. Rem. Bres. 277 (1825)
Distribution: SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul)
84 BRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola balsaminoides Gardner, Hooker´s Icon. Pl. t. 217 (1839)
= Viola cerasifolia ssp. conferta (A.St.-Hil.) W.Becker
= Viola cerasifolia ssp. selloiana W.Becker
= Viola cerasifolia var. intermedia A.St.-Hil.
= Viola conferta A.St.-Hil., Pl. Rem. Bres. 279 (1825)
= Viola diffusa Vell., Fl. Flumin. Icon. 8: t. 163 (1831)
= Viola tenuis Benth., London J. Bot. 1: 482 (1842)
species :
Viola chalcosperma Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 37: 523 (1910)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A species separate from V. sororia
species :
Viola chamaedrys Leyb.; Flora, 47: 41 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola chamissoniana Ging.; Linnaea 1: 408 (1826)
Distribution: Hawaii (Oahu)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola helioscopia Hillebr., Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 17
species :
Viola changii J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Nordic J. Bot. 25(5-6): 303 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola charlestonensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen ex Clokey; Madrono, 8: 58 (1945)
Name: Charleston Mountain violet
Distribution: USA (Nevada: Charleston Mts., Utah: Zion NP)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. charlestonensis (Baker & J.C.Clausen) S.L.Welsh & Reveal, Great Basin Nat., 35(4): 371 (1975)
species :
Viola cheeseana J.M.Watson; Int. Rock Gard. 117: 40, figs. 49, 59-65 (2019), nom. nov.
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen); Chile (Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola truncata var. glandulifera W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 186 (1922)
species :
Viola cheiranthifolia Humb. & Bonpl.; Pl. Aequin. 1: 111, t. 32 (1807)
Name: Teide-Stiefmütterchen (DE); Violeta del Teide (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion cheiranthifolium (Humb. & Bonpl.) Webb & Berthel., Phyt. Canar. 1: 113 (1837)
species :
Viola chelmea Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(1): 54 (1853)
Distribution: Greece; Macedonia
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola cinerea Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 1: 7 (1843)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran); Oman (Mascat & Oman, Dhofar)
34 IRN 35 OMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
species :
Viola clauseniana Baker; Madrono 4: 194 (1938)
Name: Clausen´s violet
Distribution: USA (Utah: Zion Natl Park)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 2 Clausenianae
species :
Viola cleistogamoides (L.G.Adams) Seppelt; Fl. S. Austr., 2: 870 (1986)
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia, New South Wales, S-Victoria, NE-Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. cleistogamoides L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola cochranei H.E.Ballard; Phytologia, 74(5): 357 (1993)
Distribution: Mexico (Guanajuato, Jalisco, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi); Guatemala
79 MEX 80 GUA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola collina Besser; Cat. Pl. Horto Cremen. 151 (1816)
Name: Hügel-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Belgium; ?Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Finland; France; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen [I], Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East (Primorye, etc.); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan; Mongolia; China (Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea
10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 CRO ITA ROM SLV 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ UZB 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atrichocarpa Borbás, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 118, 167 (1890)
= Viola centronum H.Perrier ex W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: II. 28 (1909)
= Viola gymnocarpa Janka, Linnaea 30: 559 (1859 publ. 1860)
= Viola hirta var. alpina Ging., Prodr. (DC.) 2: 295 (1824)
= Viola hirta var. collina (Besser) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 481 (1861)
= Viola martii var. collina (Besser) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola microceras Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 80 (1866)
= Viola nipponica var. yezoana Koidz.
= Viola obscura Schur, Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 4: 10 (1853)
= Viola odorata ssp. collina (Besser) Celak., 82 (1870)
= Viola opizii Knaf ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola propera Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 6 (1849)
= Viola rudolfii Vl.V.Nikitin, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 92(3): 385 (2007), non V. rudolphii Sparre
= Viola teshioensis Miyabe & Tatew., Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 187 (1936)
= Viola tomentosifolia Makino, (1931)
= Viola tomentosifolia Makino ex U.Ohga
variant :
var. glabricarpa K.Sun; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 14(3): 236 (1994)
Distribution: China (Jiangsu, Henan, Shandong)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola microdonta Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 263-265. (1949)
variant :
var. intramongolica Ching J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 257 (1991)
Distribution: China (Nei Mongol)
36 CHI
species :
Viola columnaris Skottsb.; Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl. n. s. 56: No. 5, 139, 261 (1916)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Rio Negro); Chile (Aisén)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola comberi W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 136 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola commersonii DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Aisén, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
species :
Viola communis Pollard
Distribution: E-USA (widespread)
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A species separate from V. sororia according to new molecular results
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola priceana Pollard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16: 127 (1903)
species :
Viola comollia Massara; Prodr. Fl. Valtell. 203 (1834)
Name: Comollis Veilchen
Distribution: N-Italy (Alpi Orobie)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola confertifolia Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 238 (1949)
Distribution: China (Yunnan); Taiwan
36 CHI 38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. platyphylla Franch., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 412-413 (1886)
= Viola pitouchaoensis S.S.Ying, New Taxa New Names 2: 54 (2019)
species :
Viola congesta Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, Maule, Nuble)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola volcanica var. chillanensis (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 905 (1895)
= Viola chillanensis Phil., Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 347 (1893)
species :
Viola cornuta L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1325 (1763)
Name: Horn-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: SW-France; NE-Spain; Andorra; Austria [I]; England [I]; Switzerland [I]; Italy [I]; Slovenia [I]; Romania [I]; Germany [I]
10 grb 11 aut ger swi 12 ADO FRA SPA 13 ita rom slv
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion cornutum (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 512 (1836)
= Viola acaulis Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 389 (1819)
= Viola blanda Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796), nom. rej.
species :
Viola coronifera W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 137 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola coronifera var. minoriflora W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 137 (1928)
species :
Viola corsica Nyman; Syll. 228 (1854)
subspecies :
subsp. corsica
Name: Korsisches Veilchen
Distribution: Corsica; Sardinia
12 COR SAR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bertolonii Salis, Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. II. 5: 116 non Pio (1836)
= Viola insularis Gren. & Godr., Fl. France (Grenier) 1: 178 (1847)
subspecies :
subsp. ilvensis (W.Becker) Merxm.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 79: 57 (1968)
Distribution: Italy (Elba Isl.)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla ssp. ilvensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2. 26(2): 324 (1909)
= Viola ilvensis (W.Becker) Arrigoni, Fl. Analítica Toscana 5: 84 (2019)
subspecies :
subsp. limbarae Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 506 (1977)
Distribution: Sardinia
12 SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola limbarae (Merxm. & W.Lippert) Arrigoni, Parlatorea 07:19 (2005)
species :
Viola cotyledon Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 300 (1824)
Name: Hierba del corazón [Chile]
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola crassa (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 87 (1905)
subspecies :
subsp. crassa
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin, Kamchatka)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. akaishiensis Takah. & Ohba, Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1(4): 24 (1971)
= Viola biflora var. burejensis Bezd., Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 108 (2001)
= Viola biflora var. crassifolia Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 139 (1902)
subspecies :
subsp. alpicola Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1 (7): 18 (1974)
Distribution: Japan
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. alpicola (Takah.) T.Shimizu, New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour, 1: 312 (1982)
subspecies :
subsp. avatschensis (W.Becker & Hultén) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 39 (2020)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka); etc.
31 RFE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola avatschensis W.Becker & Hultén, Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 1 (1928)
= Viola biflora ssp. avatschensis (W.Becker & Hultén) Tzvelev, Arktich. Fl. SSSR, 8: 39 (1980)
= Viola crassa var. shikkensis Miyabe & Tatew., Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 15: 133 (1938)
subspecies :
subsp. borealis Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Preject. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1 (7): 19 (1974)
Distribution: Japan; etc.
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. borealis (Takah.) T.Shimizu, New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour, 1: 312 (1982)
subspecies :
subsp. yatsugatakeana Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Preject. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1 (7): 19 (1974)
Distribution: Japan; Canada (British Columbia: Queen Charlotte Isl., Vancouver Isl.)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. yatsugatakeana (Takah.) T.Shimizu, New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour, 1: 312 (1982)
= Viola biflora var. carlottae (Calder & Roy L.Taylor) B.Boivin, Naturaliste Canad. 93: 437 (1966)
= Viola biflora ssp. carlottae Calder & Taylor, Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1395 (1965)
species :
Viola crassifolia Fenzl; Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr. 12 (1842)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola crassiuscula Bory; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. (Bruxelles) 3: 16 (1820)
Name: Nevada-Veilchen
Distribution: S-Spain (Sa. Nevada)
12 SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion lagascae Webb, Iter Hisp. 68 (1838)
= Viola cenisia Lag. & Rodr., Anal. Cienc. 5: 270 (1802)
= Viola nevadensis Boiss., Elench. Pl. Nov. 26. (1838)
species :
Viola cryana Gillot; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 25: 255 (1878)
Name: Tonnerre-Veilchen
Distribution: +NC-France (+SE of Tonnerre)
12 FRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola cucullata Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 3: 283 (1789)
Name: Marsh blue violet (EN), Amerikanisches Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); St. Pierre et Miquelon; Switzerland [I]; Italy [I]; Germany [I]; Mexico [I]
11 ger swi 13 ita 72 SPM 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA 79 mex
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola asarifolia Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 2: 732 (1813)
= Viola barbata Muhl., Cat. 25 (1819)
= Viola canina var. nemoralis Schltdl., 134 (1823)
= Viola caricetorum Greene ex Farw., Papers Mich. Acad. Sc. 1922. 2: 31 (1923)
= Viola ciliata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 360 (1819)
= Viola cordata Walter, Fl. Carol. (Walter) 219 (1788)
= Viola cucullata var. leptosepala (Greene) W.Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 674 (1903)
= Viola cucullata var. macrotis (Greene) W.Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 673 (1903)
= Viola cucullata var. microtitis Brainerd, Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola leptosepala Greene, Pittonia 5: 98 (1902)
= Viola macrotis Greene, Pittonia 5: 97 (1902)
= Viola pachyrhizoma F.O.Wolf, 258 (1898)
= Viola prionosepala Greene, Pittonia 5: 99 (1902)
= Viola resupinata Moench, Methodus (Moench) 230 (1794), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola cuicochensis Hieron.; Bot. Jahrb. 21: 323 (1895)
Distribution: Ecuador
83 ECU
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola culminis F.Fen. & Moraldo; Nat. Bresciana 33: 22 (2003)
Distribution: N-Italy (S-Alps)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola cuneata S.Watson; Proc. Am. Acad. 14: 290 (1879)
Name: Wedgeleaved violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola cunninghamii Hook.fil.; Fl. New Zealand. 1: 16 (1852)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania); New Zealand (widespread); Chatham Isl.
50 AUS 51 CTM NZL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cunninghamii var. radicata Hook.fil., Fl. Nov. Zel. 1: 16 (1852)
species :
Viola curtisiae (L.G.Adams) K.R.Thiele; Muelleria 36: 109 (2018)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. curtisiae L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 99 (1982)
species :
Viola cuspidifolia W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929(6): 201 (1929)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola dacica Borbás; Magyar Növ. Lapok 13: 79 (1890), et ex Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 75 (1891)
Distribution: Bulgaria; Slovakia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Poland; Romania; Ukraine
11 POL SLO 13 BIH BUL NMA ROM SRB 14 UKR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola balcanica Delip., Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 495 (1979)
= Viola banatica Simonk., Erdely edenyes Fl. 112 (1887)
= Viola polyodonta W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 332 (1910)
= Viola prolixa (Adamovic) Pancic
species :
Viola dactyloides Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 361 (1819)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol); Siberia (C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dactyloides var. multipartita W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 245 (1916)
= Viola digitata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 352 (1819)
= Viola palmata Ging., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola dactyloides var. calcicola Vorosch., Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada (Moscow), 83: 36 (1972)
species :
Viola dandoisiorum J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 104: 27 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola danielae Pînzaru; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 44: 228 (2013), nom. nov.
Distribution: Italy (Alpi Graie: Valle Verdassa)
13 ITA
Remarks: status uncertain; probably a synonym of V. dubiana or a hybrid
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mariae Pînzaru, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 43: 96 (2012)
species :
Viola dasyphylla W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 135 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen); Chile (Araucania)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola davidii Franch.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, 8: 230 (1886)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan); SE-Tibet; Myanmar
36 CHI TIB 41 MYA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola davidii var. paucicrenata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 420 (1917)
= Viola smithiana W.Becker, Acta Horti Gothob. 2(6): 287 (1926)
= Viola schneideri W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 315 (1921)
species :
Viola decipiens Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 445 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, Ñuble)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola declinata Waldst. & Kit.; Pl. Rar. Hung. 3: 248 (1807)
Distribution: ?Bulgaria; Romania; Ukraine
13 ROM 14 UKR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracilis Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 709 (1832)
species :
Viola decumbens L.fil.; Suppl. 397 (1782)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 18 Melvio
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola procumbens J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13(bis). 2(1): 413 (1791)
variant :
var. scrotiformis (DC.) Jessop; Fl. Pl. South Africa 38: t. 1500 (1967)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola scrotiformis DC. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 299 (1824)
species :
Viola delavayi Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 413 (1886)
Distribution: China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieui H.Lév. & Maire, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(325-330): 282 (1913)
= Viola delavayi f. depauperata Diels, H. Lév., Cat. Pl. Yunnan. 278 (1916)
= Viola delavayi var. villosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 44 (1918)
= Viola impatiens H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13(368-369): 343 (1914)
species :
Viola delphinantha Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 1(1): 7 (1843)
Distribution: N-Greece; SW-Bulgaria
13 BUL GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 14 Delphiniopsis
species :
Viola demetria Prolongo ex Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Midi Esp. 2: 73 (1839)
Distribution: SW-Spain; WC-Portugal; ?Morocco
12 POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 2 Dispares
species :
Viola denizliensis O.D.Dücen, Göktürk, U.Sarpkaya & B.Gürcan; Phytotaxa 369(1): 38 (2018)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola diamantiaca Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33(395): 205-206 (1919)
Distribution: China (E-Jilin, E-Liaoning, ?Shaanxi); South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diamantiaca f. glabrior (Kitag.) Kitag., Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur. 453 (1979)
= Viola diamantiaca var. glabrior Kitag., Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo Sect. IV 6: 123 (1942)
species :
Viola dichroa Boiss. & A.Huet; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 5: 48 (1856)
Distribution: Turkey (E-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola diffusa Ging. ex DC.; Prodr. 1: 298 (1824)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, SE-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Tibet; Nepal; Japan (Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal); Bhutan; Myanmar; Philippines; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Vietnam; Thailand
36 CHI TIB 38 JAP NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA THA VIE 42 NWG PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diffusa ssp. tenuis W.Becker, Philipp. J. Sci. 19(6): 714-715 (1921)
= Viola diffusa var. brevibarbata Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 264-265 (1991)
= Viola diffusa var. brevisepala W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 251 (1928)
= Viola diffusa var. glabella H.Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1077 (1901)
= Viola diffusa var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40(2): 115 (1923)
= Viola diffusa var. tomentosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20(2): 127 (1906)
= Viola diffusoides Ching J.Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 19, pl. 1-9 (1988)
= Viola kiusiana Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16(184): 138-139 (1902)
= Viola parkeri Champ. ex Benth., Hook. Kew J. 3: 261 (1851)
species :
Viola dimorphophylla Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 149(1): 116 (2005)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola dirimliensis Blaxland; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 145(4): 505 (2004)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola dirphya A.Tiniakou; Candollea, 46(1): 119 (1991)
Distribution: Greece (Evvoia)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola diversifolia (Ging.) W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 3: 892 (1903)
Distribution: Andorra; SW-France; NE-Spain (Pyrenees)
12 ADO FRA SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cenisia var. diversifolia Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 301 (1824)
species :
Viola doerfleri Degen; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 64: 710 (1897)
Name: Doerflers Veilchen
Distribution: Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola dombeyana DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
Distribution: Peru; Colombia (Cauca, Huila, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Valle); Ecuador
82 CLM 83 ECU PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola capillaris Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola humboldtii Triana & Planch., Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV. 17: 121 (1862)
= Viola humboldtii var. cuneata W.Becker
= Viola ramosissima Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 27: II. 336 (1854)
= Viola repens Dombey ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
= Viola stipularis Kunth, (nom. illeg.)
species :
Viola domeykoana Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 229 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola domingensis Urb.; Symb. Antill. 7: 287 (1912)
Name: Violeta (Dominican Republic), Violette, Violette des jardins (Haiti)
Distribution: Dominican Republic
81 HIS
species :
Viola douglasii Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 2: 771 (1841)
Name: Douglas´ golden violet (EN), Goldgelbes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon); Mexico (Baja California Norte); Germany [I]
11 ger 73 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chrysantha Hook., Ic. Pl, t. 49 (1836) non Schrad. ex Rchb. 1830
species :
Viola dubyana Burnat ex Gremli; Neue Beitr. Fl. Schweiz 5: 15 (1890)
Name: Dubys Veilchen
Distribution: N-Italy (S-Alps)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola duclouxii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 249 (1928)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola dukadjinica W.Becker & Kogan.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 145 (1926)
Distribution: Albania; NW-Greece (Smolikas)
13 ALB GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola dyris Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord, 12: 181 (1921)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 2 Dispares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dyris var. calcarea Litard. & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 26: 7 (1931)
= Viola dyris var. orientalis Emb., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N.: 167 (1932)
species :
Viola edulis Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 5: 508 (1836)
Name: Salad violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia)
77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola esculenta Elliott ex Greene, Pittonia 3(19): 314 (1898)
= Viola palmata var. esculenta (Elliott ex Greene) D.B.Ward, Phytologia 88(3): 244 (2006), nom. illeg. nom. superfl.
= Viola palmata var. heterophylla Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina [Elliott] 1: 300 (1817)
species :
Viola egglestonii Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 37: 526 (1910)
Name: Glade violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola septemloba ssp. egglestonii (Brainerd) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 33 (1992)
species :
Viola elatior Fr.; Nov. Fl. Suec. ed. 2, 277 (1828)
Name: Hohes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; France; Germany (+Brandenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, +Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Hungary; Italy; Serbia & Kosovo; Slovenia; Croatia; Poland; Romania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Ukraine; Crimea; Sweden; Belgium [I]; China (Xinjiang); Kyrgyzstan; Northern Caucasus; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
10 SWE 11 AUT bgm CZE GER HUN POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 BUL CRO ITA ROM SLV SRB 14 EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 32 KGZ TZK UZB 33 NCS 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina ssp. elatior (Clus. ex Fr.) Döll, 650 (1843)
= Viola canina ssp. persicifolia (Roth) Celak., 83 (1870), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina ssp. persicifolia (Roth) Kirschl., 13 (1840)
= Viola canina ssp. stricta (Fr.) Hartm., 37 (1846)
= Viola canina var. elatior (Clus. ex Fr.) Kirschl., 13 (1840)
= Viola canina var. persicifolia (Schkuhr) Jess., 218 (1879)
= Viola elatior f. cordifolia Sagorski, 50 (1893)
= Viola elatior f. glabrescens Erdner, 569 (1911)
= Viola elatior var. barbyensis W.Becker, 332 (1924)
= Viola erecta Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. ii. 124 (1782)
= Viola lactea var. stricta Fr., 86 (1823)
= Viola montana DC., Fl. Franc. (DC. & Lam.), ed. 3. 4: 807 (1805)
= Viola montana var. elatior Regel, Pl. Radd. 252 (1861)
= Viola montana var. persicifolia (Roth) Pio, 24 (1813)
= Viola persicifolia var. rothiana Wallr., 101 (1822)
= Viola procera Pall. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1(2): 251 (1842)
= Viola pseudomontana Blocki, Spraw. Kom. Fizyj. Krakow. 22: 2: 213 (1888)
= Viola recta var. persicifolia (Schkuhr) Garcke, 55 (1848)
= Viola stipularis Fr., Fr. & Broberg, 47 (1819), nom. illeg., non Sw.
= Viola stricta Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. 2: 958 (1815), nom. illeg.
= Viola subpubescens Borbás, Natur. und Offenb. 37: 500 (1891), et in Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 347 (1891)
= Viola vadimii Vl.V.Nikitin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 34: 125 (2002)
species :
Viola elegantula Schott; Österr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 167 (1857)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Albania; Croatia; Macedonia
13 ALB BIH CRO MNT NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola speciosa Pant., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 23: 79 (1873)
species :
Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte; Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 142 (1828)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A valid species fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola emarginata var. acutiloba Brainerd in Britton & A.Br., Ill. Fl. N. U. S. (Britton & Brown), ed. 2. ed. 2, 2: 553 (1913)
= Viola sagittata var. emarginata Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. [Nuttall] 1: 147 (1818)
species :
Viola eminens K.R.Thiele & Prober; Muelleria 18: 19 (2003)
Distribution: Australia (Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
species :
Viola eminii (Engl.) Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 6 (1925)
Distribution: Kenya; E-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; South Sudan; Uganda; Tanzania; Rwanda; Burundi
23 BUR RWA ZAI 24 SSU 25 KEN TAN UGA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 17 Abyssinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abyssinica var. eminii Engl.
= Viola abyssinica var. ulugurensis Engl.
= Viola duriprati R.E.Fr., Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 8 (1925)
= Viola eminii var. duriprati (R.E.Fr.) Stork
= Viola mearnsii Standl., Smithson. Misc. Coll. 68: No. 5. 9 (1917), non Merr.
species :
Viola enmae P.Gonzáles; Phytotaxa 283(1): 87 (2016)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 4 Inconspicuiflos
species :
Viola epipsila Ledeb.; Ind. Sem. Horti Dorpat. 5 (1820)
subspecies :
subsp. epipsila
Name: Torf-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Finland; Germany (Brandenburg, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, +Schleswig-Holstein, +Sachsen); Iceland; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Siberia (E-Siberia); China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol); Mongolia; Japan (Hokkaido); Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.); Kazakhstan
10 DEN FIN ICE NOR SWE 11 CZE GER POL SLO 13 ROM 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae. V. suecica is sometimes kept separate (including ssp. repens)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fennica F.Nyl., Spic. Pl. Fenn. 1: 28 (1843)
= Viola palustris ssp. epipsila (Ledeb.) C.Hartm., 39 (1866)
= Viola palustris var. epipsila (Ledeb.) Celak., 314 (1887)
= Viola palustris var. epipsila (Ledeb.) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 23(2): 323-324 (1877)
= Viola suecica Fr., Summa Veg. Scand. 556 (1846-1849)
subspecies :
subsp. repens (Turcz.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 406 (1917)
Name: Dwarf marsh violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northern Territories, Ontario, Yukon); European Russia; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Mongolia
14 RUS 37 MON 38 JAP NKO 70 ASK 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola achyrophora Greene, Pittonia 5: 33 (1902)
= Viola blanda var. violascens Nakai, (1922)
= Viola blandiformis Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 192 (1925)
= Viola brachyceras Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 15: 301 (1842)
= Viola brachyceras var. blandiformis (Nakai) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 32 (2020)
= Viola epipsila ssp. palustroides W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 72 (1921)
= Viola epipsila var. hyperborea Rupr.
= Viola epipsila var. repens (W.Becker) R.J.Little, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
= Viola epipsiloides Á.Löve & D.Löve, Bot. Notiser, 128(4): 516 1975 (1976), nom. nov.
= Viola palustroides (W.Becker) Tzvelev, Arktich. Fl. SSSR, 8: 36 (1980)
= Viola repens Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 11: 88 (1838), et ex Trautv. & C. A. Mey., Fl. Ochot. (Middend. Reise N. & O. Sibir. i 11.) 18 (1856) (non Schwein. (1822))
= Viola suecica ssp. repens (Turcz.) W.Becker
= Viola ×albimaritima Vl.V.Nikitin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 35: 143 (2003)
= Viola ×hyperborea (Rupr) Vl.V.Nikitin, Fl. Vostochnoi Evropy, 9: 201 (1996)
species :
Viola epirota (Halácsy) Raus; Willdenowia, 13(1): 99 (1983)
Distribution: W-Greece; Albania; Macedonia
13 ALB GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola declinata var. epirota Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 142 (1900)
species :
Viola eriocarpa (Nutt.) Schwein.; Am. J. Sci. Ser. I. 5: 75 (1822)
Name: Downy yellow violet (EN)
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola eriocarpa f. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Deam, Fl. Indiana 691 (1940)
= Viola eriocarpa var. leiocarpa Fernald & Wiegand, Rhodora 23: 275 (1921 publ. 1922)
= Viola pubescens var. scabriuscula Schwein. ex Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 142 (1838)
= Viola pensylvanica var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald, Rhodora 43: 617 (1941)
= Viola pubescens var. eriocarpa Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. (Nuttall). 1: 150 (1818)
= Viola pubescens var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) B.Boivin, Phytologia 15: 435 (1967)
species :
Viola ermenekensis Yild. & Dinç; Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi 9(1): 2 (2002)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola erythraea (Fiori) Chiov.; Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It., n. s., 26: 149 (1919)
Distribution: Eritrea; N-Ethiopia
24 ERI ETH
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cinerea var. soyrae (Chiov.) Cufod.
= Viola cinerea var. erythraea Fiori, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s., 20: 355 (1913)
= Viola erythraeae var. soyrae Chiov.
species :
Viola escarapela J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Gayana, Bot. 60(2): 134 (2003), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Maule)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche & Johow, Fl. Chile, 1: 153 (1893)
species :
Viola escondidaensis W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 138 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina; Chile
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 6 Rhizomandinium
species :
Viola etbaica Schweinf.; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien. 8: 665 (1868)
Distribution: Somalia
24 SOM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium. Often included in V. stocksii
species :
Viola etrusca Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 22: 499 (1986)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amiatina Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 189 (2018)
species :
Viola euboea (Halácsy) Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec., Suppl. 1: 15 (1908)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla ssp. euboea (Halácsy) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: 326 (1910)
= Viola gracilis var. euboea Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 141 (1900)
species :
Viola eugeniae Parl.; Nuovo Gior. Bot. Ital. 7: 68 (1875)
subspecies :
subsp. eugeniae
Name: Apenninen-Veilchen
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola murronensis Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 217, fig. 19 (2018)
subspecies :
subsp. levieri (Parl.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 299 (1894)
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarata f. subasica Fiori, Fl. Italia [Fiori, Béguinot & Paoletti] 4(1): 85 (1907)
= Viola eugeniae ssp. levieri (Parl.) A.Schmidt, Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 77: 96 (1965), isonym
= Viola levieri Parl. ex Caruel, Fl. Italiana, 9: 181 (1890)
= Viola longipetiolata Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 206, fig. 14 (2018)
= Viola molisana Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 216, fig. 18 (2018)
= Viola subasica (Fiori) Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 222, fig. 23 (2018)
= Viola vectoris Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 223, fig. 24 (2018)
species :
Viola evae Hieron. ex W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 182 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja, Salta)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
variant :
var. flossdorfii (Hicken) Nicola; Phytotaxa 338(2): 235 (2018)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-evae var. flossdorfii Hicken, Darwiniana 1: 31 (1922)
species :
Viola exilis Phil.; Linnaea 28: 672 (1856)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola volcanica var. exilis (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 905 (1895)
species :
Viola eximia Formánek; Verh. Naturf. Ver. Brünn 38: 221 (1900)
subspecies :
subsp. eximia
Name: Mazedonisches Veilchen
Distribution: W-Macedonia; Albania; Greece
13 ALB GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pascua W.Becker, Bull. Inst. Jard. Bot. Univ. Beograd 1: 34 (1928)
= Viola beckiana ssp. pascua (W.Becker) Trinajstic
subspecies :
subsp. tringiana Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 462 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola exsul J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Fl. San Juan 2: 145 (2003)
Distribution: Argentina (San Juan)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola fargesii Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 2: 833 (1902)
Distribution: China; Taiwan
36 CHI 38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Formosanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola adenothrix var. tsugitakaensis (Masam.) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 35: 19 (1990)
= Viola arisanensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 314 (1921)
= Viola brachycentra Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 25-26, f. 10 (1913)
= Viola canescens ssp. lanuginosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 256 (1916)
= Viola principis var. acutifolia Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 264 (1991)
= Viola pulla W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 250 (1928)
= Viola trichopoda Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 29-30, f. 15 (1913)
= Viola tsugitakaensis Masam., J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 2: 240 (1930)
species :
Viola farkasiana J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 101: 43 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola faurieana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 239-240 (1916)
Distribution: ?China; Japan (Honshu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola faurieana f. albifaurieana E.Hama, Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola ugoana Makino ex Muramatsu, Fl. Akitaense 183, t. 3, f. 2 (1932)
species :
Viola ferrarinii Moraldo & Ricceri; Webbia 66(1): 46 (2011)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola ferreyrae P.Gonzáles; Phytotaxa 283(1): 84 (2016)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola filicaulis Hook.fil.; Fl. New Zealand. 1: 16 (1852)
Distribution: New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl.)
51 NZL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1a Nematocaulon
species :
Viola fimbriatula Sm.; Rees, Cyclop. 37: n. 16
Name: Arrowleaf violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amorphophylla Pollard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 13: 129 (1900)
= Viola fimbriatula f. umbelliflora Fernald
= Viola ovata Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. (Nuttall). 1: 148 (1818)
= Viola ovata var. hicksii (Pollard) Pollard, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 10: 92 (1896)
= Viola sagittata f. umbelliflora (Fernald) Scoggan, Fl. Canada, 1: 52 (1978)
= Viola sagittata var. hicksii Pollard, Bot. Gaz. 20: 326 (1895)
= Viola sagittata var. ovata (Nutt.) Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 138 (1838)
= Viola ×abundans House, Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 254: 506 (1924)
species :
Viola fischeri W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 264 (1916)
Distribution: Siberia (W-Siberia)
30 SIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola flagelliformis Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. Mexic. 2: 20 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola latistipula Hemsl., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Mexic. 2: 21 (1879)
= Viola flagelliformis var. glabrescens W.Becker
species :
Viola flavicans Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 292 (1864)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, Tucuman); Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Tarija)
83 BOL 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. Xanthidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola exigua W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 590 (1906), non Vell. 1831
= Viola castillonii (W.Becker) Xifreda & Sanso, Zuloaga & Morrone (eds.), Cat. Pl. Vasc. Rep. Arg. 2 (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74): 1246 (1999)
= Viola exigua var. castillonii W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 222 (1926)
species :
Viola flettii Piper; Erythea, 6: 69 (1898)
Name: Olympic violet
Distribution: USA (Washington State: Olympic Mts.)
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola floridana Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 37: 524 (1910)
Distribution: USA (Florida, etc.)
78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A valid species and not a synonym of V. sororia fide Marcussen et al. 2022
species :
Viola flos-idae Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Cordova 4: 5 (1881)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 10 Triflabellium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-idae var. pseudovolcanica Hieron.
= Viola flos-evae Hieron., Bol. Acad. Nac. Cordova, 4: 5 (1881), nom. inval.
= Viola acanthophylla var. tontalensis W.Becker
species :
Viola fluehmannii Phil.; Anal. Univ Chil. 81: 346 (1893)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Biobío, Araucania, Los Rios)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 2 Ericoidium
species :
Viola formosana Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 28 (1906)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Formosanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola formosana var. kawakamii (Hayata) Wang, A Taxon. Study of Viola of Taiwan 167 (1988)
= Viola formosana var. kawakamii (Hayata) Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang, Fl. China (2007), isonym
= Viola formosana var. tozanensis (Hayata) C.F.Hsieh, Fl. Taiwan 3: 776, t. 813 (1977)
= Viola hypoleuca Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 26-27, f. 11 (1913)
= Viola kawakamii Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 52-53 (1908)
= Viola kawakamii var. stenopetala Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 27-28, f. 13 (1913)
= Viola formosana var. stenopetala (Hayata) J.C.Wang, T.C.Huang & T.Hashim., Taiwania 35: 37-41, f. 10 (1990)
= Viola matsudae Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 10: 1-2 (1921)
= Viola taiwanensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 315-316 (1921)
= Viola takasagoensis Koidz., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7(2): 112 (1939)
= Viola tozanensis Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 53 (1908)
species :
Viola forrestiana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19(544-545): 234 (1923)
Distribution: SE-Tibet; ?China (?Shanxi)
36 TIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola fragrans Sieber; Reise Kreta 2: 320 (1823)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola franksmithii N.H.Holmgren; Brittonia, 44(3): 303 (1992)
Name: Frank Smith´s violet
Distribution: USA (Utah: Cache Co.: Logan Canyon)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola friderici W.Beckcr; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 359 (1925)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola frigida Phil.; Fl. Atacam. 9 (1860)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja, Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola borchersii Phil., Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 494 (1893)
= Viola frigida Phil. ex W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 112 (1927), descr. emend.
= Viola frigida var. borchersii (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 903 (1895)
= Viola molfinoana W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 351 (1926)
species :
Viola frondosa (Velen.) Hayek; Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 511 (1925)
Distribution: S-Macedonia (SE of Prilep); Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola zoysii var. frondosa Velen., Rel. Mrkvickanae, 6 (1922)
species :
Viola fuscifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola colubrina Wedd. ex W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2, 22(2): 94 (1907)
species :
Viola fuscoviolacea (L.G.Adams) T.A.James; Muelleria, 9: 35 (1996)
Distribution: Australia (S-New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. fuscoviolacea L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola galeanaensis M.S.Baker; Madrono, 9: 131 (1947)
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola ganiatsasii Erben; Bios (Thessalonika) Vol. A (App.) 67 (1989)
Distribution: NE-Greece; Bulgaria
13 BUL GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola gelida J.M.Watson, M.P.Cárdenas & A.R.Flores; Gayana, Bot. 70(2): 390 (2013)
Distribution: Chile
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola germainii Sparre; Lilloa, 17: 384 (1949)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nivalis Phil., Linnaea 28: 611 (non Benth.) (1856)
species :
Viola glabella Nutt.; Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Pioneer violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington State); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)
70 ASK 73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. sitchensis (Bong. ex Ledeb.) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39: 528 (1866)
= Viola canadensis var. sitchensis Bong. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1: 255 (1842)
= Viola glabella var. remotifolia Suksd.
species :
Viola glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) House; Torreya 6: 172 (1906)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium. Not a synonym of V. tripartita fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hastata var. glaberrima Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 300) ex Chapm., Fl. South. U. S., ed. 3. 34 (1897)
= Viola tripartita f. glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) Fernald, Rhodora 51: 52 (1949)
= Viola tripartita f. glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) H.Lév. & Dans., Naturaliste Canad. 93: 501 (1966)
= Viola tripartita var. glaberrima (Chapm.) R.M.Harper
species :
Viola glaucescens Oudem.; Ann. Mus. B. Lugd.-Bat. 3: 74 (1867)
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal); etc.?
40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola distans var. fimbriata Hook.fil. & Thomson, Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 184 (1872)
species :
Viola glechomoides Leyb.; Flora, 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola gmeliniana Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 354 (1819)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol); Siberia (C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fischeri Sweet, Hort. Brit. (ed. 2) 44 (1830), non W. Becker
= Viola fusiformis Sm., Cycl. 37: nr. 9 (1819)
= Viola gmeliniana var. albiflora W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 401 (1917)
= Viola gmeliniana var. glabra Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 246 (1842)
= Viola gmeliniana var. hispida Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 246 (1842)
= Viola gmeliniana var. scorpiurifolia DC., Prodr. 1: 294 (1824)
species :
Viola godoyae Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 493 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola gostivariensis (W.Becker & Bornm.) Bornm.; Magyar Bot. Lap. 32: 141 (1933)
Distribution: NW-Macedonia
13 NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola allchariensis ssp. gostivarensis W.Becker & Bornm., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 75 (1921)
species :
Viola gracilis Sibth. & Sm.; Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 146 (1806)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, WN-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae. Records for the Balcans and Greece refer to other species like V. euboea
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calycina Boiss. & Heldr., Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 53 (1849)
= Viola olympica Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 1: 55 (1853)
species :
Viola gracillima A.St.-Hil.; Pl. Rem. Bres. 275 (1825)
Distribution: SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina)
84 BRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracillima var. incisa W.Becker
species :
Viola graeca (W.Becker) Halácsy; Suppl. Consp. Fl. Graec. 14 (1908)
Distribution: SE-Italy (Monte Gargano); Greece; Macedonia
13 GRC ITA NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla ssp. graeca (W.Becker) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 326 (1910)
species :
Viola grahamii Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 35 (1839)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz); Guatemala
79 MEX 80 GUA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ciliata Schltdl., Linnaea 12: 202 (1838), non Willd. ex Schult.
= Viola lutea Sessé & Moc., non L.
= Viola pringlei Rose & House, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 29: 444 (1905)
= Viola reptans B.L.Rob., Proc. Am. Acad. 27: 165 (1893)
= Viola schaffneriana W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 2 (1924)
= Viola seleriana W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 6 (1924)
species :
Viola grandisepala W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 250 (1928)
Distribution: China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola binchuanensis S.H.Huang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 25(4): 433 (2003)
= Viola brunneostipulosa Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7(2): 380 (1931)
species :
Viola granulosa Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 292 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (La Paz); Chile (Arica y Parinacota)
83 BOL PER 85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola grayi Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 288 (1878)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grayi f. pubescens (Nakai) E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 343 (1976)
= Viola grayi var. pubescens Nakai
= Viola senamiensis Nakai, J. Jap. Bot., 15: 405 (1939)
species :
Viola grisebachiana Vis.; Mem. Ist. Veneto 10: 436 (1861)
Distribution: Albania; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Bulgaria; Greece
13 ALB BIH BUL GRC MNT NMA SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola korabensis Trinajstic, Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 3: 6 (1975)
species :
Viola grypoceras A.Gray; Narr. Parry´s Jap. Exped. 2: 308 (1856)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, SE-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, E-Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Russian Far East (Kuril Isl.); South Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NNS TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina var. japonica Ging.in DC., Prodr. 1: 298 (1824)
= Viola coreana H.Boissieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 58: 213 (1911)
= Viola grayi var. candida H.Boissieu
= Viola grayi var. glabra W.Becker
= Viola grypoceras f. albiflora Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 281 (1916), et 36: 55 (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. chionantha F.Maek., Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 202 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras var. barbata W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 440 (1922)
= Viola grypoceras var. hirsuta P.Y.Fu & Q.H.Liu, nom. nud.
= Viola grypoceras var. imberbis (A.Gray) Ohwi, Fl. Jap. (Ohwi) 796 (1953)
= Viola grypoceras var. pubescens Nakai
= Viola hideoi var. robustior Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola hosoii Nakai, J. Jap. Bot., 15: 407 (1939)
= Viola leveillei H.Boissieu, Bull. Acad. Inter. Geog. Bot. 11: 91 (1902)
= Viola longepedunculata Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 286 (1878)
= Viola sylvestris var. acaulis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris var. candida (H.Boissieu) H.Lév.
= Viola sylvestris var. grypoceras (A.Gray) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 330 (1877)
= Viola sylvestris var. imberbis A.Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts ser. 2 6 (2): 382 (1859)
= Viola sylvestris var. japonica (Ging.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 146 (1902)
= Viola takesimana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 34 (1922)
= Viola wichurae Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 562 (1928)
variant :
var. exilis (Miq.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 55 (1922)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; Taiwan
38 JAP KOR TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sylvestris var. exilis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola pruniflora Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 563 (1928)
variant :
var. hichitoana (Nakai) F.Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 203 (1954)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hichitoana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 34 (1922)
= Viola lutchuensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 35 (1922)
= Viola krugiana W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(588-600): 261 (1925)
= Viola lucida Nakai, J. Jap. Bot., 15: 406 (1939)
variant :
var. rhizomata (Nakai) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola rhizomata Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 49: 498 (1935)
= Viola yamadoriana Makino, (1966) (nom. nud.)
variant :
var. ripensis N.Yamada & Okamoto; Bull. Osaka Mus. Nat. Hist., 50: 2 (1996)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku)
38 JAP
species :
Viola guadalupensis A.M.Powell & Wauer; Sida, 14(1): 1 (1990)
Name: Guadalupe violet
Distribution: USA (New Mexico, Texas)
77 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola guangzhouensis A.Q.Dong, J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Novon 19(4): 457 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola guatemalensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 6 (1924)
Distribution: Guatemala; Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de Mexico, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz); Costa Rica; Honduras; Panama
79 MEX 80 COS GUA HON PAN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola guaxarensis M.Marrero, Docoito Díaz & Martín Esquivel; Willdenowia 50(1): 16 (2020)
Distribution: Canary Isl.
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola hallii A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 377 (1872)
Name: Oregon violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola hamiltoniana D.Don; Prodr. Fl. Nep. 206 (1825)
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal); Nepal; Bhutan; Bangladesh; peninsular Malaysia; Philippines; Thailand; Laos; Java; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Sumatra; Myanmar (Chin); Vietnam; Moluccas (Buru); Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Vietnam; Russian Far East (Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl.); China (Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; South Korea; North Korea; Mongolia; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima Isl.); Russian Far East (incl. Kuril Isl., Sakhalin)
31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO NNS TAI 40 BAN BHU IND NEP SRL 41 LAO MYA THA VIE 42 JAW MLY MOL NWG PHI SUM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alata Burgersd., Miq., Pl. Jungh. 1: 121 (1853)
= Viola alata ssp. verecunda (A.Gray) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 227 (1916)
= Viola alata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20: II. 125 (1906)
= Viola amurica ssp. verecunda (A.Gray) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China
= Viola arcuata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 58 (1825)
= Viola arcuata f. radicans (Makino) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
= Viola arcuata ssp. verecunda (A.Gray) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 227 (1916)
= Viola arcuata var. verecunda (A.Gray) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(424): 88 (1922)
= Viola barkalovii Bezd., Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 102 (2001)
= Viola carlesii Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 557 (1928)
= Viola distans Wall., (Cat. 142, n. 4022 (1831), nom nud.) in Tr. Med. Phys. S. Calc. 7: 227 (1835)
= Viola excisa Hance, J. Bot. 6(70): 296-297 (1868)
= Viola excisa var. subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola fibrillosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 229 (1916)
= Viola herbivaga Ridl., J. Bot., 73: 17 (1935)
= Viola hupeiana W.Becker
= Viola japonica Korth., non Langsd. ex Ging.
= Viola japonica var. decumbens Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 287 (1878)
= Viola japonica var. pusilla Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 287 (1878)
= Viola japonica var. subaefuiloba Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 287 (1878)
= Viola lunata Ridl., Trans. Linn Soc., Bot 9: 17 (1916)
= Viola metajaponica Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 192 (1925)
= Viola metziana Hohen. ex Hook.fil., Fl. Brit. India 1: 184 (1872)
= Viola notoniana Wall., Cat. 39, n. 1449 (1829), nomen
= Viola repens Wall., Cat. 39, n. 1441 (1829), nomen
= Viola semilunaris (Maxim.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 231 (1916)
= Viola serpens var. hamiltoniana (D.Don) Hook.fil. & Thomson ex Boissieu, Bull. S. B. Fr. 57: 259 (1910)
= Viola subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
= Viola toppingii Elmer, Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 2: 504 (1908)
= Viola verecunda A.Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n. s., 6: 382 (1858)
= Viola verecunda f. candidissima Mizush. ex E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 340 (1976)
= Viola verecunda f. hensoaensis Kudô & Sasaki, Ann. Bot. Taihoku Bot. Gard. 1: 37 (1931)
= Viola verecunda f. radicans Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 153 (1913)
= Viola verecunda var. excisa (Hance) Maxim., Mélanges Biol. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 9: 750 (1886)
= Viola verecunda var. semilunaris Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 335 (1877)
= Viola verecunda var. subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 221 (1954)
= Viola verecunda var. yakusimana (Nakai) Ohwi, (1953)
= Viola vorobievii Bezd., Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 105 (2001)
= Viola yakusimana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 35 (1922)
species :
Viola hancockii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 249 (1928)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hancockii var. fangshanensis J.W.Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 27(3): 202 (1989)
species :
Viola hastata Michx.; Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 149 (1803)
Name: Halberdleaved yellow violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta Schwein., Am. J. Sci. Ser. I. 5: 50 (1822)
= Viola trifida Spreng., Pugill. 1: 22 (1813)
species :
Viola hederacea Labill.; Nov. Holl. Pl. 1: 66, t. 91 (1804)
subspecies :
subsp. hederacea
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia, SE-Queensland, E-New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania); Lord Howe Isl.; peninsular Malaysia [I] (Cameron Highlands [I], Pahang [I]); Myanmar [I]; Thailand [I]; China [I]
36 chi 41 mya tha 42 mly 50 AUS LHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Erpetion cymbalariae DC. ex Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 2: t. 170 (1826)
= Erpetion hederaceum (Labill.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Erpetion hederaceum (Labill.) Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 2: 45 (1830)
= Erpetion petiolare G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Erpetion reniforme Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard, t. 170 (1826)
= Erpetion spathulatum G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Viola gracilis R.Br. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. seppeltiana L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia, 8: 387, 99 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia including Kangaroo Is., S-Victoria to the Dandenongs)
50 AUS
species :
Viola hediniana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 262-263 (1916)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, Sichuan); India (Arunachal Pradesh)
36 CHI 40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola henryi var. cordifolia Chang, nom. nud.
species :
Viola heldreichiana Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 53 (1849)
Name: Heldreichs Veilchen (DE); Heldreich´s Violet (EN)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon); East Aegaean Isl. (Karpathos, Rhodos)
34 CYP EAI LEB TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lesbiaca P.Candargy
= Viola parvula ssp. heldreichiana (Boiss.) Rothm.
species :
Viola helenae C.N.Forbes & Lydgate; Occas. Papers Bishop Mus. Honolulu, 4: 218 (1909)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola hemsleyana Calderón; Phytologia, 52(2): 101 (1982)
Distribution: Mexico (Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola henryi H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1075-1076 (1901)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, NW-Hunan, E-Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola herzogii (W.Becker) Bornm.; Magyar Bot. Lap. 32: 141 (1933)
Distribution: N-Greece; Macedonia
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola allchariensis var. herzogii W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 75 (1921)
= Viola gracilis var. pinifolia Herzog, Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 24-25: 19 (1920)
= Viola allchariensis var. prilepensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 75 (1921)
= Viola mrkvickiana Velen., Reliq. Mrkv. 6 (1922)
= Viola allchariensis f. pinifolia (Herzog) Trinajstic, Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 3: 7 (1975)
species :
Viola hieronymi W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 185 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, La Rioja)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola hillii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 134 (1928)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola hirsutula Brainerd; Rhodora, 9: 98 (1907)
Name: Southern woodland violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola hirta L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Behaartes Veilchen, Rauhaariges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Bulgaria; ?Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Portugal; Andorra; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Sicily; Sweden; Finland [I]; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; China (Xinjiang); Turkey (NE-Anatolia)
10 DEN fin GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO FRA POR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ 33 GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarea (Bab.) J.W.White, Dörfl., 228 (1904)
= Viola drymeia Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola foudrasi Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 4 (1849)
= Viola hebecarpa Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola hirsuta Crantz, Inst. 2: 430 (1766)
= Viola hirta f. fraterna (Rchb.) Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta f. pinetorum (Wiesb.) Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta ssp. brevifimbriata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 34 (1909)
= Viola hirta ssp. fraterna (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens, 158 (1834)
= Viola hirta ssp. longifimbriata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 23-24 (1918)
= Viola hirta subf.fallax (T.Marsson) Zablocki, 23 (1947)
= Viola hirta subvar. pseudoarenaria Erdner, 569 (1911)
= Viola hirta var. albiflora Semler, 30 (1899), nom. inval.
= Viola hirta var. apetala Bastard, 28 (1812)
= Viola hirta var. calcarea Bab., 103 (1842)
= Viola hirta var. exigua Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. fallax T.Marsson, 57 (1869)
= Viola hirta var. fertiliflora Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta var. frustranea Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta var. grandiflora Wirtg., 22 (1841)
= Viola hirta var. hirsuta Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. lancifolia Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. lilacina Erdner, 569 (1911)
= Viola hirta var. montana Bogenh., 160 (1850), nom. illeg.
= Viola hirta var. montana Dierb., 222 (1825)
= Viola hirta var. oligopetala Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. pratensis Dierb., 222 (1825)
= Viola hirta var. pseudoambigua Wiesb., Formánek, 77 (1886)
= Viola hirta var. variegata Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. vulgaris Rchb., 705 (1832)
= Viola hirto-alba Gren. & Godr., Fl. Fr. 1: 176 (1847)
= Viola maillardi Souché, C. R. Assoc. Fr. Blois, 1884 288 (1885)
= Viola martii K.F.Schimp. & Spenn., Spenn., 1086 (1829), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii ssp. hirta (L.) Kirschl., 6 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii ssp. intermedia Kirschl., 6 (1840)
= Viola martii var. hirta (L.) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola odorata ssp. hirta (L.) Celak., 82 (1870)
= Viola pallida Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796)
= Viola parvula Opiz, Böhm. Gew. (1823) 32, Natural. n. 6: 45 (1824)
= Viola rubra Aubl. ex Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 773 (1841)
= Viola tenerrima Wiesb. ex Nyman, Consp. 78 (1878)
species :
Viola hirtipes S.Moore; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 17(102): 379, t. 16, f. 6 (1879)
Distribution: China (E-Jilin, E-Liaoning); South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Russian Far East (Ussuri)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirtipedoides W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 73 (1921)
= Viola hirtipes f. glabra E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola hirtipes f. grisea (Nakai) Hiyama, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 94 (1953)
= Viola hirtipes var. grisea Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 129 (1913)
= Viola hirtipes var. lanata Nakai, Chosen Shokubutsu 125 (1914)
= Viola hirtipes var. miyabei (Makino) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola kamibayashii Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 30: 287 (1916)
= Viola miyabei Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16(183): 124 (1902)
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. pallida Yatabe, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6(60): 102 (1892)
= Viola ramiflora K.O.Yoo, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 49(2): 140 (2019)
species :
Viola hispida Lam.; Fl. Fr. 2: 679 (1778)
Name: Rouen-Veilchen
Distribution: NW-France (near Rouen)
12 FRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pesneaui Lloyd, Fl. Ouest. Fr. ed. III. 43 (1876)
= Viola pilosa Pers., Syn. 1: 255 (1805)
species :
Viola hondoensis W.Becker & Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 8: 739 (1908)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea; ?China; Siberia (E-Siberia); Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.)
30 SIB 31 RFE 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta var. japonica Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 327 (1877)
= Viola nipponica Maxim., (1877)
species :
Viola hookeriana Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 369 (1823)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola hossei W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 257-258 (1916)
Distribution: NE-India (Meghalaya); Vietnam; Myanmar
40 IND 41 MYA VIE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dalatensis Gagnep., Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 1: 178, gallice, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 85: 600 (1939), latine (1938)
= Viola unwinii W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26: 25 (1929), et Notes Bot. Gard. Edinb. 16: 147 (1931)
species :
Viola howellii A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 308 (1887)
Name: Howell´s violet
Distribution: USA (Oregon, Washington State); Canada (British Columbia)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 6 Langsdorffianae
species :
Viola huesoensis Martic.; Gayana, Bot. 57(2): 191 (2000 publ. 2001), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola litoralis Phil., Fl. Atacam. 9 (1860), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola huidobrii Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 214 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Biobío, Araucania, Los Lagos, Valparaíso)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lechlerii Griseb., Goett. Abh. 6: 116 (1854)
= Viola brachypetala Gay, Fl. Chil. 1: 212 (1846)
species :
Viola huizhouensis Y.S.Huang & Q.Fan; PhytoKeys 176: 70, figs. 2-3 (2021)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola hultenii W.Becker; Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 4 (1928)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Kuril Isl.); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blandiformis var. pilosa Hara, (1952)
= Viola pallens ssp. hultenii (W.Becker) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 31 (2020)
species :
Viola humilis Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 369 (1823)
Distribution: Colombia (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Putumayo, Santander); Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz)
79 MEX 82 CLM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ecuadorensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 180 (1922)
= Viola kalbreyeri W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 180 (1922)
= Viola prunellifolia Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 370 (1823)
= Viola reticulata Schltdl., Linnaea 12:201 (1838)
species :
Viola hybanthoides W.B.Liao & Q.Fan; Phytotaxa 197(1): 20 (2015)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 11 Danxiaviola
species :
Viola hymettia Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(1): 57 (1853)
Name: Hymettos-Veilchen
Distribution: France; Greece; East Aegaean Isl.; Italy; SW-Romania; Sicily; European Turkey; Macedonia; Iran (N-Iran); Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan
12 FRA 13 GRC ITA NMA ROM SIC TUE 14 UKR 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 EAI IRN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola tricolor var. hymettia (Boiss. & Heldr.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 466 (1867)
= Viola lavrenkoana Klokov, Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Charkov. 8 (1927)
= Viola cretacea Klokov, Schischkin & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 15: 686 (1949)
= Viola arvensioides Strobl
species :
Viola improcera L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia, 8: 387, 100 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (Victoria)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Conservation Status: known from only 1 collection besides the type
species :
Viola incognita Brainerd; Rhodora, 248 (1905)
Distribution: NE-USA; E-Canada
72 CDN 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae. A separate species from V. blanda fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola incognita var. forbesii Brainerd, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 38: 8 (1911)
species :
Viola inconspicua Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 58 (1825)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; Java; peninsular Malaysia (once from Penang Hill); Myanmar; Sumatra; Mauritius; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal); Philippines; Vietnam; Taiwan; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Australia (NE-Queensland); Norfolk Isl.
29 MAU 33 geo 36 CHI 38 JAP NNS TAI 40 IND 41 MYA VIE 42 JAW MLY NWG PHI SUM 50 AUS NFK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola apetala Roxb., Hort. Beng. 18 (1814), nomen, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., 2: 449 (1824), Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 1: 650 (1832)
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China (in prep.)
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. novaguineensis D.M.Moore, Rep. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. 68 (1963)
= Viola betonicifolia var. oblongosagittata (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim., & T. Hashim. J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola chinensis G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
= Viola confusa f. albiflora S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 783 (1992)
= Viola confusa ssp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) F.Maek. & Hashim., Hashim. J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola confusa var. lanyuense S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 18 (1992)
= Viola hunanensis Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7(2): 376, f. 10: 2, 3 (1931)
= Viola inconspicua f. albescens (Taken.) Yonek., J. Jap. Bot. 80(6): 326 (2005)
= Viola inconspicua f. pilosa (F.Maek.) Yonek., J. Jap. Bot. 80(6): 326 (2005)
= Viola inconspicua ssp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 35: 41-44, f. 12 (1990)
= Viola inconspicua var. minor (Makino) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 26 (1992)
= Viola japonica Matsum. & Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 29 (1906)
= Viola maculicola Koidz., Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto, 7: 112 (1938)
= Viola mandshurica ssp. nagasakiensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40: 161 (1923)
= Viola minor (Makino) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola minor f. pilosa F.Maek.
= Viola minor var. albescens Taken.
= Viola oblongosagittata Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 37 (1922)
= Viola oblongosagittata var. violascens Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 37 (1922)
= Viola patrinii H.Boissieu & Capit., non DC.
= Viola patrinii var. minor Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6: 50 (1892)
= Viola philippica Sasaki, List Pl. Formosa 298 (1928)
= Viola primulifolia Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 513 (1790), non L.
= Viola pseudomonbeigii Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 251 (1949)
= Viola serpens var. confusa (Benth.) J.D.Hooker & Thomson
= Viola trinervis Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 1: 357 (1848)
species :
Viola indica W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20: II. 126 (1906)
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Punjab, Uttarakhand); Pakistan (Chitral, Hazara)
40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola indica f. barbata (W.Becker) S.P.Banerjee & Pramanik, Fasc. Fl. India, 12: 26 (1983)
= Viola indica var. barbata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 40: 135 (1923)
species :
Viola ingolensis Elisafenko; Rastitel´n. Mir Aziatsk. Rossii 2(34): 12, figs. 3-7 (2019)
Distribution: Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)
30 SIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola isaurica Contandr. & Quézel; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 123: 419 (1976)
Distribution: Turkey (SSW-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola ivonis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 608 (1985)
Distribution: Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola iwagawae Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 158 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Yakushima Isl.); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP NNS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieuana var. iwagawae (Makino) Ohwi, (1953)
species :
Viola jalapaensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 125 (1922)
Distribution: Mexico (Tamaulipas, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola jangiensis W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 201 (1929)
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Punjab)
40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola japonica Langsd. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 295 (1824)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; ?Taiwan; USA [I] (Massachusetts [I])
38 JAP KOR 75 usa
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola concordifolia var. hirtipedicellata Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 382 (1992)
= Viola crassicalcarata Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 379-340, f. 1, 1-8 (1992)
= Viola japonica f. variegata (Hatus.) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola japonica var. stenopetala Franch. ex H.Boissieu
= Viola japonica var. variegata Hatus., Exp. Forest. Kyushu Imp. Univ. 5: 132 (1934)
= Viola odorata Thunb., Fl. Jap. 326 (1784) (non L.)
species :
Viola jaubertiana Marès & Vigin.; Cat. Pl. Baléar. 37 (1880)
Name: Balearen-Veilchen
Distribution: Baleares (Mallorca)
12 BAL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola javanica W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl 34: II. 260 (1916)
Distribution: E-Java
42 JAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arcuata Miq., non Blume
species :
Viola jinggangshanensis Z.L.Ning & J.P.Liao; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 49(5-6): 383 (2012)
Distribution: China (Jiangxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola joergensenii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 353 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 10 Triflabellium
species :
Viola johnstonii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 110 (1927)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola jooi Janka; Österr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 198 (1857)
Name: Karpaten-Veilchen
Distribution: C-Romania; NE-Serbia; Ukraine
13 ROM SRB 14 UKR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sciaphila Soó ex Janka, Österr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 198 (1857)
= Viola transsilvanica Schur, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 10: 184 (1860)
species :
Viola jordanii Hanry; Prodr. Hist. Nat. Vor 169 (1853)
Name: Jordan-Veilchen
Distribution: SE-France; Bulgaria; Hungary; Macedonia; Serbia & Kosovo; Romania; Greece; Ukraine; Crimea; Turkey (SSW-Anatolia, S-Anatolia); India (Jammu & Kashmir); Pakistan (Waziristan)
11 HUN 12 FRA 13 BUL GRC NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY UKR 34 TUR 40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cilicica Contandr. & Quézel, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 123: 419, Pl. 2 (1976)
= Viola danubialis Borbás, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 75, 183 (1891)
= Viola elatior ssp. jordanii (Hanry) Soó, Magyar Növenyvilag Kezikönyve 1: 631 (1951)
= Viola falconeri Hook.fil. & Thomson, Hook. fil. Fl. Brit. India 1: 185 (1872)
= Viola jordanii var. falconeri (Hook.fil. & Thomson) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt 2,34: 380 (1917)
= Viola oblonga Blatt., J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 9: 200 (1930)
species :
Viola kauaensis A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 2: 325 (1852)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai, Oahu)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kauaensis f. maxima Hochr.
variant :
var. hosakae (H.St.John) Havran & Ching Harbin; PhytoKeys 39: 28 (2014)
Distribution: Hawaii
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hosakae H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 173 (1989)
= Viola vanroyenii H.St.John
variant :
var. wahiawaensis C.N.Forbes
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola keiskei Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 153 (1865)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); North Korea
38 JAP NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta f. keiskei (Miq.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 86 (1903)
= Viola keiskei f. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 40: 155 (1923)
= Viola keiskei f. okuboi (Makino) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola keiskei var. glabra W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 252 (1916)
= Viola keiskei var. okuboi Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 133 (1902)
= Viola okuboi (Makino) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17: 85 (1903)
= Viola okuboi var. glabra Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 86 (1903)
species :
Viola kermesina W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. Sp. 7: 124 (1909)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola kitaibeliana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 383 (1819)
Name: Kleines Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); East Aegaean Isl.; Switzerland; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal; ?Poland; Romania; Ukraine; Crimea; E-European Russia; Sicily; Germany (Baden-Württemberg [I], Rheinland-Pfalz [I], Thüringen); Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; China [I]; Turkmenistan; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); European Turkey; Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan); Iraq (SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Israel (coastal W-Israel, N-Israel); Syria (Jbel Druze); Canary Isl. (Tenerife); Morocco
11 AUT CZE GER HUN SLO SWI 12 COR POR 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB TUE 14 KRY RUS UKR 20 MOR 21 CNY 32 TKM 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR SYR TUR 36 chi
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae. V. henriquesii (Iberian peninsula) is sometimes kept separate.
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensis ssp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Mateo & Figuerola, Fl. Analit. Prov. Valencia (IAM Investig. 14): 369 (1987)
= Viola arvensis ssp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) W.Becker, 42 (1904)
= Viola brachyantha Stapf
= Viola brockmanniana W.Becker, 70 (1910)
= Viola foucaudii A.Sav., P. David & al., 49 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola foucaudii A.Sav., Foucaud, 75 (1879)
= Viola henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) W.Becker, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 190 (1906)
= Viola karakalensis Klokov, Fl. URSS 15: 687, t. 22, f. 9 (1949)
= Viola kitaibeliana ssp. trimestris (DC.) Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 20 (1999)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. brevicalcarata Font Quer & Svent., Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295 (1993)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Gams
= Viola kitaibeliana var. tokajensis Soó, 183 (1940)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. trimestris (DC.) Espeut, Biocosme Mésogéen 27(4): 132 (2010)
= Viola parviflora Kit., Roem. & Schult., 383 (1819), nom. inval.
= Viola tricolor ssp. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Furrer & Longa, 67 (1915)
= Viola tricolor ssp. henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor ssp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Nägeli, Schinz & R. Keller, 366 (1909)
= Viola tricolor ssp. machadeana (Cout.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor ssp. minima Gaudin, Fl. HeIv. 2: 210 (1828)
= Viola tricolor ssp. olyssiponensis (Rouy) Nyman, 47 (1889)
= Viola tricolor ssp. parviflora (Kit.) Nyman, 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor ssp. trimestris (DC.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor subvar. pygmaea Rouy & Foucaud, 48 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Gams, 601 (1925)
= Viola tricolor var. hirta Ging., DC., 304 (1824)
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Hampe, 19 (1836)
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 257 (1842)
= Viola tricolor var. mediterranea Gren., 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. minima (Gaudin) Moritzi, 167 (1832)
= Viola tricolor var. nemausensis (Jord.) Nyman, 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor var. procerior Gaudin, 211 (1828), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor var. triphylla Wender., 62 (1846)
species :
Viola kitamiana Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 564 (1928)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. kitamiana (Nakai) Maek. ex Toyok., (1957)
= Viola bezdelevae Vorosch.
species :
Viola kizildaghensis Dinç & Yild.; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 138(4): 483 (2002)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola kjellbergii Melch.; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12: 206 (1934)
Distribution: New Guinea (Papua New Guinea); Sulawesi
42 NWG SUL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lagaipensis D.M.Moore, Nova Guinea, Bot., No. 11, 182 (1963)
= Viola arcuata Ooststr. & H.J.Lam, non Blume
species :
Viola kopaonikensis Pancic ex Tomovic & Niketic; Phytotaxa 253(4): 242 (2016)
Distribution: Serbia
13 SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola koritnicensis Trinajstic; Glasn. Prir. Mus. Beogradu, B, 40: 28 (1985)
Distribution: Serbia & Kosovo
13 SRB
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola kosanensis Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 28 (1913)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, NE-Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fukienensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 337 (1926)
= Viola kiangsiensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(601-605): 321 (1925)
species :
Viola kosaninii (Degen) Hayek; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 94: 155 (1918)
Distribution: N-Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 14 Delphiniopsis
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola delphinantha ssp. kosaninii Degen, Mag. Bot. Lapok 10: 108 (1911)
species :
Viola kouliana Bhellum & Magotra; Nordic J. Bot. 2022(8)-e03648: 2 (2022)
Distribution: NW-India (Jammu & Kashmir)
40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
species :
Viola kunawurensis Royle; Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 75 (1834)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; China (Gansu, Qinghai, NW-Sichuan, Xinjiang); Tibet; Pakistan (Hazara, Baltistan); India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Leh, etc.); Nepal
32 KAZ TZK 36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 12 Himalayum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gmeliniana var. glabra Regel & Herder, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39: 527 (1866)
= Viola kunawurensis f. longifolia C.J.Wang, as ´kunawarensis´
= Viola kunawurensis var. angustifolia W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 397 (1917) as ´kunawarensis´
= Viola thianschanica Maxim., Bull. Acad. Petersb. 26: 427 (1880)
species :
Viola kusanoana Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 173 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea (Ullung Do Isl.); Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.)
31 RFE 38 JAP KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dageletiana Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 195 (1925)
= Viola insularis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32: 108 (1918)
= Viola kusanoana f. subrosea H.Igarashi, J. Jap. Bot., 75(3): 187 (2000)
= Viola kusanoana var. glabra Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 57 (1922)
= Viola miyakei Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 1928, 43: 563 (1928)
= Viola mutsuensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 241 (1916)
= Viola silvestriformis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 242 (1916)
species :
Viola kusnezowiana W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 9, 88 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 254 (1916)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola kwangtungensis Melch.; Sunyatsenia 1(2-3): 124-126, t. 31 (1933)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, etc.)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sikkimensis var. debilis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 260 (1916)
species :
Viola labradorica Schrank; Denkschr. Bot. Ges. Regensb. 1: II. (1818) 12
Name: Alpine violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); Greenland; St. Pierre et Miquelon
70 GNL 72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola adunca var. minor (Hook.) Fernald, Rhodora 51: 57 (1949)
= Viola canina var. muhlenbergii (Torr.) A.Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11(11): 292 (1886)
= Viola conspersa Rchb., Pl. Crit. 1: 44 (1823)
= Viola leucopetala Greene
= Viola muhlenbergiana Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola muhlenbergiana var. minor Hook., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Hooker) 1: 78 (1830)
= Viola muhlenbergii Torr., Fl. N. Middle United States 1: 256 (1824)
species :
Viola lactea Sm.; Sowerby, Engl. Bot. 7: t. 445 (1798)
Name: Milchweißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: England; France; Ireland; Spain; Portugal; Channel Isl.
10 GRB IRE 12 CIS FRA POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina ssp. lancifolia (Thore) Döll, 649 (1843)
= Viola canina var. lactea (Sm.) Bab., 34 (1843)
= Viola canina var. lancifolia (Thore) Woerl., 170 (1889)
= Viola lactea var. pumila (Fr.) Nyman, 78 (1878)
= Viola lamiifolia Pritz., Ic. Ind. 1163 (1855)
= Viola lancifolia Thore, Essai Chloris 357 (-358) (1803)
= Viola lusitana Brot., Phyt. Lusit. Fasc. 1, No. 11 (1801)
= Viola pumila var. lancifolia (Thore) DC., 299 (1824)
= Viola recta var. lactea (Sm.) Garcke, 55 (1848)
species :
Viola lactiflora Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28(336): 329 (1914)
Distribution: China (Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Liaoning, Sichuan, SW-Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea; Japan [I]
36 CHI 38 jap KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola limprichtiana W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 185-186 (1917)
species :
Viola lanaiensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 11. 214 (1916)
Distribution: Hawaii (Lanai)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola helenae var. lanaiensis Rock
= Viola robusta var. oblongifolia Drake, nom. nud.
species :
Viola lanceolata L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Bog white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); St. Pierre et Miquelon; Venezuela [I]; Colombia [I]
72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA 82 clm ven
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola attenuata Sweet, Hort. Brit. (Sweet), ed. 3. 54 (1839)
species :
Viola langeana Valentine; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 79: 57 (1968)
Distribution: WC-Spain; C-Portugal
12 POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola caespitosa Lange, Willk. & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. 3: 701 (1878) non D. Don
species :
Viola langloisii Greene; Pittonia 3: 87 (1896)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Not a synonym of V. missouriensis fide Marcussen et al. 2022
species :
Viola langsdorfii (Regel) Fisch. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 296 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. langsdorfii
Name: Aleutian violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Oregon, Washington State); Canada (British Columbia, Yukon)
70 ASK 73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 6 Langsdorffianae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola peduncularis Langsd. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola simulata M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 237 (1936)
= Viola superba M.S.Baker, Madroño 5: 220, tab. 20, 22, fig. 10 (1940)
subspecies :
subsp. sachalinensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 253 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin, Kamchatka)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola franchetii H.Boissieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 47: 321 (1900)
= Viola kamtschadalorum W.Becker & Hultén, Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 6 (1928)
= Viola kurilensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola langsdorfii ssp. kamtschadalorum (W.Becker & Hultén) Tzvelev
= Viola langsdorfii var. caulescens Ging., (1824)
= Viola sapporensis Franch. ex Boissieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 47: 321 (1925)
= Viola ursina Kom., Fedde Rebert. 13: 235 (1914)
species :
Viola lanifera W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 183 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola laricicola Marcussen; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 142(1): 119 (2003)
Distribution: SE-France (Col du Lautaret, Col du Vars); NW-Italy (Col du Montgenevre)
12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola latiuscula Greene; Pittonia 5: 93 (1902)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Not a synonym of V. sororia fide Marcussen et al. 2022
species :
Viola lehmannii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 91 (1907), et ex H. E. Ballard & P. Jørg., Cat. Vasc. PI. Ecuador (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 75): 956 (1999)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz); Peru; Ecuador
83 BOL ECU PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lehmannii ssp. ovalifolia W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 91 (1907)
species :
Viola leyboldiana Phil.; Linnaea 33: 1864 (1865) 16
Distribution: Chile (Maule); Argentina (Mendoza)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola libanotica Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 52 (1849)
Distribution: Lebanon (C-Lebanon)
34 LEB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola lilliputana Iltis & H.E.Ballard; Brittonia 64(4): 355 (2012)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 4 Inconspicuiflos
species :
Viola lilloana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 225 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola lithion N.H.Holmgren & P.K.Holmgren; Brittonia, 44(3): 300 (1992)
Name: Rock violet
Distribution: USA (Nevada: White Pine Range, Utah: Pilot Range)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola llullaillacoensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 109 (1927)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola lobata Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 298 (1843)
subspecies :
subsp. lobata
Name: Pine violet, Yellow wood violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon); Mexico (Baja California Norte)
73 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola montana Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: ed. II. (1873) 55 non L.
subspecies :
subsp. integrifolia (S.Watson) R.J.Little; Phytologia, 72(2): 78 (1992)
Distribution: USA (California, SW-Oregon)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lobata ssp. psychodes (Greene) Munz, Aliso 4: 94 (1958)
= Viola lobata var. integrifolia S.Watson, W. H. Brewer et al., Bot. California 1: 57 (1876)
= Viola lobata var. psychodes (Greene) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia no. 1: 8 (1976 (1975))
= Viola psychodes Greene, Pittonia, 3: 318 (1898)
= Viola sequoiensis Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 185 (1863)
species :
Viola lologensis (W.Becker) J.M.Watson; Gayana, Bot. 68(2): 302 (2011)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cotyledon ssp. lologensis W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 135 (1928)
species :
Viola lovelliana Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 37: 526 (1910)
Name: Lovell´s violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Often treated as hybrid
species :
Viola lucens W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 250 (1928)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola lutea Huds.; Fl. Angl. 331 (1762)
subspecies :
subsp. lutea
Name: Gelbes Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: France; Switzerland; ?N-Spain
11 SWI 12 FRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion elegans Spach, 513 (1836), nom. illeg.
= Mnemion grandiflorum (L.) Spach, 514 (1836)
= Viola amoena T.F.Forst., Symons, Syn. 198 (1798)
= Viola elegans Kirschl., 18 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola grandiflora L., 518 (1771), nom. illeg.
= Viola grandiflora Vest, 158 (1821), nom. illeg.
= Viola hispida Lapeyr., Hist. Pl. Pyrenées 123 (1813)
= Viola lutea var. elegans Gams, 607 (1925)
= Viola lutea var. pyrenaica Gren., 185 (1847)
= Viola tricolor ssp. lutea (Huds.) Syme, 27 (1864)
subspecies :
subsp. calaminaria (DC.) Rothm.; 7 (1963)
Name: Gelbes Galmei-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Netherlands; Belgium; W-Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
11 BGM GER NET
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calaminaria (DC.) Lej., Rev. Fl. Spa 49 (1824)
= Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria (DC. ex Ging.) Nauenb., Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 92 (1986), isonym
= Viola lutea subvar. multicaulis (W.D.J.Koch) Gams, 607 (1925)
= Viola lutea var. multicaulis W.D.J.Koch, 87 (1836)
= Viola lutea var. tricolor Kaltenb., 65 (1843)
= Viola sudetica var. calaminaria DC., 303 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. sudetica (Willd.) Nyman; 81 (1878)
Name: Sudeten-Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: Czech Republic; Slovakia; Austria
11 AUT CZE SLO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sudetica Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 12 (1813)
= Viola lutea var. sudetica (Willd.) W.D.J.Koch, 87 (1836)
= Viola lutea ssp. sudetica (Willd.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 18(2): 388 (1905), isonym
subspecies :
subsp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) U.Hildebr.et al.; 216 (2006)
Name: Violettes Galmei-Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: C-Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
11 GER
Remarks: known only from one small population
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calaminaria ssp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) J.Heimans, 268 (1966)
= Viola calaminaria var. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) W.Ernst, 32 (1965)
= Viola guestphalica Nauenb., Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 98 (1986), nom. nov. inval., et Haussknechtia 12: 54 (2010)
= Viola lutea ssp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) U.Hildebr. & al., 216 (2006), nom. inval.
= Viola lutea var. westfalica A.A.H.Schulz, Jahres-Ber. Westfal. Prov.-Vereins Wiss. 40: 218 (1912)
species :
Viola lyallii Hook.fil.; Handb. N. Zeal. Fl. 16 (1864)
Distribution: New Zealand (widespread); Chatham Isl.
51 CTM NZL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cunninghamii var. gracilis Hook.fil., (1852)
= Erpetion spathulatum A.Cunn., (1840) (non G. Don
species :
Viola macloskeyi F.E.Lloyd; Erythea, 3: 74 (1895)
Name: Smooth white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); St. Pierre et Miquelon
72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amoena Leconte, Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 144 (1828)
= Viola blanda ssp. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) E.Murray, Kalmia, 12: 26 (1982)
= Viola blanda var. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) Jeps., Man. Fl. Pl. Calif. [Jeps.] 648 (1925)
= Viola clandestina Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 173 (1813)
= Viola obliqua Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) i. 172 (1813)
= Viola pallens ssp. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) M.S.Baker
species :
Viola macroceras Bunge; Fl. Altaic. 1: 256-257 (1829)
Distribution: Mongolia; China (Xinjiang); Kyrgyzstan; Northern Caucasus; Siberia (Altai, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; India (Uttarakhand); Pakistan (Chitral, Skardu, Baltistan)
30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ TZK 33 NCS 36 CHI 37 MON 40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola czemalensis Zuev, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol., 98(4): 103 (1993)
species :
Viola maculata Cav.; Ic. 6: 20, t. 539 (1800)
Name: Pilludén, violeta del monte [Chile]
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aisén, Magallanes); Falkland Isl.
85 ARG CLE 91 FAL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola buchtienii Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fance, 59: 705 (1912 publ. 1913)
= Viola glandulosa Dombey ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola grandidentata Kalela, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 54: No. 5, 17 (1940)
= Viola lutea Comm. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola macloviana Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 59: 705 (1912 publ. 1913)
= Viola maculata Cav. ex Weibel, Candollea, 10: 76 (1943), descr. emend.
= Viola maculata f. chilensis Weibel, Candollea 10: 79 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. chillanensis Sparre, Lilloa 17: 395, tab. 5 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. constitucionensis Sparre, Lilloa 17: 397, fig. 4, tab. 7 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. grandidentata (Kalela) Weibel, Candollea 10: 81 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. munozii Sparre, Lilloa 17: 398, fig. 5, tab. 8 (1949)
= Viola maculata var. buchtienii (Gand.) Weibel
= Viola maculata var. megaphylla DC.
= Viola maculata var. popetae Sparre
= Viola maculata var. pubescens Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 894 (1895)
= Viola pyrolifolia Poir., Encyc. 8: 636 (1808)
= Viola tetrapetala Molina, Sagg. Chile, ed. II. 133
= Viola valdiviana Kalela, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 54: No. 5, 14 (1940)
variant :
var. microphyllos (Poir.) DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Aisen, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola buchtieniana W.Becker, Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12: 2 (1906)
= Viola fimbriata Steud., Flora, 39: 423 (1856)
= Viola maculata f. fimbriata (Steud.) Weibel, Candollea 10: 84 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. septentrionalis (Kalela) Weibel, Candollea 10: 84 (1943)
= Viola maculata ssp. microphyllos (Poir.) Weibel, Candollea 10: 83 (1943)
= Viola microphyllos f. macropoda Speg.
= Viola microphyllos f. septentrionalis Kalela
= Viola microphyllos Poir., Encyc. 8: 628 (1808)
species :
Viola magellanica G.Forst.; Comm. Götting. 9: 41, t. 8 (1789)
Distribution: Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Los Lagos, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola magniflora Molina, Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili, ed. 2. 283 (1810)
species :
Viola magellensis Porta & Rigo ex Strobl; Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 229 (1877)
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola magnifica Ching J.Wang ex X.D.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 263-264, f. 2, 9-11 (1991)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, E-Sichuan, Zhejiang)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola majchurensis Pissjauk.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS, 15: 177 (1953)
Distribution: Uzbekistan; Tajikistan
32 TZK UZB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola mandonii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 95 (1907)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola humboldtii var. renifolia Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 18 (1889)
species :
Viola mandshurica W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 179-180 (1917)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, ?Shaanxi, Shandong, ?Shanxi); Taiwan; South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Russian Far East (incl. Kuril Isl.); Nepal; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]
31 RFE 33 geo 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO TAI 40 NEP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida ssp. marginata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40: 141 (1924)
= Viola alsioviana f. intermedia (Kitag.) Taken.
= Viola chinensis var. media Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 284 (1916)
= Viola chinensis var. transitica Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 283 (1916)
= Viola hsinganensis Taken., Sci. Contr. Northeast Norm. Univ. 1: 81, t. 2, f. 8 (1955)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiflora P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng, Fl. Pl. Herb. Chin. Bor.-Orient. 6: 293 (1977)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiikedaeana E.Hama, Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola mandshurica f. ciliata (Nakai) F.Maek.in Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. glabra (Nakai) Hiyama in Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. macrantha (Maxim.) Nakai ex Kitag., ? 321 (1939)
= Viola mandshurica var. ciliata Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 60 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. glabra Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 60 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. glabripetala Hiyama, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 93 (1953)
= Viola mandshurica var. media (Nakai) Hiyama, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 93 (1953)
= Viola oblongosagittata f. ishizakii Yamam., J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 5: 352 (1933)
= Viola oldhamiana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 559 (1928)
= Viola patrinii f. glabra (Nakai) F.Maek.
= Viola patrinii var. macrantha Maxim., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 48 (1859)
= Viola philippica f. intermedia (Kitag.) Kitag., Lin. Fl. Manshur. 322 (1939)
= Viola rhodosepala Kitag., Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 48: 611 (1934)
= Viola yedoensis f. intermedia Kitag., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 103 (1934)
variant :
var. ikedaeana (W.Becker ex Taken.) Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 208 (1954)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Korea; Taiwan
38 JAP KOR TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ikedaeana W.Becker ex Taken., Fukuoka Hakubuts. Zasshi (Ed. Ann. Soc. Hist.-Nat. Fukuok.) 2: 193 (1938)
variant :
var. triangularis (Franch. & Sav.) Mizush.; Misc. Rep. Res. Inst. Nat. Resources 38: 122 (1955)
Distribution: Bonin Isl. (Chichijima, Hahajima)
38 OGA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boninensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 37 (1922)
= Viola patrinii var. triangularis Franch. & Sav., (1873)
= Viola niijimensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 39 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. boninensis (Nakai) Mizush., (1952)
species :
Viola maoershanensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 159(2): 351 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola marcelorosasii J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 104: 11 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola mariae W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 322 (1916)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Sakhalin)
31 RFE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola mauritii Tepl.; Zap. Ural´sk. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestv. 7(3): 37 (1882)
Distribution: Mongolia; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia, Irkutsk); Russian Far East; ?China
14 RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola teplouchovii Juz., Spisok Rast. Herb. Fl. URSS, 13: 83 (1955)
species :
Viola maviensis H.Mann; Proc. Am. Acad. 7: 150 (1867)
Distribution: Hawaii (Molokai, Maui, Hawaii Isl.)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hawaiiensis H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 169 (1989)
= Viola kohalana (Rock) H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 179 (1989)
= Viola maviensis var. kohalana Rock
= Viola rockii H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 190 (1989)
species :
Viola maximowicziana Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 16: 128 (1902)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola maymanica Grey-Wilson; Kew Bull. 29(1): 41 (1974)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Faryab)
34 AFG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 16 Spathulidium
species :
Viola mearnsii Merr.; Philipp. J. Sci. 5: 201 (1910)
Distribution: Philippines
42 PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola membranacea W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. Sp. 7: 123 (1909)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 4 Inconspicuiflos
species :
Viola mercurii Orph. ex Halácsy; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 61: 497 (1894)
Distribution: S-Greece (Killini)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola merrilliana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralb. 34: II. 234 (1916)
Distribution: Philippines (Luzon)
42 PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
species :
Viola merxmuelleri Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 20: 30 (1984)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola mesadensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 363 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cordoba, La Pampa, Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 10 Triflabellium
species :
Viola miaolingensis Y.S.Chen; Phytotaxa 400(4): 251 (2019)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola micranthella Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 291 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija); Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola microcentra W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 73 (1921)
Distribution: Japan (Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola minuscula Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 247 (1906)
Distribution: E-Canada; NE-USA (New York, etc.)
72 CDN 75 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae. Not a synonym of V. macloskeyi fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pallens var. subreptans J.Rousseau, Naturaliste Canad. 65: 306 (1938)
species :
Viola minuta M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 173 (1808)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan
33 AZE GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola meyeriana (Rupr.) Klokov, Fl. URSS 15: 479, t. 22, f. 3 (1949)
= Viola minuta ssp. dagestanica (Rupr.) Vl.V.Nikitin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 31: 224 (1998)
= Viola minuta ssp. meyeriana (Rupr.) Vl.V.Nikitin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 31: 225 (1998)
= Viola minuta var. dagestanica Rupr., Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. (Sci. Phys. Math.), ser. 7, 15, 2: 157 (1869)
= Viola minuta var. meyeriana Rupr., Fl. Caucasus 157 (1869)
species :
Viola minutiflora Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 493 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío, Araucanía)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola mirabilis L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Wunder-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hessen [I], Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, +Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; NE-Spain (Pyrenees); Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Crimea; Sweden; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kazakhstan; North Korea; China (Gansu, ?Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol); Mongolia; Siberia (E-Siberia); Japan (Honshu)
10 DEN FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX POL SLO SWI 12 FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO ITA MNT ROM SLV SRB 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 33 GEO NCS 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola apetala Gilib., Fl. Lituan. 2: 124 (1782)
= Viola brachysepala Maxim., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 50 (1859)
= Viola improvisa Vl.V.Nikitin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 35: 135 (2003)
= Viola mirabilis f. latisepala W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 236 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis f. seiichii E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 339 (1976)
= Viola mirabilis f. strigosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 236 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis ssp. brachysepala (Maxim.) Vorosch., A. K. Skvortsov (ed.), Florist. issl. v razn. raionakh SSSR: 182 (1985)
= Viola mirabilis ssp. subglabra (Ledeb.) Zuev, Fl. Sibir. (Geraniac.-Cornac.), 10: 87 (1996)
= Viola mirabilis var. apetala (F.W.Schmidt) Pohl, 231 (1809)
= Viola mirabilis var. brachysepala (Maxim.) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 4: 450 (1861)
= Viola mirabilis var. brevicalcarata Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33: 9 (1919)
= Viola mirabilis var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 237 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis var. kusnetzoffii Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 4: 450 (1861)
= Viola mirabilis var. platysepala Kitag., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 103 (1934)
= Viola mirabilis var. strigosa (W.Becker) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 17 (2020)
= Viola mirabilis var. subglabra Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 251 (1842)
= Viola mirabilis var. vulgaris Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 251 (1842)
= Viola subglabra (Ledeb.) Baikov ex A.V.Grebenjuk & Chepinoga, Konspekt Fl. Irkutsk. Obl. 182 (2008)
species :
Viola missouriensis Greene; Pittonia, 4: 141 (1900)
Name: Missouri violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola candidula Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 85, pl. 2, 3 (1913)
= Viola lucidifolia Newbro, Stud. Nat. Hist. Iowa Univ. 17: 56, pl. 4, fig. 3
= Viola sororia var. missouriensis (Greene) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 42 (1992)
species :
Viola modesta Fenzl; Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr. 12 no. 39 (1842)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia); Iran (S-Iran, W-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan); Israel (Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, NW-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Armenia; Turkmenistan
32 TKM 33 ARM 34 IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ebracteolata Fenzl, Russegg., Reisen 1, 2: 934, no. 39 (1842)
= Viola modestula Klokov, Fl. URSS 15: 687, t. 22, ff. 6, 7 (1949)
species :
Viola mongolica Franch.; Pl. David. 1: 42 (1884)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi); South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hebeiensis J.W.Wang & T.G.Ma, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 130 (1988)
= Viola yamatsutai Ishidoya, J. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. No. 8, 18 (1929)
= Viola yezoensis var. hebeiensis (J.W.Wang & T.G.Ma) J.W.Wang & J.Yang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27(3): 202 (1989) ("hopeiensis")
species :
Viola montagnei Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 222 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bicolor Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 899 (1895), nom. illeg.
= Viola canobarbata Leyb., Flora, 49: 285 (1866)
= Viola canobarbata var. albiflora W.Becker
= Viola flos-mariae Hieron.
= Viola flos-mariae var. nivea Hieron.
= Viola flos-mariae var. virescens Hieron.
= Viola karlreicheana Sanso, M.Seo & Xifreda, Darwiniana 45(2): 241 (2007), nom. nov.
= Viola montagnei var. glandulosa Phil., Linnaea 33: 15 (1864)
species :
Viola montcaunica Pau; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 23 (Act.): 129 (1895)
Distribution: N- & C-Spain
12 SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cornuta ssp. montcaunica (Pau) Rivas Mart., An. Inst. Bot. A. J. Cavanilles, 36: 307 1979 (1980)
species :
Viola moupinensis Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 412 (1886)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Tibet; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar; Nepal
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mairei H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 343 (1914)
= Viola moupinensis var. lijiangensis Ching J.Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 20-21 (1988)
= Viola palustris var. moupinensis Franch., Pl. David. 2: 20 (1888)
= Viola paravaginata Hara, J. Jap. B. 43: 47 (1968)
= Viola rosthornii E.Pritz. ex Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(3-4): 477 (1900)
= Viola vaginata ssp. alata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 253 (1916)
= Viola vaginata var. sutchuensis Franch. ex H.Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1078 (1901)
species :
Viola mucronulifera Hand.-Mazz.; Sinensia 2(1): 4-5 (1931)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola muehldorfii Kiss; Bot. Közlem. 19: 92 (1921)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang); Russian Far East; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lasiostipes Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 32 (1922)
species :
Viola muliensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 149(3): 365 (2005)
Distribution: China (Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola multifida Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 352 (1819)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, N-Sichuan, ?Zhejiang); ?Tibet; South Korea; Mongolia; Siberia (Tuva, Altai, W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan
30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dissecta f. pubescens (Regel) Kitag., J. Jap. Bot. 34(1): 7 (1959)
= Viola dissecta f. viridis Y.N.Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 5 (2006)
= Viola dissecta Ledeb., Fl. Altaic. 1: 255 (1829)
= Viola dissecta var. pubescens (Regel) Kitag., Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo Sect. IV 2: 296 (1938)
= Viola milanae Vl.V.Nikitin, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 38: 191 (2006)
= Viola pinnata lusus glabra Regel, Pl. Radd. 1: 222 (1861)
= Viola pinnata lusus pubescens Regel, Pl. Radd. 1: 222 (1861)
= Viola pinnata ssp. multifida W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. angustisecta W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. dissecta (Ledeb.) Turcz., Fl. Baic. Dahur. 1: 178 (1842)
= Viola pinnata var. latisecta W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. sibirica Ging., Prodr. 1: 292 (1824)
= Viola ×lii Kitag., J. Jap. Bot. 19: 110 (1943)
species :
Viola munbyana Boiss. & Reut.; Pugillus 15 (1852)
Distribution: NW-Sicily; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia
13 SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola battandieri W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 366 (1905)
= Viola fontanesii Coss. ex Batt., Fl. Alger., Suppl. Phanerog. 20 (1910)
= Viola gracilis var. munbyana (Boiss. & Reut.) Batt., Fl. Algèrie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 104 (1888)
= Viola munbyana var. battandieri (W.Becker) Batt., Fl. Algèrie, Suppl. Phan. [Batt.]: 20 (1910)
= Viola munbyana var. kabylica Batt., [nom. illeg.]
= Viola munbyana var. rifana Emb. & Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 17: 38 (1927)
= Viola nebrodensis var. grandiflora Guss.
= Viola nebrodensis var. lutea Guss.
= Viola villarii Sennen & Mauricio, Diagn. Nouv. Pl. Espagne & Maroc: 227 "1936" (1951)
species :
Viola nagasawae Makino & Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 30 (1906)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acutilabella Hayata, Ic. Pl. Formos. 10: 1 (1921)
= Viola diffusa var. nagasawai (Makino & Hayata) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 29 (1992)
= Viola nagasawae var. acutilabella (Hayata) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola shaoyoukengensis S.S.Ying, New Taxa New Names 2: 65 (2019)
species :
Viola nana (DC. ex Ging.) Le Jol.; Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 7: 267 (1860)
Distribution: England; Channel Isl.; France; ?Germany; ?Switzerland; Spain
10 GRB 12 CIS FRA SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kitaibeliana var. nana (DC. ex Ging.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola tricolor var. nana (DC. ex Ging.) Nyman, 80 (1878)
= Viola nana (DC. ex Ging.) Godr., Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 19: 166 (1875), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. nana DC., Prodr. [DC.] 1: 304 (1824) ex Ging.
species :
Viola nanlingensis J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 45(3): 233 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola nannae R.E.Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 10 (1925)
Distribution: Kenya (mountains)
25 KEN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 17 Abyssinium
species :
Viola nannei Pol.; Linnaea 41: 547 (1877)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz); Panama; Costa Rica
79 MEX 80 COS PAN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chiapasiensis W.Becker
= Viola nannei var. glaberrima W.Becker
species :
Viola nassauvioides Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 346 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 1 Confertae
species :
Viola nebrodensis C.Presl; J. & C. Presl, Del. Prag. 26 (1822)
Name: Madonie-Veilchen
Distribution: N-Sicily (Le Madonie)
13 SIC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola nephrophylla Greene; Pittonia, 3: 144 (1896)
Name: Northern bog violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Sonora)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arizonica Greene, Pittonia 5: 33 (1902)
= Viola austiniae Greene, Pittonia 5: 30 (1902)
= Viola cognata Greene, Pittonia 3: 145 (1896)
= Viola cucullata f. prionosepala (Greene) Brainerd, Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola galacifolia Greene, Pittonia 5: 30 (1902)
= Viola lunellii Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 95 (1910)
= Viola mccabeiana M.S.Baker, Madrono, 5: 226 (1940)
= Viola nephrophylla var. arizonica (Greene) Kearney & Peebles, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29: 487 (1939)
= Viola nephrophylla var. cognata (Greene) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. [C. L. Hitchcock & al.] 3: 445 (1961)
= Viola peramoena Greene, Pittonia 5: 94 (1902)
= Viola subjuncta Greene, Pittonia 5: 31 (1902)
= Viola vagula Greene, Pittonia 4: 67 (1899)
species :
Viola niederleinii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 184 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola nitida Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 159(2): 350 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola nobilis W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 590 (1906)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola novae-angliae House; Rhodora, 6: 226 (1904)
Name: New England blue violet
Distribution: USA (Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, Wisconsin); Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Ontario)
74 USA 75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola septentrionalis var. grisea Fernald, Rhodora 37: 301, tab. 375 (1935)
= Viola sororia var. grisea (Fernald) L.E.McKinney, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 226 (2010)
= Viola novae-angliae ssp. grisea (Fernald) Gil-ad, Boissiera 53: 68 (1997)
= Viola sororia var. novae-angliae (House) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 44 (1992)
species :
Viola nubigena Leyb.; Flora, 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola nuda W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26(703-708): 26 (1929)
Distribution: China (W-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola nuevoleonensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 125 (1922)
Distribution: Mexico
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola nujiangensis Y.S.Chen & X.H.Jin; Phytotaxa 230(2): 193 (2015)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola nummulariifolia Vill.; Prosp. Pl. Dauph. 26 (1779)
Name: Pfennigblättriges Veilchen
Distribution: Corsica; SE-France; NW-Italy
12 COR FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 3 Pseudorupestres
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola argenteria Moraldo & Forneris, Allionia, 28: 51, 52 (1987-88 publ. 1988), nom. nov.
= Viola nummularia Vuk., Rad Jugos. Akad. Zagreb. 66: 16 (1883)
= Viola nummulariifolia All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 98, t. 9. f. 4. (1785), isonym
species :
Viola nuttallii Pursh; Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 174 (1813)
Name: Nuttall´s violet
Distribution: USA (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Crocion nuttallii (Pursh) Nieuwl. & Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat, 4: 478 (1916)
species :
Viola oahuensis C.N.Forbes; Occas. Papers Bishop Mus. Honolulu, 4: 216 (1909)
Distribution: Hawaii (Oahu)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola obituaria J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 145: 22, 19-21, 35-38, 40, 42, 44-46 (2022)
Distribution: Chile
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola obtusa (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26: 151 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea
38 JAP KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola odorifera Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola fragrans Tanaka ex Makino, (1912)
= Viola ovato-oblonga var. obtusa Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
variant :
var. tsuifengensis Hashim.; Ann. Tsukuba Bot. Gard. 6: 3 (1987)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
species :
Viola occidentalis (A.Gray) Howell; Fl. N. W. Amer. 1: 69 (1897)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lanceolata ssp. occidentalis (A.Gray) N.H.Russell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 485 (1955)
= Viola primulifolia ssp. occidentalis (A.Gray) L.E.McKinney & R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 79 (1992)
= Viola primulifolia var. occidentalis A.Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
species :
Viola occulta Lehm.; Ind. Sem. Horti Bot. Hamb. 1829 (1829)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Israel (N-Israel); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Laghman, Parwan); Crimea; European Russia; Georgia [Caucasus]; Northern Caucasus; Azerbaijan (incl. Nachichevan); Armenia; Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
14 KRY RUS 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG IRN ISR LEB TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Ion occultum (Lehm.) Nevski, Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS, Ser. 1, Fasc. 4, 217 (1937)
= Viola appendiculata Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 770 (1841)
species :
Viola ocellata Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Am. 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Pinto violet, Western heart´s ease violet, Southern two-eye violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola odontocalycina Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 1: 461 (1867)
Distribution: Turkey (N-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola odorata L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. odorata
Name: Wohlriechendes Veilchen, März-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl. [I]; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain [I]; Andorra [I]; Hungary; Italy; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal [I]; Malta; Norway; Poland; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Sweden; Crimea; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus [I]; Ukraine; Kazakhstan [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); European Turkey; Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Azores (Sao Miguel Isl., Sao Jorge, Faial, Flores Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Hawaii [I] (Hawaii Isl. [I]); Chatham Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; India [I]; Pakistan [I]; Nepal [I]; Vietnam [I]; USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I], Colorado [I], Connecticut [I], Georgia [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oklahoma [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], Tennessee [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I]); Canada [I] (British Columbia [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I]); Costa Rica [I]; Panama [I]; Mexico [I]; Ecuador [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); Java [I]; Myanmar [I]; Peru [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Haiti [I]; Dominican Republic [I]; Argentina [I]; Venezuela [I]; Chile [I] (Valparaíso [I], O´Higgins [I], Biobío [I]); Bolivia [I]; Colombia [I]; Fiji [I]; China [I]; Taiwan [I]; Japan [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Honduras [I]
10 DEN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ado cis COR FRA por SAR spa 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 blr est KRY lat lit RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 AZO MDR 32 kaz tzk uzb 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB TUR 36 chi 38 jap tai 40 ind nep pak 41 mya vie 42 jaw 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 60 fij 63 haw 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 cos hon pan 81 his pue trt 82 clm ven 83 bol ecu per 85 arg cle
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bruneauniana Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. I. 946
= Viola consimilis Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 18 (1852)
= Viola favrati Hausskn. ex Favrat, Bull. trav. Soc. Murith. Fasc. xiii-xv. (1887) 61
= Viola floribunda Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 19 (1852)
= Viola foliosa Celak., Arch. Naturw. Landesd. Böhm. 3: 477 (1875)
= Viola gonzali Sennen, Bol. Soc. Iber., 25: 135 (1926)
= Viola hortensis Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 82 (1866)
= Viola hybrida Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola ignobilis Rupr., Mém. Acad. Sci. Pétersb. ser. 7, 15 (2): 148 (1869)
= Viola incompta Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 11 (1849)
= Viola italica Voigt ex Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. III. 1206 (1870)
= Viola jucunda Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 20 (1852)
= Viola leucantha Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 82 (1866)
= Viola martia Garsault, Fig. Pl. Anim. Med, t. 622 (1764), Descr. Pl. Anim. 360 (1767), Thell. in Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 8: 908
= Viola martii K.F.Schimp. & Spenn., Spenn., 1086 (1829), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii ssp. odorata (L.) Kirschl., 6 (1840)
= Viola martii var. odorata (L.) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola odora Neck., Delic. Gallo-Belg. 2: 367
= Viola odorata f. albiflora (Oborny) Neuman, 268 (1901)
= Viola odorata f. albiflora (Pancic) Niketic, Bot. Serbica 38(2): 226 (2014)
= Viola odorata f. albiflora Murr, 202 (1923), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata f. arborea hort. ex Gams, 651 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. longifimbriata Neuman, 268 (1901)
= Viola odorata f. semperflorens hort. ex Gams, 651 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. subcarnea (Jord.) Gams, 650 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. sulphurea (Cariot) Gams, 651 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. variegata (DC.) Gams, 650 (1925)
= Viola odorata var. alba H.Mart., 44 (1817)
= Viola odorata var. albiflora Bogenh., 161 (1850)
= Viola odorata var. albiflora Hampe, 19 (1836), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata var. barraui O.Bolòs & Vigo, But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 38 Bot., 1: 80 (1974), nom. nov.
= Viola odorata var. hispidula Freyn, 284 (1878)
= Viola odorata var. incompta (Jord.) Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 15 (1999)
= Viola odorata var. magna H.Mart., 44 (1817)
= Viola odorata var. pallens Klett & Richt., 230 (1830)
= Viola odorata var. pallida Bogenh., 161 (1850)
= Viola odorata var. pallida Erdner, 569 (1911), nom. illeg.
= Viola odorata var. parmensis hort. ex Thorsrud & Reisæter, 121 (1948), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata var. purpurascens Bogenh., 161 (1850)
= Viola odorata var. semperflorens hort. ex Thorsrud & Reisæter, 121 (1948), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata var. subcarnea (Jord.) Parl., 130 (1890)
= Viola odorata var. sulphurea (Cariot) Rouy & Foucaud, 26 (1896)
= Viola odorata var. variegata DC., 296 (1824)
= Viola officinalis Crantz, Inst. 2: 431 (1766)
= Viola parmensis Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. I. 946 (1863)
= Viola perennis Miégev., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 12: 340 (1865)
= Viola perplexa Gremli, Excurs. Schweiz, ed. II. 106 (1874)
= Viola pirottae Chiov., Bull. Soc. Bot. It. 287 (1893)
= Viola propinqua Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 18 (1852)
= Viola pseudosuavis Schur, Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn, 15: II. 103 (1877)
= Viola reptans C.Presl ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 705 (1832)
= Viola sarmentosa M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucasus 1: 172 (1808)
= Viola semperflorens Steud., Nom. ed. I. 887 (1821)
= Viola spectabilis C.Richt., Österr. Bot. Zellschr. 35: 419 (1885)
= Viola steveni Besser ex Fauc., Excurs. Bot. Valais, 96
= Viola suaveolens Schur, Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn, 15: II. 107 (1877)
= Viola suavissima Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 21 (1852)
= Viola subcarnea Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 17 (1852)
= Viola sulfurea Cariot, Etud. des Fleurs, ed. VII. 2: 81
= Viola taynensis Elisafenko, Rastitelâcnyj mir Aziatskoj Rossi 1(no. 17): 24, figs. 1-5 (2015)
= Viola thessala Heldr. ex Nyman, Consp. 78
= Viola umbrosa Ces. ex Chiov., Bull. Soc. Bot. It. (1893) 287. in syn.
= Viola vinealis Bor., Fl. Centr. Fr. ed. III. 2: 75 (1857)
= Viola wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 457 (1867)
subspecies :
subsp. maderensis (Lowe) Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar., 22: 28 (1974)
Name: Madeira-Duftveilchen (DE)
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY MDR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola maderensis Lowe, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 4: 36 (1831)
= Viola odorata var. maderensis (Lowe) Webb
= Viola plantaginea Webb ex Christ, Bot. Jahrb. 9: 96 (1888)
subspecies :
subsp. stolonifera (J.J.Rodr.) Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot., 8: 83 (1991)
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola stolonifera J.J.Rodr., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 25: 238 (1878)
species :
Viola oligyrtia A.Tiniakou
Distribution: Greece (Peloponnisos: Mt. Oligyrtos)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola orbelica Pancic; Magyar Bot. Lapok 32: 9 (1933)
Distribution: SW-Bulgaria; NE-Greece; S-Serbia; E-Macedonia
13 BUL GRC NMA SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola saxatilis f. orbelica (Pancic) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 517 (1925)
= Viola alpestris f. orbelica (Pancic) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 26(3): 345 (1910)
species :
Viola orbiculata Geyer ex A.Gray; Mem. Am. Acad. N. S. 4: 11 (1849)
Name: Darkwoods violet
Distribution: USA (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sempervirens var. orbiculata (A.Gray) J.K.Henry, Fl. S. Brit. Columbia 208 (1915)
= Viola sempervirens ssp. orbiculata (A.Gray) M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 55 (1935)
species :
Viola oreades M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucasus 3: 167 (1819)
Distribution: Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia); Crimea; Georgia [Caucasus]
14 KRY 33 GEO 34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola altaica ssp. oreades (M.Bieb.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centrbl. 40, 2: 91 (1924)
= Viola altaica var. longicalcarata Kupffer, Mat. Fl. Kavk. 3, 9: 241 (1909)
species :
Viola orientalis (Maxim.) W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8. 95 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 265 (1916)
subspecies :
subsp. orientalis
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, E-Jilin, Liaoning, E-Shandong); Russian Far East (Ussuri); Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola uniflora f. glabricapsula Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 172 (1912)
= Viola uniflora var. capsulaglabra Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 9: 752 (1876)
= Viola uniflora var. glabricapsula Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 172 (1912)
= Viola uniflora var. orientalis Maxim., Enum. Pl. Mongolia 1: 81 (1889)
subspecies :
subsp. xanthopetala (Nakai) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 37 (2020)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Amur); South Korea; Japan
31 RFE 38 JAP KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola xanthopetala Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 29 (1922)
= Viola conferta (W.Becker) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 31 (1922)
= Viola orientalis var. conferta W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 50 (1918)
species :
Viola orphanidis Boiss.; Fl. Or. 1: 464 (1867)
subspecies :
subsp. orphanidis
Distribution: Albania; SW-Bulgaria; Greece; Macedonia; Serbia & Kosovo
13 ALB BUL GRC NMA SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola orphanidis f. glabrescens Diklic & Nikolic, Glasn. Prir. Mus. Beogradu, B, 29: 18 (1974)
= Viola orphanidis var. pirinica Delip., Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 495 (1979)
subspecies :
subsp. crinita Delip.; Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 494 (1979)
Distribution: Bulgaria; Macedonia
13 BUL NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola orphanidis ssp. nicolai (Pant.) Valentine, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 74: 30 (1967)
= Viola nicolai Pant., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 23: 4 (1873)
species :
Viola orthoceras Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 258 (1842)
Distribution: Georgia [Caucasus]
33 GEO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cornuta ssp. orthoceras (Ledeb.) Kupffer, Mat. Fl. Kavk. 3, 9: 223 (1909)
species :
Viola ovalleana Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 494 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola ovatooblonga (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 21: 59 (1907)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea
38 JAP KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grypoceras var. ovato-oblonga (Makino) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 40: 41 (1923)
= Viola grypoceras var. pubescens Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 55 (1922)
= Viola micrantha ssp. shikokuensis W.Becker, (1916)
= Viola obtusa Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola ovato-oblonga f. pubescens F.Maek., Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 211 (1954)
= Viola ovato-oblonga f. variegata E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 339 (1976)
= Viola sylvestris f. ovato-oblonga Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris var. montana Yatabe, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6: 131 (1892)
= Viola sylvestris var. ovato-oblonga (Miq.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 137 (1902)
species :
Viola oxyodontis H.E.Ballard; Phytologia, 74(5): 359 (1993)
Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Sinaloa)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola pachyrrhiza Boiss. & Hohen.; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, 6: 21 (1846)
Distribution: Iran (W-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq)
34 IRN IRQ
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 16 Spathulidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bolivari Pau
species :
Viola pachysoma M.Sheader & J.M.Watson; Phytotaxa 382(1): 114 (2018), nom. nov.
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola caviahuensis M.Sheader & A.Sheader, Alpine Gardener 82(3): 245 (2014), nom. nov. for V. copahuensis
= Viola copahuensis M.Sheader & A.Sheader, Alpine Gardener 82(2): 210 (2014)
species :
Viola pacifica Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 411 (1949)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. brevicalcarata W.Becker
= Viola keiskei ssp. transmaritima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 251 (1916)
species :
Viola painteri Rose & House; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 29: 443 (1905)
Distribution: Mexico (Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola pallascaensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 181 (1922)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. Xanthidium
species :
Viola palmata L.; Sp. Pl. 933 (1753)
Name: Early blue violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Ontario); Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon); Japan [I]; Germany [I]
11 ger 38 jap 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cucullata var. palmata (L.) A.Gray, Manual (Gray), ed. 2. 43 (1856)
= Viola falcata Greene, Pittonia, 4: 3 (1899)
= Viola palmata var. dilatata Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina (Elliott) 1: 300 (1817)
= Viola triloba f. dilatata (Elliott) E.J.Palmer & Steyerm., Brittonia 10: 115 (1958)
= Viola triloba var. dilatata (Elliott) Brainerd, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 587 (1911)
= Viola viarum f. pilifera E.J.Palmer & Steyerm., Brittonia 10: 116 (1958)
variant :
var. triloba (Schwein.) Ging. ex DC.; Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 291 (-292) (1824)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola triloba Schwein., Am. J. Sci. Ser. I. 5: 57 (1822)
= Viola congener Leconte, Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 140 (1828)
species :
Viola palmensis (Webb & Berthel.) Sauer
Name: La Palma-Stiefmütterchen (DE); Pensamiento de la cumbre (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion palmense Webb & Berthel., Phyt. Canar. 1: 112 (1837)
species :
Viola palustris L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Marsh violet (EN), Sumpf-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Faeroe Isl.; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra; Portugal; Iceland; Italy; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Slovenia; Croatia; Greece; Norway; Poland; Romania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Sweden; Morocco; Azores (Sao Jorge, Pico, Flores Isl.); NE-USA; E-Canada
10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO COR FRA POR SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA ROM SLV 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 MOR 21 AZO 72 CDN 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cucullata Bigelow ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola inodora Gilib., Fl. Lituan. 2: 123 (1782)
= Viola juressii Link, Schrad. Neues J. Bot. 1: 111. 140 (1806), in obs., nomen, Neves ex Cout. in Bol. Soc. Brot., 10: 28, in obs., descr., ex Wein in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 1906, 12: 139 (1892)
= Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens (Banks ex Ging.) M.S.Baker, Madroño 12(2): 60 (1953)
= Viola macloskeyi var. pallens (Banks ex Ging.) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 445 (1961)
= Viola pallens (Banks ex Ging.) Brainerd, Rhodora, 247 (1905)
= Viola palustris ssp. juressii (Link ex Wein) Cout., Not. Fl. Port. 5: 12 (1921)
= Viola palustris ssp. pubifolia Kuta, Fragm. Flor. Geobot., 35(1-2): 21 (1991)
= Viola pubifolia (Kuta) G.H.Loos, Jahrb. Bochum. Bot. Vereins (2010)
= Viola pubinervis Rehm & Wolosz., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 43: 196 (1893)
= Viola rotundifolia var. pallens Banks ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 295 (1824)
= Viola scanica Fr., Summa Veg. Scand. 35, 153 (1846-1849)
species :
Viola papuana W.Becker & Pulle; Lorentz, Nova Guinea, 8: 670 (1912)
Distribution: New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola klossii Ridl., Trans. Linn Soc., Bot. 9: 18 (1916)
species :
Viola paradoxa Lowe; Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 6: reimp. 28 (1838)
Name: Madeira-Veilchen
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl.)
21 MDR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola parnonia Kit Tan, Sfikas & Vold; Ann. Bot. Fenn., 34(3): 149 (1997)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola parvula Tineo; Pl. Rar. Sic. Pug. 5 (1817)
Distribution: Corsica; Greece; Spain; Portugal; Italy; Macedonia; Sicily; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan (Nachichevan); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (Jbel Druze); Morocco
12 COR POR SPA 13 GRC ITA NMA SIC 20 MOR 33 ARM AZE GEO 34 CYP LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aetnensis Tornab., Fl. Sicula (1887) 138, et Fl. Aetnea, 1: 132 (1889)
= Viola micrantha C.Presl, Delic. Prag. 27
= Viola modesta Ball, J. Bot. (London) 11: 300 (1873) [nom. illeg.] non Fenzl
= Viola parvula ssp. peloponnesiaca Rothm.
= Viola parvula var. tenella (Webb) Pau, Font Quer, Iter Marocc. 1929 no. 308, in sched. (1930)
= Viola prunellifolia Fisch. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola sosnowskyi Kapeller, Not. Syst. Geogr. Inst. Bot. Tphilis., Fasc. 10, 45 (1941)
= Viola tenella Poir., Encyc. 8: 644 (1808)
= Viola tezensis Ball, J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 350 (1877)
= Viola tricolor ssp. parvula (Tineo) Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France [Rouy & Foucaud] 3: 49 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. parvula (Tineo) Batt., Fl. Algerie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 104 (1888)
species :
Viola patrinii Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 293 (1824)
Name: China violet
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, ?Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, ?Shaanxi); Siberia (C-Siberia); South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Mongolia; Myanmar (Kachin, Shan); Vietnam; Jamaica [I]; Costa Rica [I]; New Caledonia [I]
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO 41 MYA VIE 60 nwc 80 cos 81 jam
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola averyi Kellogg, Pacif. Rural Press (1879), ex Curran, in Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: III. 131 (1885)
= Viola grandifolia Wall., Numer. List no. 1447 (1831)
= Viola mandshurica var. patrinii (DC.) Y.N.Lee, Fl. Korea: 1159 (1996)
= Viola mysurensis B.Heyne ex Wall., Numer. List no. 1446 (1831)
= Viola nepaulensis DC. ex D.Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 205
= Viola patrinii f. glabra (Nakai) F.Maek.in Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 3: 212 (1954)
= Viola patrinii f. hispida W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 245-246 (1916)
= Viola patrinii f. prunellifolia (Nakai) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 212 (1954)
= Viola patrinii f. toyokoroensis Koji Ito, J. Jap. Bot., 71(5): 301 (1996)
= Viola patrinii var. angustifolia Regel
= Viola patrinii var. brevicalcarata Skvortsov
= Viola patrinii var. glabra (Nakai) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 212 (1954)
= Viola patrinii var. subsagitata Maxim., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 48 (1859)
= Viola phalacrocarpa f. glaberrima (W.Becker) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 213 (1954)
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 246 (1916)
= Viola primulifolia var. glabra Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 190 (1925)
= Viola primulifolia var. prunellifolia Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 189 (1925)
= Viola roxburghiana Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 76 (1845)
= Viola walkerii Wight, Illustr. Ind. Bot. 1: 42
species :
Viola pectinata E.P.Bicknell; Torreya, 4: 129 (1904)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Not a synonym of V. brittoniana fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brittoniana f. pectinata (E.P.Bicknell) Gil-ad, Boissiera, 53: 54 (1997)
= Viola brittoniana var. pectinata (E.P.Bicknell) Alexander, Ill. Fl. N. U. S. (Britton & Brown), ed. 3. 2: 558 (1952)
species :
Viola pedata L.; Sp. Pl. 933 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. pedata
Name: Birdfoot violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Ontario)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 3 Pedatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Oionychion pedatum (L.) Nieuwl. & Kaczm., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 210 (1914)
= Oionychion pedatum var. ampliatum Nieuwl. & Kaczm., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 211 (1914)
= Oionychion pedatum var. inornatum (Greene) Nieuwl. & Kaczm., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 210 (1914)
= Viola multifida Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 5 (1768)
= Viola pedata var. inornata Greene, Pittonia 3: 35 (1896)
= Viola pedata f. lineariloba (DC.) F.Seym., Phytologia Mem., 5: 602 (1982)
= Viola pedata var. concolor Holm ex Brainerd
= Viola pedata var. lineariloba DC., Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 291 (1824)
= Viola pinnata Richardson, Frankl. 1st J. App. 734
variant :
var. ranunculifolia (Juss. ex Poir.) Ging. ex DC.; Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 291 (1824)
Distribution: USA (North Carolina, South Carolina)
78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pedata f. ranunculifolia (Juss. ex Poir.) Fernald, Rhodora 51: 56 (1949)
= Viola ranunculifolia Juss. ex Poir., Encycl. [J. Lamarck & al.] 8: 626 (1808)
subspecies :
subsp. cuneatiloba (Brainerd ex Fernald) H.E.Ballard; ined.
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pedata f. cuneatiloba Brainerd ex Fernald, Rhodora 51: 56, tab. 1136, fig. 3 (1949)
subspecies :
subsp. flabellata (D.Don) H.E.Ballard; ined. -
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ampliata Greene
= Viola digitata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 171 (1813)
= Viola pedata var. atropurpurea Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 291 (1824)
= Viola redunca House, Torreya 6: 171 (1906)
= Viola pedata var. flabellata D.Don & Link, Brit. Fl. Gard. (Sweet) (ser. 2) 3: tab. 247 (1834)
species :
Viola pedatifida G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 320 (1831)
Name: Prairie violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola delphinifolia Nutt., Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 136 (1838)
= Viola palmata var. pedatifida (G.Don) Cronquist, H. A. Gleason & A. Cronquist, Man. Vasc. Pl. Northeast. U. S. & Adjacent Canada, ed. 2: 864 (1991)
species :
Viola pedunculata Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Am. 1: 141 (1857)
subspecies :
subsp. pedunculata
Name: California golden violet, Johnny-jump-up
Distribution: USA (California); Mexico (Baja California Norte)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
subspecies :
subsp. tenuifolia Baker & Clausen; Madroño 10: 127, tab. 5, 8 (1949)
Distribution: USA (California)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pedunculata var. tenuifolia (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
species :
Viola pekinensis (Regel) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 251 (1916)
Distribution: China; etc.
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kamtschatica var. pekinensis Regel, Pl. Radd. 230 (1861)
= Viola dolichoceras Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 258-260, f. 1, 1-8 (1991)
= Viola liaosiensis P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or., 6: 292 (1977)
= Viola mongolica f. longisepala P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or., 6: 292 (1977)
species :
Viola pendulicarpa W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 55-56 (1918)
Distribution: China; etc.
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kansuensis var. oblonga W.Becker
= Viola kansuensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2, 36(2): 56 (1918)
= Viola polymorpha Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 247, 261 (1949)
= Viola pseudoarcuata Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 245 (1949)
= Viola weixiensis Ching J.Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 17-19, f. 10 (1988)
species :
Viola pentadactyla Fenzl; Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr. 12 no. 41 (1842)
subspecies :
subsp. pentadactyla
Distribution: Turkey (S-Anatolia); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (NW-Syria, Jbel Druze)
34 ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
subspecies :
subsp. hierosolymitana Zohary; Fl. Palaestina, 2: 459 (1972)
Distribution: Israel
34 ISR
species :
Viola perinensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 74 (1921)
Distribution: S-Bulgaria; N-Greece
13 BUL GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola perpusilla H.Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 55: 468 (1908)
Distribution: China
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola perreniformis (L.G.Adams) R.J.Little & Leiper; Austrobaileya 9(1): 82 (2013)
Distribution: Australia (E-Queensland, E-New South Wales)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. perreniformis L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola petelotii W.Becker ex Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 1: 181 (1939)
Distribution: N-Vietnam
41 VIE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola petraea W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 354 (1925)
Distribution: Argentina (Rio Negro)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola petraea f. albida W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 136 (1928)
species :
Viola phalacrocarpa Maxim.; Melanges Bot. 9: 726 (1876)
Distribution: China (E-Gansu, Hebei, SE-Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, E-Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan); Russian Far East; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola conilii Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 285 (1879)
= Viola hirta var. glabella Regel, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Petersbourg (Ser. 7) t. 4, 77 (1861)
= Viola ishidoyana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 129 (1913)
= Viola nipponica Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 21: 56 (1907)
= Viola oudemansii W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 422 (1916)
= Viola phalacrocarpa f. plena Okuhara ex T.Shimizu, Fl. Nagano Pref. 1506 (1997)
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. ishidoyana (Nakai) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola phalacrocarpoides Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 23: 136 (1909)
= Viola prionantha var. latifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 153 (1865)
= Viola pseudoprionantha W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 423 (1917)
= Viola reinii W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(11): 422 (1917)
species :
Viola philippiana Greene; Pittonia, 2: 14 (1889), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chrysantha Phil., Linnaea 33: 1864 (1865) 15
= Viola toroensis Martic., Gayana, Bot. 57(2): 192 (2000 publ. 2001), nom. nov.
species :
Viola philippica Cav.; Icon. Descr. Pl. Hisp. 6: 19 (1801)
subspecies :
subsp. philippica
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Hainan, Henan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, ?Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam; Russian Far East; South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; India (Uttarakhand, Manipur); Myanmar
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO NNS TAI 40 IND 41 CBD LAO MYA VIE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alisoviana f. candida (Kitag.) Taken., ? 1: 80 (1955)
= Viola alisoviana f. intermedia (Kitag.) Taken., ? 1: 80 (1955)
= Viola alisoviana Kiss, Bot. Közlem. 19: 93 (1921)
= Viola chinensis f. alboviolacea Skvortsov
= Viola chinensis f. anomala Skvortsov
= Viola chinensis f. communis Skvortsov
= Viola chinensis f. dissecta Skvortsov
= Viola chinensis f. glabra Skvortsov
= Viola patrinii var. chinensis Ging., not Hayata 1916
= Viola patrinii var. gmeliniana Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 152 (1965)
= Viola philippica f. candida (Kitag.) Kitag., Lin. Fl. Manshur. 322 (1939)
= Viola philippica ssp. munda W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 175-176 (1917)
= Viola selkirkii H.Boissieu & Capit., non Pursh
= Viola tosaensis Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 191 (1925)
= Viola yedoensis f. candida Kitag., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 102 (1934)
= Viola yedoensis f. micrantha (K.Nakaj.) K.Nakaj., J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola yedoensis f. pallescens (K.Nakaj.) K.Nakaj., J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola yedoensis f. pubescens (K.Nakaj.) K.Nakaj., J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola yedoensis f. sonoharae E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 340 (1976)
= Viola yedoensis f. viridescens (K.Nakaj.) K.Nakaj., J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola yedoensis Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 148-151 (1912)
= Viola yedoensis var. pseudojaponica (Nakai) T.Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 51: 340 (1976)
subspecies :
subsp. malesica W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 178 (1917)
Distribution: peninsular Malaysia; Philippines; Sumatra; Java; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Flores); Sulawesi; Taiwan
38 TAI 42 JAW LSI MLY PHI SUL SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola confusa Champ. ex Benth., Hooker´s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: 260-261 (1851)
= Viola edanoii W.Becker, Philipp. J. Sci., 19: 722 (1921 publ. 1922)
= Viola longistipulata Hayata
= Viola nantouensis S.S.Ying, Mem. Coll. Agric. Nation. Taiwan Univ., 28(2): 45 (1988)
= Viola philippica var. pseudojaponica (Nakai) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China (2007)
= Viola prionantha ssp. confusa (Champ. ex Benth.) Y.S.Chen, Fl. China
= Viola pseudojaponica Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 561 (1928)
= Viola stenocentra Hayata ex Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 38 (1922)
= Viola taiwaniana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 38 (1922)
species :
Viola philippii Leyb.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 681 (1859)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza); Chile (Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola microphylla Phil., Linnaea 28: 611 (1856)
= Viola philippii var. arbuscula (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 909 (1895)
= Viola arbuscula Phil., Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 491 (1893)
species :
Viola phitosiana Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 396 (1985)
Distribution: Greece (fairly widespread); Crete
13 GRC KRI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola pilosa Blume; Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) 57 (1823), et Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 57 (1825)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Nangarhar, Paktia / Khost, Parwan); Pakistan (Waziristan, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Pakistani Punjab, Murree, Hazara); Myanmar (Kachin, Mon); Thailand; W-China; Malaysia; Java; Nepal; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Timor); Sulawesi; Moluccas (Buru, Seram); SE-Tibet; China (Guizhou, Sichuan); Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, J arnmu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal); Sumatra; Java; Sri Lanka; Vietnam
34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP PAK SRL 41 MYA THA VIE 42 JAW LSI MOL SUL SUM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aspera Ging. ex DC., Prodr. 1: 295 (1824)
= Viola buchaniana DC. ex D.Don, l. c. 206 (1825), pro syn.
= Viola burgersdijkii Oudem., Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 77 (1867)
= Viola canescens H.Boissieu & Capit., non Wall.
= Viola celebica W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 321 (1916)
= Viola confusa H.Boissieu & Capit., non Champ.
= Viola crenata Moon, (1824) (nom. nud.)
= Viola dubia Wall., Numer. List no. 1450 (1829)
= Viola glandulifera Wall., Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 452 (1824) (?)
= Viola griffithiana Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 1: 54 (1854)
= Viola palmaris Buch.-Ham. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 298 (1824)
= Viola pogonantha W.W.Sm., Notes Bot. Gard. Edin 12: 228 (1920)
= Viola repens Buch.-Ham. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 296 (1824)
= Viola royleana Wall., Numer. List no. 1448 (1829)
= Viola sarmentosa Burgersd., Miq. Pl. Jungh. 120 non M. Bieb.
= Viola serpens ssp. gurhwalensis W.Becker
= Viola serpens var. glabra Hook.fil. & Thomson, Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 184 (1872)
= Viola serpens var. pseudoscotophylla H.Boissieu
= Viola serpens Wall., Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., 2: 449 (1824)
= Viola serpens Wall. ex Ging., DC.
= Viola wightiana Wall., Numer. List no. 4021 (1829)
species :
Viola pinetorum Greene; Pittonia, 2: 14 (1889)
subspecies :
subsp. pinetorum
Name: Mountain yellow violet
Distribution: USA (California)
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. pinetorum Greene, Fl. Francisc. 243 (1891)
subspecies :
subsp. grisea (Jeps.) R.J.Little; Phytologia, 72(2): 77 (1992)
Name: Grey-leaved violet
Distribution: USA (California)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pinetorum var. grisea (Jeps.) R.J.Little, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 5(2): 633 (2011)
= Viola purpurea var. grisea Jeps., Fl. Calif. (Jeps.) 2: 521 (1936)
species :
Viola pinnata L.; Sp. Fl. 934 (1753)
Distribution: Austria; France; Switzerland; Italy; Slovenia
11 AUT SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA SLV
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola placida W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36: II. 58 (1918)
Distribution: N-India (Sikkim)
40 IND
Remarks: unresolved: protologue incomplete, type not in B (destroyed?)
species :
Viola pluviae Marcussen, H.E.Ballard & Blaxland; Nordic J. Bot. 36(9)-e01931: 3 (2018)
Distribution: USA (Washington State)
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola poetica Boiss. & Spruner; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 1(6): 21 (1845)
Distribution: SC-Greece (Fokis, Fthiotis)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 2 Dispares
species :
Viola polycephala H.E.Ballard & P.Jørg.; Novon, 7(1): 13 (1997), nom. nov.
Distribution: Ecuador
83 ECU
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola parvifolia Benth., Pl. Hartw. 161 (1843) (nom. illeg.)
species :
Viola polypoda Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 36: I. 555 (1863)
Distribution: Chile (Tarapacá, Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calderensis W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 588 (1906)
= Viola psammophila Phil.
= Viola pseudasterias Reiche
= Viola pseudasterias var. psammophila (Phil.) Reiche
= Viola werdermannii f. glandulifera W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 223. (1926)
= Viola werdermannii var. glaberrima W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 223 (1926)
= Viola werdermannii W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 222 (1926)
species :
Viola portalesia Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 209, t. 6 (1846)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaíso, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 3 Rubellium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola berteroniana Steud., Flora, 39: 422 (1856)
= Viola rubella Hook. & Arn., Hook. Bot. Misc. 3: 144 (1833)
variant :
var. integerrima (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 897 (1895)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaíso, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola integerrima Phil., Linnaea 28: 672 (1856)
species :
Viola portulacea Leyb.; Flora, 48: 381 (1865)
Distribution: +Chile (+Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola praemorsa Douglas; Bot. Reg, t. 1254 ex Lindl. (1829)
subspecies :
subsp. praemorsa
Name: Canary violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon, Washington State); Canada (British Columbia)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nuttallii ssp. praemorsa (Douglas) Piper, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 11: 393 (1906)
= Viola nuttallii var. praemorsa (Douglas) S.Watson, Botany (Fortieth Parallel) 35 (1871)
subspecies :
subsp. flavovirens (Pollard) Fabijan; Canad. J. Bot., 65(12): 2579 (1987)
Distribution: USA (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flavovirens Pollard, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 405 (1897)
= Viola praemorsa var. flavovirens (Pollard) R.J.Little, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
subspecies :
subsp. linguifolia (Nutt.) M.S.Baker; Madroño 10(4): 128 (1949)
Distribution: USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola erectifolia A.Nelson, Bot. Gaz. 29: 143 (1900)
= Viola gomphopetala Greene
= Viola linguifolia Nutt., Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 141 (1838)
= Viola nuttallii var. linguifolia (Nutt.) Jeps., Man. Fl. Pl. Calif. (Jeps.) 645 (1925)
= Viola nuttallii var. linguifolia (Nutt.) Piper, Fl. S. E. Washington (Piper & Beattie) 166 (1914)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. arida M.S.Baker, Brittonia 9: 227, fig. 11 (1957)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. oregona M.S.Baker, Brittonia 9: 228, fig. 12 (1957)
= Viola praemorsa var. altior Blank., Sci. Stud. Montana Coll. Agric., Bot. 1: 83 (1905)
= Viola praemorsa var. linguifolia (Nutt.) M.Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
species :
Viola pratincola Greene; Pittonia, 4: 64 (1899)
Distribution: NE-USA
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Not a synonym of V. nephrophylla fide Marcussen et al. 2022
species :
Viola pricei W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 252 (1928)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nagasawae C.F.Hsieh, Fl. Taiwan 3: 776 (1977) (non Makino & Hayata 1906)
= Viola nagasawae var. pricei (W.Becker) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 35: 47-49, f. 14 (1990)
= Viola diffusa var. pricei (W.Becker) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 32 (1992)
species :
Viola primulifolia L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Primelblättriges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuta Bigelow, Fl. Boston., ed. 2 95 (1824)
= Viola ovata Raf. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola primulifolia ssp. villosa (Eaton) N.H.Russell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 487 (1955)
= Viola primulifolia var. acuta (Bigelow) Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 139 (1838)
= Viola primulifolia var. villosa Eaton, Man. Bot. (A. Eaton), ed. 5. 443 (1829)
species :
Viola principis H.Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 57: 258 (1910)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); SE-Tibet; Russian Far East (Primorye)
31 RFE 36 CHI TIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola woroschilovii Bezd., Fl. Ross. Dal´nego Vostoka 451 (106) (2006)
species :
Viola prionantha Bunge; Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, Ser. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 82 (1833)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan); Kyrgyzstan; Russian Far East; USA [I] (Kansas [I], Nebraska [I])
31 RFE 32 KGZ 36 CHI 74 usa
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola irinae Zolot., Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 21: 230 (1984)
= Viola jeniseensis Zuev, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol., 98(4): 104 (1993)
= Viola prionantha var. sylvatica Kitag., Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 2: 296 (1938)
= Viola prionantha var. trichantha C.J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 262 (1991)
= Viola taishanensis Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 262-263 (1991)
species :
Viola producta W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 591 (1906)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca)
83 BOL
Remarks: unresolved. Type Fiebrig 2529 in B, probably destroyed
species :
Viola pseudaetolica Tomovic, Melovski & Niketic; Phytotaxa 253(4): 242 (2016), nom. nov.
Distribution: Serbia; Macedonia; Albania; Montenegro; Bosnia & Hercegovina
13 ALB BIH MNT NMA SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola saxatilis var. pseudolutea Hayek, Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 99: 134 (1924)
species :
Viola pseudogracilis Strobl; Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 227 (1877)
subspecies :
subsp. pseudogracilis
Distribution: SC-Italy (Napoli, Salerno)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cassinensis ssp. pseudogracilis (A.Terracc.) Bartolucci, Galasso & Wagens., Phytotaxa 340(3): 287 (2018)
subspecies :
subsp. cassinensis (Strobl) Merxm. & A.Schmidt; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 74: 30 (1967)
Distribution: SC-Italy (Monte Cassino)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cassinensis Strobl, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 228 (1877)
= Viola frusinatae Ricceri & Moraldo, Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 201, fig. 11 (2018)
= Viola cassinensis ssp. lucana Silletti, Phyton (Horn) 58(2): 112 (2018)
species :
Viola pseudograeca Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 489 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola pubescens Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 3: 290 (1789)
Name: Downy yellow violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Canada (?Manitoba, Ontario, Québec)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Crocion eriocarpum (Nutt.) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 214 (1914)
= Crocion pubescens (Aiton) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 215 (1914)
= Viola pensylvanica Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 149 (1803)
= Viola pubescens var. eriocarpa Nutt.
= Viola pubescens var. peckii House, Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 243-244: 50 (1923)
species :
Viola pubipetala S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 4: 40 (2021)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola pulvinata Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 434 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola pumila Chaix; Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauph. 1: 339 (1786)
Name: Zwerg-Veilchen, Niedriges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; France; Germany (+Brandenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Hungary; Italy; Croatia; Serbia & Kosovo; ?Slovenia; Poland; Romania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Ukraine; Estonia; Crimea; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan; Georgia [Caucasus]; Uzbekistan
10 SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 BUL CRO ITA ROM SRB 14 EST KRY RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ UZB 33 GEO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina ssp. pratensis (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Döll, 650 (1843)
= Viola canina ssp. pumila (Chaix) Döll, 649 (1896), nom. illeg.
= Viola accrescens Klokov, Klokov & Wissjul., Fl. RSS Ucr. 7: 632 (1955)
= Viola canina var. pratensis (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Kirschl., 14 (1840)
= Viola lactea Koch & Ziz, Cat. Pl. Palat. 6, Fr., Nov. Suec. 86
= Viola lactea var. lanceolata Klett & Richt., 236 (1830)
= Viola lancea Poir., Encyc. 8: 635 (1808)
= Viola montana Ledeb., Fl. All. 1: 261
= Viola montana var. pratensis (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Wimm. & Grab., 222 (1827)
= Viola pratensis Mert. & W.D.J.Koch, Deutschl. Fl. 2: 267 (1826)
= Viola pratensis var. humilis Mert. & W.D.J.Koch, 268 (1826)
species :
Viola purpurea Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: ed. II. (1873) 55
subspecies :
subsp. purpurea
Name: Mountain violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nuttallii Benth., Pl. Hartw. 298 (1843)
subspecies :
subsp. atriplicifolia (Greene) M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Madroño 10: 126 (1949)
Distribution: USA (California, etc.)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atriplicifolia Greene, Pittonia 3: 38 (1898)
= Viola purpurea var. atriplicifolia (Greene) M.Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
= Viola purpurea var. atriplicifolia (Greene) R.J.Davis, Fl. Idaho 477 (1952)
subspecies :
subsp. dimorpha M.S.Baker & Clausen; Madroño 10: 122 (tt. 4, 8) (1949)
Name: Dimorphic mountain violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
subspecies :
subsp. geophyta M.S.Baker & Clausen ex M.Peck; Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
Distribution: USA (Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. geophyta (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
subspecies :
subsp. integrifolia M.S.Baker & Clausen; Madroño 10: 118 (t. 4) (1949)
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada, Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. integrifolia (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
subspecies :
subsp. mesophyta M.S.Baker & Clausen; Madroño 10(4): 114 (1949), et ex M. Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
Distribution: USA (California, ?Oregon)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. mesophyta (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
subspecies :
subsp. venosa (S.Watson) M.S.Baker & Clausen; Madroño 10: 125 (1949)
Distribution: USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (British Columbia)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aurea var. venosa (S.Watson) S.Watson
= Viola nuttallii var. venosa S.Watson
= Viola purpurea var. venosa (S.Watson) Brainerd, Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 224: 111, Sp. no. 48c (1921)
= Viola venosa (S.Watson) Rydb., Mem. N. York Bot. Gard. 1: 262 (1900)
subspecies :
subsp. xerophyta M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Madroño 10: 116, tab. 4, 7 (1949)
Distribution: W-USA
76 USA
species :
Viola pusilla Poepp.; Froriep, Notiz. Gebiet Natur-u. Heilk. Ser. I. 23: 277 (1829)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola asterias Hook. & Arn., Bot. Misc. 34: 145, t. 99 (1833)
= Viola asterias var. atacamensis Phil.
= Viola asterias var. caulescens Phil.
= Viola asterias var. depauperata Phil.
= Viola asterias var. glabra Phil. ex Reiche
= Viola miersii Bertero ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot. [Steud.] ed. 2, 2: 772 (1841), nom. inval.
= Viola stellata Miers, Trav. 2: 531
species :
Viola pusillima Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 291 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola pygmaea Juss. ex Poir.; Encyc. 8: 630 (1808)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, Salta); Peru; Ecuador; Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL ECU PER 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpina Ruiz & Pav. ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 300 (1824)
= Viola orbignyana Remy, Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser. 3).6: 353 (1846)
species :
Viola pyrenaica Ramond ex DC.; Lam. & DC., Fl. Fr. ed. 3, 4: 803 (1805)
Name: Pyrenäen-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Macedonia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia & Kosovo; Austria; Bulgaria; France; Germany (Bayern); Greece; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Spain; Andorra; C-Italy; Slovenia; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; ?Iran (?N-Iran); ?Romania
11 AUT GER LIE SWI 12 ADO FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL GRC ITA NMA SLV SRB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glabrescens Focke, Gremli, Beitr. Fl. Schweiz 61 (1870)
= Viola hirta ssp. sciaphila (W.D.J.Koch) Bonnier, Bonnier & R. C. V. Douin, 13 (1913)
= Viola martii var. sciaphila (W.D.J.Koch) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola pyrenaica ssp. montserratii Fern.Casado & Nava, Candollea, 41(1): 102 (1986)
= Viola sciaphila W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. ed. 2: 90 (1843)
= Viola prenja Beck, Ann. Naturh. Mus. (Wien) 2: 81 (1887)
species :
Viola quercetorum M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 101 (1948)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. quercetorum (M.Baker & J.C.Clausen) R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 77 (1992)
species :
Viola raddeana Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 463, 501 (1861)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, ?Nei Mongol); South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Honshu, Kyushu); Russian Far East (Amur)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: