Search

Reset

Filter

Reset

Order

Family (40)

Genus (31)

Prev genus | Next genus

Display options

V. 14.1
August 21st, 2022

228.0000 Family Violaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 57 (1802), nom. cons.
32 genera, ca. 1050 spp. Systematics following Wahlert et al. 2015
Species listed in database: 1078; hybrids: 240
= Alsodeiaceae J.Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 197 (1858)
= Leoniaceae A.DC., A. & C. DC., Prodr. 8: 668. med (1844)
228.2006 Genus Viola L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 933 (1753)
Distribution: cosmopolitan, but chiefly temp. regions
Species listed in database: 657; hybrids: 239
= Chrysion Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 509 (1836)
= Cittaronium Rchb., Nom. 186 (1841)
= Crocion Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 214 (1914)
= Dischidium Rchb., Handb. 269 (1837)
= Erpetion DC. ex Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 2: t. 170 (1826)
= Ion Medik., Malvenf. 102 (1787)
= Jacea Opiz, Bercht. & Opiz, Okon.-Techn. Fl. Bohm. 2: II. 8 (1839)
= Lophion Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 516 (1836)
= Mnemion Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 510 (1836)
= Oionychion Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 210 (1914)
species :
Viola abbreviata J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 110: 36, figs. 21, 28, 35, 43, 49-51, 53-56, 61-62 (2019)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
species :
Viola abyssinica Steud. ex Oliv.; Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)
Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo); Ethiopia; Madagascar; SE-Nigeria; Cameroon; E-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; South Sudan; Kenya; Tanzania; Uganda; Rwanda; Burundi; E-Zambia; Malawi; Mozambique; E-Zimbabwe; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo]
22 NGA 23 BIO BUR CMN RWA ZAI 24 ETH SSU 25 KEN TAN UGA 26 MLW MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 SAF 29 MDG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola zongia Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 9: 300 (1868)
= Viola emirnensis Bojer ex Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)
species :
Viola acanthophylla Leyb. ex Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 442 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola accrescens Klokov; Klokov & Wissjul., Fl. RSS Ucr. 7: 632 (1955)
Distribution: Ukraine; Siberia (W-Siberia); S-European Russia; Northern Caucasus
14 RUS UKR 30 SIB 33 NCS
Remarks: Status uncertain, near Viola pumila
species :
Viola acrocerauniensis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 22: 493 (1986)
Distribution: Albania
13 ALB
species :
Viola acuminata Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 252 (1842)
subspecies :
subsp. acuminata
Distribution: China (Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea; Siberia (C-Siberia, E-Siberia); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuminata f. glaberrima (H.Hara) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 196 (1962)
= Viola acuminata f. shikokuensis Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola acuminata var. brevistipulata (W.Becker) Kitag., Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 451 (1979)
= Viola acuminata var. dentata W.Becker, Fl. Aziat. Ross. 8: 49 (1915)
= Viola acuminata var. glaberrima H.Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 12: 220 (1936)
= Viola acuminata var. intermedia Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 280 (1916)
= Viola brevistipulata ssp. minor (Nakai) F.Maek. & Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola brevistipulata var. kishidai (Nakai) F.Maek. & Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola brevistipulata var. minor Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 47: 260 (1933)
= Viola canina var. acuminata (Ledeb.) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 247 (1861)
= Viola flaviflora Nakai, Journ. Jap. Bot., 15: 401 (1939)
= Viola kishidae Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 69 (1922)
= Viola laciniosa A.Gray, Narr. Capt. Perry´s Exped. 2: 308 (1856)
= Viola micrantha Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 5: 183 (1832)
= Viola micrantha var. brevistipulata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 383 (1917) [as proles]
= Viola takesimana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 34 (1922)
= Viola turczaninowii Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 395 (1949)
variant :
var. austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Kitag.; Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 451 (1979)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuminata ssp. austroussuriensis W.Becker, Fl. Aziat. Ross. 8: 49 (1915)
= Viola acuminata var. austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 18 (2020), comb. superfl.
= Viola austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Kom., Alis. Key Pl. Far East. Reg. URSS 2: 767 (1932)
= Viola micrantha lusus austroussuriensis (W.Becker) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 384 (1917)
variant :
var. pilifera C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnanica, 13(3): 257 (1991)
Distribution: China (Gansu)
36 CHI
subspecies :
subsp. grandistipulata (W.Becker) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 18 (2020)
Distribution:
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola micrantha var. grandistipulata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 383 (1917) [as proles]
species :
Viola acutifolia (Kar. & Kir.) W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 96 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II 263 (1916)
Distribution: China (Xinjiang); Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. acutifolia Kar. & Kir., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 15: 163 (1842)
= Viola uniflora var. kareliniana Maxim., Fl. Mongol. 1: 81 (1899)
species :
Viola adenothrix Hayata; Ic. Pl. Formos. 3: 23 (1913)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brachycentra Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 25-26, f. 10 (1913)
= Viola kosanensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola royleana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola rupicola Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3: 106 (1923)
= Viola taiwanensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 315-316 (1921)
= Viola trichopoda Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 29-30, f. 15 (1913)
variant :
var. tsugitakaensis (Masam.) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang; Taiwania 35: 19 (1990)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola tsugitakaensis Masam., J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 2: 240 (1930)
species :
Viola adunca Sm.; Cycl. [A. Rees] (London ed.) 37: Viola n. 63 (1817)
Name: Hookedspur violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Idaho, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); St. Pierre et Miquelon; Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Sonora)
70 ASK 72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Lophion aduncum (Sm.) Nieuwl. & Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat., 4: 478 (1916)
= Viola adunca ssp. ashtoniae M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 233, pl. 11, figs. 4, 7 (1936)
= Viola adunca ssp. oxyceras (S.Watson) Piper, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 11: 395 (1906)
= Viola adunca ssp. radicosa M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 234, pl. 11, fig. 5 (1936)
= Viola adunca ssp. uncinulata (Greene) Applegate, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 22: 282 (1939)
= Viola adunca var. cascadensis (M.S.Baker) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 440 (1961)
= Viola adunca var. kirkii V.G.Duran, Leafl. W. Bot. 10: 319 (1966)
= Viola adunca var. oxyceras (S.Watson) Jeps.
= Viola adunca var. uncinulata (Greene) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 440 (1961)
= Viola aduncoides Á. & D.Löve, Bot. Notiser, 128(4): 516 1975 (1976)
= Viola canina var. oxyceras S.Watson
= Viola canina var. puberula S.Watson, Manual (Gray), ed. 6. 81 (1890)
= Viola cascadensis M.S.Baker, Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 173 (1949)
= Viola minima M.S.Baker, Leafl. W. Bot. 5: 141 (1949)
= Viola montanensis Rydb., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 263 (1900)
= Viola oreocallis Greene, Pittonia 4: 288 (1901)
= Viola oxyceras (S.Watson) Greene, Pittonia 3: 255 (1897)
= Viola puberula (S.Watson) Howell, Fl. N. W. Amer. [Howell] 1: 72 (1897)
= Viola subvestita Greene, Erythea 5: 39 (1897)
= Viola sylvestris var. puberula (S.Watson) E.Sheld., Bull. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 9: 17 (1894)
= Viola uncinulata Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 2: 97 (1910)
variant :
var. bellidifolia (Greene) H.D.Harr.; Man. Pl. Colorado 377, 641 (1954)
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia); USA (Colorado, Montana, Wyoming)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bellidifolia Greene, Pittonia 4: 292 (1901)
species :
Viola aethnensis Parl.; Fl. Ital. 9: 185 (1890)
subspecies :
subsp. aethnensis
Name: Ätna-Veilchen
Distribution: Sicily (Etna)
13 SIC
subspecies :
subsp. messanensis (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 504 (1977)
Distribution: S-Italy; NE-Sicily
13 ITA SIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla var. messanensis W.Becker
= Viola bertolonii ssp. messanensis (W.Becker) A.Schmidt, Flora (Regensb.) 154: 159 (1964)
subspecies :
subsp. splendida (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 504 (1977)
Distribution: S-Italy (mountains near Salerno)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola splendida W.Becker, Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, 2: 750 (1902)
species :
Viola aetolica Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(6): 24 (1859)
Distribution: Albania; Greece; Macedonia
13 ALB GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterosepala Boiss. & Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 6: 23 (1859)
= Viola saxatilis ssp. aetolica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek
= Viola alpestris ssp. aetolica (Boiss. & Heldr.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 345 (1910)
species :
Viola affinis Leconte; Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 138 (1828)
Name: Sand violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Ontario, Québec)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crenulata Greene, Pittonia 4: 295 (1901)
= Viola obliqua var. crenulata (Greene) Farw., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 68 (1930)
= Viola rosacea Brainerd, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 37: 525 (1910)
= Viola sororia ssp. affinis (Leconte) R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 78 (1992), without basionym ref., et Phytologia, 80(4): 295 (1996)
= Viola sororia var. affinis (Leconte) McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 39 (1992)
= Viola subviscosa Greene, Pittonia 4: 293 (1901)
= Viola venustula Greene, Pittonia 3: 335 (1898)
species :
Viola aizoon Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 443 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Bio Bio, Araucania)
85 CLE
species :
Viola alaica Vved.; Acta Univ. As. Med. Ser. VIII b, Bot. Fasc. 3, 79 (1928)
Distribution: Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
32 KGZ TZK UZB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola oxycentra Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 682 (1949)
species :
Viola alba Besser; Prim. Fl. Galic. 1: 171 (1809)
subspecies :
subsp. alba
Name: Weißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Spain; Baleares; France; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Sachsen [I]); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovakia; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Poland; Sweden (Øland); European Russia; Greece; Turkey
10 SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 BAL FRA SPA 13 BIH CRO GRC NMA SLV SRB 14 RUS 34 TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba f. virescens (Jord.) Rhiner, 196 (1893)
= Viola alba ssp. stevenii (Besser) Gremli, 105 (1874)
= Viola alba ssp. thessala (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 502 (1925)
= Viola alba ssp. virescens (Jord.) Murr, 202 (1923)
= Viola alba var. lactea Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 17 (1999), nom. nov.
= Viola alba var. picta (Moggr.) Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 16 (1999)
= Viola alba var. pungens Gren., 177 (1847)
= Viola alba var. stevenii (Besser) W.D.J.Koch, 62 (1843)
= Viola alba var. virescens (Jord.) Gremli, 86 (1878)
= Viola cadevallii Pau, Mem. Acad. Ci. Artes Barcelona ser. 3, 2: 62 (1896)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. albiflora W.Becker
= Viola dumetorum Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 16 (1852) non Phil.
= Viola hirta var. picta Moggr.
= Viola martii ssp. alba (Besser) Döll, 648 (1843)
= Viola nigricans Schur ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola odorata ssp. alba (Besser) Bonnier, Bonnier & R. C. V. Douin, 14 (1913)
= Viola odorata var. alba (Besser) Klett & Richt., 230 (1830)
= Viola praecox Heuff. ex Fuss, Fl. Transs. 81
= Viola thessala Boiss. & Spruner, Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 8: 51 (1849)
= Viola violacea Wiesb. ex Dichtl, Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3: 45 (1885)
= Viola virescens Jord. ex Boreau, Fl. Centre France, ed. 3 (Boreau) 2: 77 (1857)
variant :
var. scotophylla (Jord.) Gremli; 86 (1878)
Name: Dunkelblütiges Weißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: N-Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Austria; Hungary; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Sachsen [I]); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Greece; European Russia; Northern Caucasus
11 AUT GER HUN LIE SWI 13 CRO GRC ITA SLV 14 RUS 33 NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba f. albiflora (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Gams, 647 (1925)
= Viola alba f. scotophylla (Jord.) Rhiner, 197 (1893)
= Viola alba ssp. scotophylla (Jord.) Gremli, 105 (1874)
= Viola alba ssp. scotophylla (Jord.) Nyman, Consp. 78 (1878)
= Viola alba var. albiflora Wiesb. ex Dichtl, 45 (1885)
= Viola alba var. violacea Wiesb. ex Dichtl, 45 (1885)
= Viola scotophylla f. albiflora (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Murr, 102 (1900)
= Viola scotophylla f. violacea (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Murr, 102 (1900)
= Viola scotophylla Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 9 (1849)
subspecies :
subsp. cretica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Marcussen; Pl. Syst. Evol. 237(1-2): 71 (2003)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cretica Boiss. & Heldr., Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 2(8): 51 (1849)
= Viola cretica ssp. glabra A.Tiniakou
subspecies :
subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) W.Becker; Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 8(2): 257 (1902)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Bulgaria; Corsica; France; Croatia; Italy; San Marino; Macedonia; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Slovenia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); East Aegaean Isl.; Albania; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Iran (N-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Syria (coastal W-Syria); Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; Ukraine; Crimea
12 COR FRA SAR 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA 14 KRY UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 33 AZE GEO 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola armena Boiss. & A.Huet, Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 5: 48 (1856)
= Viola dehnhardtii Ten., Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap. (1830) 12, ex ej. Syll. 117
= Viola dehnhardtii var. atlantica Braun-Blanq. & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 14: 73 (1923)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. gomarica Emb. & Maire, Cat. Pl. Maroc 2: 506 (1932)
= Viola pentelica Vierh., Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 64: 266 (1914)
subspecies :
subsp. bonaefidei Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot., 8: 85 (1991) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Remarks: Viola alba ssp. dehnhardtii x suavis ssp. barceloi
subspecies :
subsp. neusii Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot., 8: 83 (1991) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Remarks: Viola alba ssp. dehnhardtii x jaubertiana
subspecies :
subsp. sintenisii (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36 (2): 21 (1918)
Distribution: Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Afghanistan (Herat)
32 TKM TZK UZB 34 AFG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sintenisii W.Becker, Mitteil. Thüring. Bot. Ver. 24: 1 (1909)
species :
Viola albida Palib.; Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 17(1): 30 (1899)
Distribution: China (SE-Liaoning); South Korea; North Korea; Russian Far East
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida f. rugata (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 528 (2017)
= Viola albida var. rugata Y.N.Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 16 (2005)
= Viola dissecta subvar. albida (Palib.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 155 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. albida (Palib.) Nakai, Icon. Pl. Koisik. 1: 93, t. 47 (1912)
= Viola extremiorientalis Vorosch. & N.S.Pavlova, Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada, Moskva, No. 69, 79 (1968)
= Viola prionantha var. incisa Kitag., Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 6(4): 123 (1942)
= Viola tokubuchiana var. extremiorientalis (Vorosch. & N.S.Pavlova) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 29 (2020)
variant :
var. eizanensis (Makino) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola eizanensis (Makino) Makino, Journ. Jap. Bot. 1: 15 (1917)
= Viola dissecta var. eizanensis Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 155 (1912)
variant :
var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chaerophylloides var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 87 (1905)
= Viola dissecta var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Nakai, (1916)
= Viola napellifolia var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Nakai, (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. sieboldiana Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg ser. 3, 23: 313 (1877)
= Viola sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino, (1905)
species :
Viola alburnica Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 187 (2018)
Distribution: Italy (Campania)
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola alexandrowiana (W.Becker) Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 412 (1949)
Distribution: Siberia (C-Siberia); Mongolia
30 SIB 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola phalacrocarpa ssp. alexandrowiana W.Becker
species :
Viola alexejana Kamelin & Junussov; Dokl. Akad. Nauk Tadzh. SSR, 23(4): 208 (1980)
Distribution: Tajikistan
32 TZK
species :
Viola allchariensis Beck; Jahres-Kat. Wien. Bot. Tauschver. 1894: 6 (1894)
subspecies :
subsp. allchariensis
Distribution: C-Macedonia
13 NMA
subspecies :
subsp. gostivarensis W.Becker & Bornm.; Feddes Repert. 17: 75 (1921)
Distribution: NW-Macedonia
13 NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gostivariensis (W.Becker & Bornm.) Bornm., Magyar Bot. Lap. 32: 141 (1933)
species :
Viola alliariifolia Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 32 (1922)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glabella var. renifolia Koidz., (1917)
= Viola brevistipulata var. renifolia (Koidz.) Maek., (1954)
species :
Viola allochroa Botsch.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. & Zool. Acad. Sci. Uzbekistan. 11: 10 (1948)
Distribution: Kyrgyzstan (Tianshan); Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan
32 KAZ KGZ UZB
species :
Viola alpina Jacq.; Enum. Stirp. Vindob. 159 (1762)
Distribution: E-Austria; Slovakia; Poland; Romania
11 AUT POL SLO 13 ROM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola baumgarteniana Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 87 (1866)
= Viola microphylla Schur, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 8: 394 (1858)
species :
Viola altaica Ker Gawl.; Edwards´s Bot. Reg. 54 (1815)
Name: Altai-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: China (Xinjiang); Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Kazakhstan; Germany [I]
11 ger 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ 36 CHI 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion grandiflorum Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 5: 514 (1836)
= Viola chrysantha Fisch. ex Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 770 (1841)
= Viola monochroa Klokov, Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 688 (1949)
= Viola pallasii Fisch. ex Steud., Nom. ed. I. 886 (1821)
= Viola speciosa Schrad. ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 708 (1832)
species :
Viola amamiana Hatus.; Sci. Rep. Yokosuka City Mus. 15: 13 (1969)
Distribution: Ryukyu Isl.
38 NNS
species :
Viola ambigua Waldst. & Kit.; Pl. Rar. Hung. 2: 208 (1804)
Name: Steppen-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Germany; Hungary; Macedonia; Croatia; ?Slovenia; Serbia & Kosovo; Romania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Kazakhstan
11 AUT CZE GER HUN SLO 13 BUL CRO NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY RUS UKR 32 KAZ 33 GEO NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ambigua ssp. campestris (M.Bieb.) Gams, 643 (1925)
= Viola campestris M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 171 (1808)
= Viola revoluta Heuff. ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 705 (1832)
= Viola suaveolens Perrier & Songeon, Billot, Annot. Fl. Fr. et Allem. 183
species :
Viola amiatina Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 189 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola anagae Gilli; Feddes Repert., 89(9-10): 595 1978 (1979)
Name: Anaga-Veilchen (DE); Violeta de Anaga (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
species :
Viola angkae Craib; Kew Bull., 14 (1925)
Distribution: N-Thailand
41 THA
species :
Viola angustifolia Phil.; Linnaea, 28: 612 (1856)
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola wikipedia J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores, Int. Rock Gard. 117: 47 (2019), nom. nov. illeg. superfl.
species :
Viola anitae J.M.Watson; Int. Rock Gard. 108: [89], figs.13, 14, 42, 46, 47, 53-57, 59, 63 (2018)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
species :
Viola annamensis Baker fil.; Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Thailand, 4: 128 (1921)
Distribution: C-Vietnam
41 VIE
species :
Viola araucaniae W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 181 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Los Lagos)
85 CLE
species :
Viola arborescens L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
Distribution: SW-Portugal; Baleares; France; Spain; Sardinia; Morocco; Algeria
12 BAL FRA POR SAR SPA 20 ALG MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arborescens f. latifolia (DC.) Fern.Casado, Lagascalia, 14(1): 136 (1986)
= Viola arborescens f. willkommii Fern.Casado, Lagascalia, 14(1): 136 (1986), without type, as nom. nov.
= Viola arborescens var. latifolia DC.
= Viola arborescens var. serratifolia Ging.
= Viola fruticans Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 3: 111 (1901)
= Viola longiviola Pourr. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 380 (1819)
= Viola suberosa Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 313 (1799)
species :
Viola arcuata Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 58 (1825)
subspecies :
subsp. arcuata
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Yunnan); Taiwan; India; Myanmar; Vietnam; ?Java
36 CHI 38 TAI 40 IND 41 MYA VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alata Burgersd., Miq., Pl. Jungh. 1: 121 (1853)
= Viola distans Wall., (Cat. 142, n. 4022 (1831), nom nud.) in Tr. Med. Phys. S. Calc. 7: 227 (1835)
= Viola excisa Hance, J. Bot. 6(70): 296-297 (1868)
= Viola arcuata f. radicans (Makino) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
subspecies :
subsp. amurica (W.Becker) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China
Distribution: China (NE-Heilongjiang, E-Jilin); Russian Far East
31 RFE 36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amurica W.Becker, B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 62 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 230-231 (1916)
subspecies :
subsp. verecunda (A.Gray) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China
Distribution: China (Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea; Mongolia; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima Isl.); Russian Far East (incl. Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Vietnam
31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO NNS 41 VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alata ssp. verecunda (A.Gray) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 227 (1916)
= Viola arcuata f. radicans Nakai, Bot.Mag.(Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
= Viola arcuata ssp. verecunda (A.Gray) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 227 (1916)
= Viola arcuata var. verecunda (A.Gray) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(424): 88 (1922)
= Viola carlesii Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 557 (1928)
= Viola excisa var. subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola fibrillosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 229 (1916)
= Viola japonica var. decumbens Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 287 (1878)
= Viola japonica var. pusilla Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 287 (1878)
= Viola japonica var. subaefuiloba Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 287 (1878)
= Viola semilunaris (Maxim.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 231 (1916)
= Viola subaequiloba Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
= Viola verecunda A.Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n. s., 6: 382 (1858)
= Viola verecunda f. candidissima Mizush. ex E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 340 (1976)
= Viola verecunda f. hensoaensis Kudô & Sasaki, Ann. Bot. Taihoku Bot. Gard. 1: 37 (1931)
= Viola verecunda f. radicans Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 153 (1913)
= Viola verecunda var. excisa (Hance) Maxim., Mélanges Biol. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 9: 750 (1886)
= Viola verecunda var. semilunaris Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 335 (1877)
= Viola verecunda var. subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 221 (1954)
= Viola verecunda var. yakusimana (Nakai) Ohwi, (1953)
= Viola yakusimana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 35 (1922)
species :
Viola argenteria Moraldo & Forneris; Allionia, 28: 51, 52 (1987-88 publ. 1988), nom. nov.
Distribution: NW-Italy; SE-France
12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nummulariifolia All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 98, t. 9. f. 4. (1785)
species :
Viola argentina W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 184 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (Cordoba, La Rioja, San Juan)
85 ARG
species :
Viola arguta Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 391 (1819)
Distribution: Colombia (Cesar, Magdalena); Peru; Ecuador
82 CLM 83 ECU PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arguta ssp. meridionalis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 93 (1907)
= Viola arguta var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 92 (1907)
= Viola arguta var. meridionalis (W.Becker) L.B.Sm. & A.Fernández, Caldasia 6: 164 (1954)
= Viola corchorifolia Dombey ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola punicea Ruiz & Pav. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 304 (1824)
species :
Viola arsenica Beck; Jahres-Kai. Wien. Bot. Tauschver. 1894: 6 (1894)
Distribution: S-Macedonia (Alsar, 40 km SW of Prilep)
13 NMA
species :
Viola arvensis Murray; Prodr. Stirp. Götting. 73 (1770)
subspecies :
subsp. arvensis
Name: Acker-Stiefmütterchen (DE), European field pansy (EN)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl.; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra; Hungary; Italy; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal; Malta; Norway; Poland; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Sweden; Crimea; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Korea [I]; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, W-Anatolia); European Turkey; Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Tenerife [I], La Gomera [I], La Palma Isl. [I]); Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; USA [I] (Arkansas [I], California [I], Connecticut [I], Delaware [I], Georgia [I], Iowa [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Kansas [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Minnesota [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], Nebraska [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Vermont [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I], West Virginia [I]); Canada (Alberta [I], British Columbia [I], Manitoba [I], New Brunswick [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Prince Edward Isl. [I], Québec [I], Saskatchewan [I]); Greenland [I]; St. Pierre et Miquelon [I]; China [I]; Australia [I] (New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); Ecuador [I]; Colombia [I]; Bolivia [I]; Chile [I]; Argentina [I]; Falkland Isl. [I]; South Africa [I]; New Zealand [I]
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 cny mdr 27 saf 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 chi 37 MON 38 kor 50 aus 51 nzl 70 gnl 72 spm 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 82 clm 83 bol ecu 85 arg cle 91 fal
Remarks: tricolor agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion arvense (Murray) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 217 (1914)
= Viola agrestis Jord., 15 (1846)
= Viola anglica Drabble
= Viola arvatica Jord.
= Viola arvensis ssp. andina W.Becker
= Viola arvensis ssp. communis Wittr., 81 (1897)
= Viola arvensis var. anglica (Drabble) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. arvatica (Jord.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. deseglisei (Jord. ex Boreau) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. latifolia (Drabble) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. segetalis (Jord.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola atlantica Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 215 (1874)
= Viola aurasiaca Pomel
= Viola deseglisei Jord. ex Boreau
= Viola gracilis var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt., Fl. Algèrie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 105 (1888)
= Viola latifolia Drabble
= Viola ruralis Jord. ex Boreau, 81 (1857)
= Viola segetalis Jord., 12 (1846)
= Viola segetalis Schur, 85 (1866), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor ssp. arvensis (Murray) Gaudin, 210 (1828)
= Viola tricolor ssp. arvensis (Murray) Wigand, Fl. Kurhessen: 82 (1859)
= Viola tricolor ssp. banatica (Kit.) Simonk., 112 (1887)
= Viola tricolor var. agrestis (Jord.) Gren., 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) Boiss., Fl. 1: 465 (1867), comb. superfl.
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) DC., Prodr. [De Candolle] 1: 303 (1824)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) Pio, 30 (1813)
= Viola tricolor var. bannatica (Kit.) Rchb., 709 (1832)
= Viola tricolor var. bicolor Merrem, 104 (1809)
= Viola tricolor var. gracilescens (Jord.) Gren., 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. intermedia Wender., 62 (1846)
= Viola tricolor var. parviflora Hayne, t. 4 (1813)
= Viola tricolor var. segetalis (Jord.) Gren., 183 (1847)
subspecies :
subsp. megalantha Nauenb.; Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 81 (1986), nom. inval., et Haussknechtia 12: 53 (2010)
Name: Großblütiges Acker-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen); Hungary; Switzerland; Austria; Italy; France; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine
11 AUT GER HUN SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola megalantha (Nauenb.) G.H.Loos, Jahrb. Bochum. Bot. Vereins 1: 129 (2010)
= Viola megalantha (Nauenb.) Landolt, Fl. Indicativa 270 (2010), isonym, nom. inval.
species :
Viola athois W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, 2: 854 (1902)
Name: Athos-Veilchen
Distribution: NE-Greece (Athos)
13 GRC
species :
Viola atropurpurea Leyb.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 159 (1858)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, Neuquen, San Juan); Chile (Valparaiso, O´Higgins, Maule, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 ARG CLE
species :
Viola aurantiaca Leyb.; Flora, 47: 41 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola aurata Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 492 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
species :
Viola auricolor Skottsb.; Svensk. Vet-Akad. Handl n. s. 56: No. 5. 130, 260 (1916)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Santa Cruz)
85 ARG
species :
Viola auriculata Leyb.; Anal. Univ. Chil. (1863) II. 672, ex Phil. fil. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Chil. 20
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola auricula Leyb., Flora, 47: 40 (1864)
species :
Viola austrosinensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. L. Soc. 158(4): 756 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola awagatakensis T.Yamaz., I.Ito & Ageishi; J. Jap. Bot., 72(1): 60 (1997)
Distribution: Japan
38 JAP
species :
Viola babunensis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 600 (1985)
Distribution: Macedonia
13 NMA
species :
Viola bakeri Greene; Pittonia 3: 307 (1898)
Name: Baker´s violet
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington State)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bakeri ssp. grandis M.S.Baker
= Viola bakeri ssp. shastensis M.S.Baker, Madroño 15: 203 (1960)
= Viola nuttallii var. bakeri (Greene) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 447 (1961)
= Viola praemorsa var. bakeri (Greene) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
species :
Viola balansae Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 1: 177 (1939), gallice, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 85: 599 (1939), latine
Distribution: N-Vietnam
41 VIE
species :
Viola balcanica Delip.; Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 495 (1979)
Distribution: Bulgaria
13 BUL
species :
Viola bangii Rusby; Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, 6: 5 (1896)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz); Ecuador; ?Peru
83 BOL ECU
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nivalis Benth., Pl. Hartw. 160 (1843) nom. illeg.
species :
Viola banksii K.R.Thiele & Prober; Muelleria 18: 15 (2003)
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland); New Zealand [I]
50 AUS 51 nzl
species :
Viola baoshanensis W.S.Shu, W.Liu & C.Y.Lan; Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 42(3): 118, fig. 1 (2003)
Distribution: China (Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola barhalensis G.Knoche & Marcussen; Phytotaxa 275(1): 14 (2016)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Viola barkalovii Bezd.; Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 102 (2001)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Khabarovsk)
31 RFE
species :
Viola barroetana W.Schaffn. ex Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. 20 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas)
79 MEX
species :
Viola beamanii Calderón; Phytologia, 52(2): 105 (1982)
Distribution: Mexico (Mexico State, Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Viola beati J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Willdenowia 49(1): 36 (2019)
Distribution: NW-Argentina
85 ARG
species :
Viola beckeriana J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Rock Gard. Quart. 71(2): 166 (2013)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza)
85 ARG
species :
Viola beckiana Fiala; Glasn. Mus. Bosni Herceg. 7: 423 (1895)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina
13 BIH
species :
Viola beckwithii Torr. & A.Gray; Pacif. Rail. Rep. 2: 119, t. 1 (1856)
Name: Beckwith´s violet
Distribution: USA (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola beckwithii ssp. glabrata M.S.Baker, Madroño 12: 18 (1953)
= Viola beckwithii var. cachensis C.P.Sm., Muhlenbergia 7: 136 (1912)
= Viola ×bonnevillensis Cottam, Bull. Univ. Utah, Biol. Ser. Ser. 4, No. 3: 3, tab. 1 (1939)
= Viola decora Kellogg, Pacif. Rural Press (1879), ex Curran, in Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: III 131 (1885)
species :
Viola bertolonii Pio; De Viola 34 (1813)
Distribution: SE-France; NW-Italy
12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla Bertol., Rar. It. Pl. Dec. 3: 53 non Poiret
species :
Viola betonicifolia Sm.; Rees, Cyclop. 37 (1): Viola n. 7 (1817)
subspecies :
subsp. betonicifolia
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, ?Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ?Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; SE-Tibet; Japan; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam; Java; Malaysia; Sumatra; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Alor, Bali, Timor); Australia (South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania); Sri Lanka; Philippines; Nepal; Bhutan; Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost); Pakistan (Kurram, N. W. Frontier Prov., Murree, Hazara, Chitral, Swat, Baltistan); India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Poonch, Kashmir, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sikkim); Bangladesh; Sri Lanka; Sulawesi
34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 38 JAP TAI 40 BAN BHU IND NEP PAK SRL 41 MYA THA VIE 42 JAW LSI PHI SUL SUM 50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. australiensis W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54 Beibl. 120: 166 (1917), nom. superfl.
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. napaulensis (Ging.) W.Becker, (1917)
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. nepalensis (DC.) W.Becker, B. Jahrb. 54 (Beibl. 120): 166 (1917)
= Viola caespitosa D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 205 (1825)
= Viola inconspicua ssp. dielsiana W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 172 (1917)
= Viola longifolia R.Br. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola longiscapa DC. ex G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
= Viola nilagirica Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 36: I. 556 (1863)
= Viola patrinii Matsum. & Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 30 (1906) (non DC.)
= Viola patrinii var. caespitosa Ridl., J. Bot. 73(1): 17-18 (1935)
= Viola patrinii var. chinensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6 (1916)
= Viola patrinii var. laotiana H.Boissieu
= Viola patrinii var. napaulensis Ging., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola phyteumifolia DC. ex G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
variant :
var. albescens (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); NE-China
36 CHI 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mandshurica var. albescens Nakai, (1922)
variant :
var. oblongosagittata (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; & T. Hashim. J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
Distribution: Japan (Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Taiwan
38 JAP NNS TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola oblongosagittata Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 37 (1922)
= Viola oblongosagittata var. violascens Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 37 (1922)
= Viola maculicola Koidz., Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto, 7: 112 (1938)
form :
f. pubescens H.Hara; Fl. E. Himalaya, 3rd. Rep.: 82 (1975)
Distribution: Bhutan; N-India; Malaysia
40 BHU IND
variant :
var. cordifolia Hara; J. Jap. B. 49: 133 (1974)
Distribution: Nepal
40 NEP
variant :
var. yuanfengia S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 1: 82 (2019)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
subspecies :
subsp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China (in prep.)
Distribution: Taiwan; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola confusa ssp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) F.Maek. & Hashim., Hashim. J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola inconspicua ssp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 35: 41-44, f. 12 (1990)
= Viola japonica Matsum. & Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 29 (1906)
= Viola mandshurica ssp. nagasakiensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40: 161 (1923)
= Viola minor (Makino) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola patrinii var. minor Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6: 50 (1892)
= Viola inconspicua var. minor (Makino) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 26 (1992)
= Viola taiwaniana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 38 (1922)
= Viola confusa f. albiflora S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 783 (1992)
= Viola confusa var. lanyuense S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 18 (1992)
subspecies :
subsp. novaguineensis D.M.Moore; Rep. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. 68 (1963)
Distribution: New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); ?Philippines; Australia (NE-Queensland); Norfolk Isl.
42 NWG 50 AUS NFK
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola trinervis Korth., Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 1: 357 (1848)
species :
Viola bhutanica Hara; J. Jap. Bot., 48 (12): 356 (1973)
Distribution: Bhutan; S-Tibet
36 TIB 40 BHU
species :
Viola bicolor Pursh; Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 175 (1813)
Name: Field pansy
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Northern Territories, Ontario, Saskatchewan)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion rafinesquii (Greene) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 217 (1914)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. rafinesquii (Greene) Fernald, Rhodora 40: 443 (1938)
= Viola rafinesquii f. caerulea Moldenke, Phytologia, 26(4): 225 (1973)
= Viola rafinesquii f. minor Moldenke, Phytologia, 26(4): 226 (1973)
= Viola rafinesquii Greene, Pittonia 4: 9 (1899)
= Viola tenella Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag., 191 (1819)
species :
Viola biflora L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Zweiblütiges Veilchen (DE), Twinflower violet (EN)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Finland; France; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sachsen, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; ?Andorra; N-Spain; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Norway; Poland; Romania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; Ukraine; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; Kyrgyzstan; Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Paktia / Khost); North Korea; Taiwan; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima Isl.); Siberia (E-Siberia); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Ussuri, Amur, etc.); N-Sumatra; Mongolia; Myanmar (Magway); China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan); Taiwan; Tibet; Pakistan (Kurram, Chitral, Hazara, Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan); India (Pponch, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Sikkim, Chumbi, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh); Nepal; Bhutan; Alaska; USA (Colorado); Canada (Yukon)
10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 COR FRA SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO ITA MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB 14 RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ TZK 34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 37 MON 38 JAP NKO NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 MYA 42 SUM 70 ASK 73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysion biflorum (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 510 (1836)
= Dischidium biflorum (L.) Opiz, Seznam, 38 (1852)
= Viola avatschensis W.Becker & Hultén, Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 1 (1928)
= Viola biflora f. glabrifolia Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1(7): 6 (1974)
= Viola biflora ssp. avatschensis (W.Becker & Hultén) Tzvelev, Arktich. Fl. SSSR, 8: 39 (1980)
= Viola biflora var. acuminata Maxim., Acta Hort. Petrop. 11: 62 (1890)
= Viola biflora var. akaishiensis Takah. & Ohba, Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1(4): 24 (1971)
= Viola biflora var. burejensis Bezd., Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 108 (2001)
= Viola biflora var. crassifolia Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 139 (1902)
= Viola biflora var. hirsuta W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 42 (1918)
= Viola biflora var. nudicaulis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 42-43 (1918)
= Viola biflora var. platyphylla Franch., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 412-413 (1886)
= Viola biflora var. uniflora (Krock.) Pohl, 231 (1809)
= Viola biflora var. valdepilosa Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7(2): 381 (1931)
= Viola biflora var. vegeta (Nakai) Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1(7): 6 (1974)
= Viola chingiana W.Becker, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38: 117 (1925)
= Viola crassa Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 87 (1905)
= Viola crassa ssp. avatschensis (W.Becker & Hultén) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 39 (2020)
= Viola crassa var. shikkensis Miyabe & Tatew., Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 15: 133 (1938)
= Viola crassa var. tayemonii (Hayata) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 10 (1992)
= Viola crassa var. vegeta Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 565 (1928)
= Viola kanoi Sasaki, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 19: 104 (1929)
= Viola lutea Lam., Fl. Franç. (Lam.) 2: 680 (1779)
= Viola manaslensis F.Maek., Acta Phyt. Geobot. 15: 173 (1954)
= Viola nudicaulis (W.Becker) S.Y.Chen, Fl. Xizangica 3: 297 (1986)
= Viola schulzeana W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 261-262 (1916)
= Viola tayemonii Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6: 3 (1916)
= Viola uniflora Krock., 516 (1790) non L.
variant :
var. carlottae (Calder & Roy L.Taylor) B.Boivin; Naturaliste Canad. 93: 437 (1966)
Name: Carlott´s violet
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia: Queen Charlotte Isl., Vancouver Isl.)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora ssp. carlottae Calder & Taylor, Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1395 (1965)
variant :
var. rockiana (W.Becker) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China (2007)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan); E-Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola jizushanensis S.H.Huang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 25(4): 431 (2003)
= Viola rockiana W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(588-600): 236-237 (1925)
species :
Viola binayensis Okamoto & K.Ueda; M. Kato, Taxon. Stud. Pl. Seram Is.: et in Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 143 (1986), without latin descr. or type, 37(1-3): 1 (1986), with latin descr. & type
Distribution: Moluccas (Seram)
42 MOL
species :
Viola bissetii Maxim.; Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 54: I. 5 (1879)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bissetii var. kiusiana Terao, Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 28(1-3): 63 (1977)
= Viola vaginata var. angustifolia Yatabe, (1891)
species :
Viola blanda Willd.; Hort. Berol, t. 24 (1804)
Name: Sweet white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blanda var. palustriformis A.Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
= Viola incognita var. forbesii Brainerd, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 38: 8 (1911)
= Viola incognita Brainerd, Rhodora, 248 (1905)
= Viola leconteana G.Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 324 (1831)
species :
Viola bocquetiana Yild.; Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi, 1(1): 2 (1994)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Viola boissieuana Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 16: 127 (1902)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieuana var. pseudoselkirkii (Nakai) Yahara, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Bot., 14(2): 96 (1987)
= Viola pseudoselkirkii Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 195 (1925)
species :
Viola boliviana Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 18 (1889)
Distribution: Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz); Peru; Argentina (Jujuy)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bangiana W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 89 (1907)
= Viola huanucoensis W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 18: 186 (1922)
= Viola truncata W.Becker, Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
species :
Viola bornmuelleri Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 574 (1985)
Distribution: Macedonia
13 NMA
species :
Viola brachypetala Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 212 (1846)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaiso)
85 CLE
species :
Viola brachyphylla W.Becker; Feddes Repert. 20: 73 (1924)
Distribution: Macedonia; N-Greece
13 GRC NMA
species :
Viola breviflora Jungsim Lee & M.Kim; Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 44(2): 84 (2014)
Distribution: South Korea
38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola breviflora f. albiflora M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 529 (2017)
species :
Viola brevistipulata (Fr. & Sav.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 265 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl.)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pubescens var. brevistipulata Franch. & Sav., (1878)
= Viola brevistipulata var. pubescens Nakai, (1928)
variant :
var. laciniata (Boiss.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 266 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola uniflora var. laciniata Boiss., (1900)
= Viola laciniata (Boissieu) Koidz., Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto, 7: 113, cum descr. ampl. (1938)
= Viola yamamotoi Koidz. ex Yamam., (1939)
variant :
var. acuminata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 557, 591 (1928)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flaviflora var. acuminata (Nakai) Nakai, (1939)
variant :
var. hidakana (Nakai) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hidakana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 30 (1922)
= Viola brevistipulata ssp. hidakana (Nakai) Watan., (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata var. yezoana Toyok. ex H.Nakai, H.Igarashi & H.Ohashi, J. Jap. Bot., 71(6): 357 (1996) (nom. nov. for V. hidakana var. ciliata)
= Viola hidakana var. ciliata Nakai ex Tatew.
variant :
var. crassifolia (Koidz.) F.Maek. ex S.Akiyama, H.Ohba & Tabuchi; Fl. Japan, 2c: 187 (1999)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glabella var. crassifolia Koidz., (1917)
= Viola yubariana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 31 (1922)
species :
Viola bridgesii Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 18 (1889)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cumingii W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
species :
Viola brittoniana Pollard; Bot. Gaz. 26: 332 (1898), et Man. Fl. N. States [Britton] 635 (1901)
Name: Northern coastal violet
Distribution: USA (Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atlantica Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 24(2): 92 (1897) non Pomel 1874
= Viola brittoniana f. pectinata (E.P.Bicknell) Gil-ad, Boissiera, 53: 54 (1997)
= Viola brittoniana var. pectinata (E.P.Bicknell) Alexander, Ill. Fl. N. U. S. (Britton & Brown), ed. 3. 2: 558 (1952)
= Viola pectinata E.P.Bicknell, Torreya, 4: 129 (1904)
= Viola pedatifida ssp. brittoniana (Pollard) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 22 (1992)
= Viola pedatifida var. brittoniana (Pollard) R.J.Little & L.E.McKinney, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
species :
Viola bubanii Timb.-Lagr.; Congr. Sci. Fr. 19 Sess. (Toulouse) 1: 280 (1852)
Distribution: N-Spain; SW-France (Pyrenees); N-Portugal
12 FRA POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bubanii ssp. palentina (Losa) Rivas Mart.Izco & M.Costa, Trab. Dep. Bot. Fisiol. Veg. Univ. Madrid, 3: 102 (1971)
= Viola palentina Losa, Collect. Bot., Barcelona, 2: 295 (1950)
= Viola trinitatis Losa, Contrib. Estud. Fl. Veg. Prov. Zamora 80 (1949)
species :
Viola buchtienii Gand.; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fance, 59: 705 [1912] (1913)
Distribution: Chile (Bio Bio, Araucania, Los Lagos)
85 CLE
Remarks: possibly a synonym of V. valdiviana Kalela
species :
Viola bulbosa Maxim.; Melanges Bot. 748 (1876)
subspecies :
subsp. bulbosa
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai, ?Shaanxi, NW-Sichuan); Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola filifera Kom., Fedde, Repert. 13: 235 (1914)
subspecies :
subsp. tuberifera (Franch.) W.Becker; Beih. B. Centralbl. 34 (2): 418 (1971)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan); Tibet; Bhutan; Nepal; India (Himachal Pradesh)
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bulbosa var. franchetii H.Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, 1(11): 1076 (1901)
= Viola hookeri Franch., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 32: 5 (1886)
= Viola multistolonifera Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 382, f. 1, 17-19 (1992)
= Viola tuberifera Franch., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 410-411 (1886)
= Viola tuberifera var. brevipedicellata S.Y.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18(4): 524 (1980)
= Viola tuberifera var. pseudopalustris H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13(368-369): 343 (1914)
species :
Viola bustillosia Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 211 (1846)
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins)
85 CLE
species :
Viola calabra (A.Terracc.) Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 191 (2018)
Distribution: S-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aethnensis ssp. calabra (A.Terracc.) Peruzzi, Inform. Bot. Ital. 42(2): 531 (2010)
= Viola gracilis var. calabra A.Terracc., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 323 (1889)
species :
Viola calcarata L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. calcarata
Name: Sporn-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; France; Germany (Bayern); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Italy; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Macedonia; Slovenia; Serbia & Kosovo
11 AUT GER LIE SWI 12 FRA 13 BIH ITA MNT NMA SLV SRB
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion calcaratum (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 512 (1836)
= Viola alpina Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796)
= Viola apennina A.Terracc., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It. 21: 327 (1889), et in Ann. Ist. Bot. Roma 4: 77 1889-90 (1891)
= Viola calcarata f. albiflora (DC.) Gams, 610 (1925)
= Viola calcarata f. rotundifolia (Hegetschw.) Gams, 610 (1925)
= Viola calcarata var. albiflora DC., 302 (1824)
= Viola calcarata var. brevicornis Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. grandiflora Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. halleri DC., 302 (1824), nom. inval.
= Viola calcarata var. ramosa Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. rotundifolia (Hegetschw.) Rouy & Foucaud, 39 (1896)
= Viola calcarata var. serpentini H.Sund. ex Murr, 490 (1926)
= Viola calcarata var. subacaulis (Gaudin) Moritzi, 168 (1832)
= Viola decumbens J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13(bis). 2(1): 413 (1791)
= Viola decumbens Moench, 73 (1802)
= Viola gracilis Biv., Stirp. Rar. Sic. 4: 25
= Viola macrantha A.Huet ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
= Viola madonia C.Presl ex Rchb., Pl. Crit. 3: 60
= Viola minae Strobl, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 225 (1877)
= Viola pallidiflora A.Huet ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. cavillieri (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 503 (1977)
Distribution: SE-Italy; NW-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cavillieri W.Becker, Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. II. 3: 45, t. 2
subspecies :
subsp. villarsiana (Roem. & Schult.) Merxm.; Feddes Repert. 74: 30 (1967)
Distribution: SE-France; Italy
12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola villarsiana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 388 (1819)
species :
Viola calchaquiensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 23: 226 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Tucuman)
85 ARG
species :
Viola calcicola R.A.McCauley & H.E.Ballard; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 7(1): 13, figs. 1-4 (2013)
Distribution: USA (Texas: Culberson Co.)
77 USA
species :
Viola calderensis W.Becker; Engl. Jahrb. 37: 588 (1906)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pseudasterias Reiche
= Viola pseudasterias var. psammophila (Phil.) Reiche
species :
Viola caleyana G.Don; Gen. Hist. 1: 329 (1831)
Distribution: Australia (E-New South Wales, Victoria, NE-Tasmania)
50 AUS
species :
Viola cameleo H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, 1(11): 1074 (1901)
Distribution: China (Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); N-India (Sikkim)
36 CHI 40 IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola henryi var. cameleo (H.Boissieu) Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 233 (1949)
variant :
var. gongshanensis Y.S.Chen; Fl. China (in prep.)
Distribution: China (SW-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gongshanensis S.H.Huang, nom. nud.
species :
Viola canadensis L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Canadian white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec, ?Newfoundland)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Lophion canadense (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 517 (1836)
= Lophion rydbergii (Greene) Nieuwl. & Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat., 4: 478 (1916)
= Viola canadensis ssp. rydbergii (Greene) House in Rydb., Fl. Colorado (Rydberg) 233 (1906)
= Viola canadensis var. corymbosa Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 143 (1838)
= Viola canadensis var. pubens Farw., Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 19: 248 (1917)
= Viola canadensis var. scariosa Porter, Trans. New York Acad. Sci. 8: 63 (1889)
= Viola geminiflora Greene, Pittonia 5: 29 (1902)
= Viola muriculata Greene, Pittonia 5: 28 (1902)
= Viola neomexicana Greene, Pittonia 5: 28 (1902)
= Viola rydbergii Greene, Pittonia 5: 27 (1902)
= Viola scouleri Douglas ex Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 773 (1841)
variant :
var. rugulosa (Greene) C.L.Hitchc.; Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. [C. L. Hitchcock & al.] 3: 442 (1961)
Name: Creepingroot violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northern Territories, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Yukon)
70 ASK 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola rugulosa Greene, Pittonia 5: 26 (1902)
= Lophion rugulosum (Greene) Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat., 5: 238 (1918)
= Viola discurrens Greene, Pittonia 5: 26 (1902)
variant :
var. scopulorum A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11: 291 (1886)
Distribution: USA (Colorado, New Mexico, Utah)
73 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canadensis ssp. scopulorum (A.Gray) House in Rydb., Fl. Colorado (Rydberg) 234 (1906)
= Viola scopulorum (A.Gray) Greene, Pittonia, 5: 27 (1902)
species :
Viola canescens Wall.; Fl. Ind., ed. 1820 2: 450-451 (1824)
Distribution: Pakistan (Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree, N. W. Frontier Prov., Pakistani Punjab); Nepal; India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Poonch, Kashmir, Jammu, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu); Bhutan; Myanmar; ?China (?Guangxi); S-Tibet
36 TIB 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola serpens var. canescens (Wall.) Hook.fil. & Thomson, Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 184 (1872)
species :
Viola canina L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. canina
Name: Hunds-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl.; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Faeroe Isl.; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra; Hungary; Iceland; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal; Malta; Norway; Poland; Romania; Sardinia; Svalbard; Sweden; Crimea; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Siberia (C-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Turkey (E-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); European Turkey; Iran (N-Iran); Morocco
10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SVA SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 MOR 30 SIB 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abulensis M.Á.Fernández Casado & Nava, An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 44(2): 306 (1987)
= Viola alpina Huds., Fl. Angl. (Huds.) 331 (1762)
= Viola apetala F.W.Schmidt, Neue Abh. Böhm. Ges. 1: 61 (1791)
= Viola asarifolia Schreb. ex Muhl., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 3: 178 (1793)
= Viola canina f. elongata Rhiner, 197 (1893), nom. inval.
= Viola canina f. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Döll, 649 (1843)
= Viola canina f. lucorum (Rchb.) Döll, 649 (1843)
= Viola canina f. pinetorum Woerl., 167 (1889)
= Viola canina ssp. calcarea (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens, 160 (1834)
= Viola canina ssp. coerulea Kirschl., 9, nom. inval., pro parte (1840)
= Viola canina ssp. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Schübl. & G.Martens, 160 (1834)
= Viola canina ssp. flavicornis (Sm.) Syme, 21 (1864)
= Viola canina ssp. lucorum (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens, 159 (1834)
= Viola canina ssp. reichenbachii A.T.Grimme, 132 (1958), nom. inval.
= Viola canina ssp. ruppii Schnittsp., 25 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina var. angustifolia Fresen., 182 (1832)
= Viola canina var. calcarea Rchb., 60 (1823)
= Viola canina var. caulescens Tosco ex Ariello & Bellia, Rea, 8: 24 (1977)
= Viola canina var. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Rchb., 60 (1823)
= Viola canina var. lucorum Rchb., 60 (1823)
= Viola canina var. procera Klett & Richt., 235 (1830), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina var. pusilla Bab., 34 (1843)
= Viola canina var. reichenbachii Kirschl., 10 (1840), nom. inval.
= Viola canina var. rotundifolia Rhiner, 197 (1893), nom. inval.
= Viola canina var. ruppii Mert. & W.D.J.Koch, 263 (1826)
= Viola celtica Sauzé & Maillard ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola cetia Beck ex Borbás, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 42: 287 (1892). nomen
= Viola ericetorum Schrad. ex Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 240 (1821)
= Viola ferrariensis Campana, Cat. Pl. Ferrar., ex Pio, Viola Spec. Bot. Med. 22
= Viola flavicornis Sm., Engl. Fl. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola hornemanniana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 370 (1819)
= Viola lancifolia Besser, Prim. Fl. Galiciae Austriac. i. 173 (1809)
= Viola leucoceras Borbás ex J.Murr, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 134 (1890)
= Viola longipes Nutt.in Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 140 (1838)
= Viola lucorum (Rchb.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., 851 (1909)
= Viola nummularifolia F.W.Schmidt, Fl. Boem. 3: 47
= Viola procumbens Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. ii. 123 (1782)
= Viola pseudocanina Schur, Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn, 15: II. 113 (1877)
= Viola pulchella Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 310 (1796)
= Viola pumila Fr. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola pumila var. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) DC., 299 (1824)
= Viola punctata Schwein., Am. Journ. Sc. Ser. I. 5: 67 (1822)
= Viola pusilla Tourlet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 50: 306 (1903)
= Viola radicans DC. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola ramosa Gaterau, Descr. Pl. Montaub. 154 (1789)
= Viola schmidtiana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 363 (1819)
= Viola silvatica ssp. ericetorum (Schrad.) Nyman, 77 (1878)
= Viola sylvestris Lam., Fl. Fr. 2: 680 (1779) nom. illeg.
= Viola wahlenbergii Beurl. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 77 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. silvensis (Font Quer) O.Bolòs & Vigo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 38 Bot., 1: 80 (1974)
Distribution: NE-Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola montana ssp. silvensis Font Quer, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 4: 301 (1954)
subspecies :
subsp. einseleana (F.W.Schultz ex Nyman) Erben; Carinthia II II 192/112(2): 565 (2002) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Europe
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola einseleana F.W.Schultz ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 77 (1878)
subspecies :
subsp. contracta (Vl.V.Nikitin) Vl.V.Nikitin; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 86(1): 135 (2001)
Distribution: N-European Russia
14 RUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina var. contracta Vl.V.Nikitin, Fl. Vostochnoi Evropy, 9: 193 (1996)
species :
Viola canobarbata Leyb.; Flora, 49: 285 (1866)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza); Chile (Coquimbo, O´Higgins, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 ARG CLE
species :
Viola capillaris Pers.; Syn. 1: 256
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins, Maule, Bio Bio, Araucania)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola stipularis Cav., Icon. (Cavanilles) 6: 21 (1800)
variant :
var. dumetorum (Phil.) Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 433 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Bio Bio)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dumetorum Phil., Linnaea, 28: 612 (1856)
variant :
var. araucana (Phil.) Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 433 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Bio Bio, Araucania)
85 CLE
species :
Viola caspia (Rupr.) Freyn; Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. 2, 2: 840 (1902)
Distribution: Azerbaijan (Talysh)
33 AZE
Remarks: sieheana agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sylvatica var. caspia Rupr.
species :
Viola cassinensis Strobl; Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 228 (1877)
subspecies :
subsp. cassinensis
Distribution: SC-Italy (Monte Cassino)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pseudogracilis ssp. cassinensis (Strobl) Merxm. & A.Schmidt, Feddes Repert. 74: 30 (1967)
subspecies :
subsp. lucana Silletti; Phyton (Horn) 58(2): 112 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
subspecies :
subsp. pseudogracilis (A.Terracc.) Bartolucci, Galasso & Wagens.; Phytotaxa 340(3): 287 (2018)
Distribution: SC-Italy (Napoli, Salerno)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pseudogracilis Strobl, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 227 (1877)
species :
Viola castillonii (W.Becker) Xifreda & Sanso; Zuloaga & Morrone (eds.), Cat. Pl. Vasc. Rep. Arg. 2 (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74): 1246 (1999)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola exigua var. castillonii W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 222 (1926)
species :
Viola caucasica Kolen. ex Rupr.; Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. (Sci. Phys. Math.), ser. 7, 15, 2: 156 (1869)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Azerbaijan; Georgia [Caucasus]
33 AZE GEO NCS
species :
Viola cazorlensis Gand.; Bull. Assoc. Fr. Bot. 5: 226 (1902)
Distribution: SE-Spain (Jaén, Murcia)
12 SPA
species :
Viola cenisia L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1325 (1763)
Name: Mont-Cenis-Veilchen
Distribution: E-France; Switzerland; Italy (W-Alps, C-Alps)
11 SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpina All., Fl. Pedem. ii. 98 (1785)
= Viola integrifolius Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées 179 (1867)
= Viola scardica Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
species :
Viola cephalonica Bornm.; Mitt. Thür. Bot. Ver. nov. ser., 37: 50 (1927)
Distribution: W-Greece (Kefallenia)
13 GRC
Remarks: Status uncertain, probably to Viola gracilis
species :
Viola cerasifolia A.St.-Hil.; Pl. Rem. Bres. 277 (1825)
Distribution: SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul)
84 BRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola balsaminoides Gardner, Hook. Ic. Pl, t. 217 (1839)
= Viola conferta A.St.-Hil., Pl. Rem. Bres. 279 (1825)
= Viola diffusa Vell., Fl. Flumin. Icon. 8: t. 163 (1831)
= Viola dusenii W.Becker & Sam., Fedde, Repert. 22: 107 (1925)
= Viola tenuis Benth., London J. Bot. 1: 482 (1842)
= Viola tenuis var. geralensis W.Becker
= Viola uleana W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 18: 186 (1922)
species :
Viola cervatiana Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 193, fig. 6 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, 2(2): 856 (1902)
Distribution: China (Anhui, ?Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shandong, ?Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang); Russian Far East (Ussuri); Japan (Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida f. variegata F.Maek., Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 105 (1954)
= Viola albida f. viridis Y.N.Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 4 (2006)
= Viola albida var. chaerophylloides (Regel) F.Maek. ex Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola albida var. suavis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 49: 419 (1935)
= Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 19: 17 (1902), isonym
= Viola chaerophylloides f. viridis (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 528 (2017)
= Viola dentariifolia Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. II. 1: 1076 (1901)
= Viola dissecta subvar. simplicifolia Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 155 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. chaerophylloides (Regel) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 153 (1912)
= Viola napellifolia Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(424): 86, 93 (1922)
= Viola pinnata f. pedata Miq.
= Viola pinnata f. triphylla Miq.
= Viola pinnata var. chaerophylloides Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 222 (1861)
= Viola sieboldiana var. chaerophylloides (Regel) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32(382): 226 (1918)
species :
Viola chamaedrys Leyb.; Flora, 47: 41 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaiso, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola chamissoniana Ging.; Linnaea, 1: 408 (1826)
subspecies :
subsp. chamissoniana
Distribution: Hawaii (Oahu)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola helioscopia Hillebr., Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 17
subspecies :
subsp. robusta (Hillebr.) W.L.Wagner, Herbst & Sohmer; Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap., 29: 117 (1989)
Distribution: Hawaii (Molokai)
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola robusta Hillebr., Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) 16
subspecies :
subsp. tracheliifolia (Ging.) W.L.Wagner, Herbst & Sohmer; Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap., 29: 117 (1989)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui)
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chamissoniana var. olokelensis Skottsb.
= Viola robusta var. mauiensis Rock
= Viola tracheliifolia f. canescens H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 194 (1989)
= Viola tracheliifolia f. forbesii H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 194 (1989)
= Viola tracheliifolia f. mauiensis (Rock) H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 194 (1989)
= Viola tracheliifolia f. olokelensis (Skottsb.) H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 196 (1989)
= Viola tracheliifolia f. populifolia (Skottsb.) H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 196 (1989)
= Viola tracheliifolia f. puberula H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 196 (1989)
= Viola tracheliifolia f. tomentosa (W.Becker) Skottsb.
= Viola tracheliifolia Ging., Linnaea, 1: 409 (1826)
= Viola tracheliifolia var. olokelensis (Skottsb.) Skottsb.
= Viola tracheliifolia var. populifolia Skottsb.
= Viola tracheliifolia var. tomentosa W.Becker
species :
Viola changii J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Nordic J. Bot. 25(5-6): 303 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola charlestonensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen ex Clokey; Madrono, 8: 58 (1945)
Name: Charleston Mountain violet
Distribution: USA (Nevada: Charleston Mts., Utah: Zion NP)
76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. charlestonensis (Baker & J.C.Clausen) S.L.Welsh & Reveal, Great Basin Nat., 35(4): 371 (1975)
species :
Viola chassanica Kork.; Bot. Zhurn., 71(1): 87 (1986)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
species :
Viola cheeseana J.M.Watson; Int. Rock Gard. 117: 40, figs. 49, 59-65 (2019), nom. nov.
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen); Chile (Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola truncata var. glandulifera W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 186 (1922)
species :
Viola cheiranthifolia Humb. & Bonpl.; Pl. Aequin. 1: 111, t. 32 (1807)
Name: Teide-Stiefmütterchen (DE); Violeta del Teide (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion cheiranthifolium (Humb. & Bonpl.) Webb & Berthel., Phyt. Canar. 1: 113 (1837)
species :
Viola chejuensis Y.N.Lee & Y.C.Oh; Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 13 (2005)
Distribution: South Korea (Cheju Isl.)
38 KOR
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola chelmea Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(1): 54 (1853)
subspecies :
subsp. chelmea
Distribution: Greece; Macedonia
13 GRC NMA
subspecies :
subsp. vratnikensis Gáyer & Degen; Magyar Bot. Lapok 13: 309 (1914)
Distribution: Croatia; Montenegro (Prokletje Mts.); Bosnia & Hercegovina; Kosovo
13 BIH CRO KOS MNT
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dinarica Trinajstic, (1975), nom. nov.
= Viola vilaensis Hayek, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 94: 154 (1918)
= Viola dinarica ssp. vilaensis (Hayek) Trinajstic, (1975)
species :
Viola cilentana Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 195, fig. 7 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola cilicica Contandr. & Quézel; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 123: 419, Pl. 2 (1976)
Distribution: Turkey (S-Anatolia)
34 TUR
species :
Viola cinerea Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 1: 7 (1843)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran); Oman (Mascat & Oman, Dhofar); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sind)
34 IRN 35 OMA 40 PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola makranica Omer & Qaiser, Pakistan J. Bot., 17(1): 137 (1985)
= Viola behboudiana Rech.fil. & Esfand., Anz. Österr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. 87: 297 (1950)
variant :
var. erythraea Fiori; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s., 20: 355 (1913)
Distribution: Eritrea; N-Ethiopia
24 ERI ETH
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cinerea var. soyrae (Chiov.) Cufod.
= Viola erythraea (Fiori) Chiov., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It., n. s., 26: 149 (1919)
= Viola erythraeae var. soyrae Chiov.
variant :
var. stocksii (Boiss.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36: 36 (1918)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost); Saudi Arabia; Oman; Somalia; Sudan; Soqotra; Egypt (SE-Egypt); Iran (EC-Iran); India (Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Karachi, Sind, Waziristan, Kurram, N. W. Frontier Prov., Pakistani Punjab, Mirpur)
20 EGY 24 SOC SOM SUD 34 AFG IRN 35 OMA SAU 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola etbaica Schweinf., Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien. 8: 665 (1868)
= Viola nubica Hutch., Broun & R. E. Massey, Fl. Sudan, 66 (1929)
= Viola somalensis Engl., Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 1891 308 (1892)
= Viola stocksii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 435 (1867)
species :
Viola clauseniana Baker; Madrono 4: 194 (1938)
Name: Clausen´s violet
Distribution: USA (Utah: Zion Natl Park)
76 USA
species :
Viola cochranei H.E.Ballard; Phytologia, 74(5): 357 (1993)
Distribution: Mexico (Guanajuato, Jalisco, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi); Guatemala
79 MEX 80 GUA
species :
Viola collina Besser; Cat. Pl. Horto Cremen. 151 (1816)
Name: Hügel-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Belgium; ?Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Finland; France; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen [I], Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan; Mongolia; China (Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea
10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 CRO ITA ROM SLV 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ UZB 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atrichocarpa Borbás, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 118, 167 (1890)
= Viola centronum Perrier ex W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: II. 28 (1909)
= Viola gymnocarpa Janka, Linnaea, 30: 1859 559 (1860)
= Viola hirta var. alpina Ging., Prodr. (DC.) 2: 295 (1824)
= Viola hirta var. collina (Besser) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 481 (1861)
= Viola martii var. collina (Besser) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola microceras Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 80 (1866)
= Viola nipponica var. yezoana Koidz.
= Viola obscura Schur, Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 4: 10 (1853)
= Viola odorata ssp. collina (Besser) Celak., 82 (1870)
= Viola opizii Knaf ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 78 (1878)
= Viola propera Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 6 (1849)
variant :
var. glabricarpa K.Sun; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 14(3): 236 (1994)
Distribution: China (Jiangsu, Henan, Shandong)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola microdonta Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 263-265. (1949)
= Viola crassicalcarata Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 379-340, f. 1, 1-8 (1992)
variant :
var. intramongolica Ching J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 257 (1991)
Distribution: China (Nei Mongol)
36 CHI
species :
Viola columnaris Skottsb.; Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl. n. s. 56: No. 5, 139, 261 (1916)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro)
85 ARG
species :
Viola commersonii DC. ex Ging.; DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
species :
Viola comollia Massara; Prodr. Fl. Valtell. 203 (1834)
Name: Comollis Veilchen
Distribution: N-Italy (Alpi Orobie)
13 ITA
species :
Viola concordifolia C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnanica 13(3): 266 (1991), nom. nov., et in Fl. Reipubl. Popul. Sin. 51: 42 (1991), nom. nov.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, ?Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola concordifolia var. hirtipedicellata Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 382 (1992)
= Viola cordifolia W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929(6): 201-202 (1929)
species :
Viola confertifolia Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 238 (1949)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola congesta Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.
Distribution: Chile (Maule, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola cornuta L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1325 (1763)
Name: Horn-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: SW-France; NE-Spain; Andorra; Austria [I]; England [I]; Switzerland [I]; Italy [I]; Slovenia [I]; Romania [I]; Germany [I]
10 grb 11 aut ger swi 12 ADO FRA SPA 13 ita rom slv
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion cornutum (L.) Spach, Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 512 (1836)
= Viola acaulis Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 389, in syn. (1819)
= Viola blanda Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796), nom. rej.
species :
Viola coronifera W.Becker; Kew Bull., 137 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola coronifera var. minoriflora W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 137 (1928)
species :
Viola corralensis Phil.; Linnaea, 33: 1864 (1865) 16
Distribution: Chile (Los Lagos)
85 CLE
species :
Viola corsica Nyman; Syll. 228 (1854)
Name: Korsisches Veilchen
Distribution: Corsica; Sardinia
12 COR SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bertolonii Salis, Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. II. 5: 116 non Pio (1836)
= Viola insularis Gren. & Godr., Fl. France (Grenier) 1: 178 (1847)
species :
Viola cotyledon Ging.; DC., Prodr. 1: 300 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (O´Higgins, Maule, Bio Bio, Araucania)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola comberi W.Becker, Kew Bull., 136 (1928)
species :
Viola crassa (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 19: 87 (1905)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin, Kamchatka)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa ssp. alpicola Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1 (7): 18 (1974)
= Viola crassa ssp. borealis Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Preject. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1 (7): 19 (1974)
= Viola crassa ssp. yatsugatakeana Takah., Bull. Kanagawa Preject. Mus., Nat. Sci., 1 (7): 19 (1974)
= Viola crassa var. alpicola (Takah.) T.Shimizu, New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour, 1: 312 (1982)
= Viola crassa var. borealis (Takah.) T.Shimizu, New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour, 1: 312 (1982)
= Viola crassa var. yatsugatakeana (Takah.) T.Shimizu, New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour, 1: 312 (1982)
species :
Viola crassifolia Fenzl; Pugill. 12 (1842)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia)
34 TUR
species :
Viola crassiuscula Bory; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. (Bruxelles) 3: 16 (1820)
Name: Nevada-Veilchen
Distribution: S-Spain (Sa. Nevada)
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion lagascae Webb, Iter Hisp. 68 (1838)
= Viola cenisia Lag. & Rodr., Anal. Cienc. 5: 270 (1802)
= Viola nevadensis Boiss., Elench. Pl. Nov. 26. (1838)
species :
Viola cryana Gillot; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 25: 255 (1878)
Name: Tonnerre-Veilchen
Distribution: +NC-France (+SE of Tonnerre)
12 FRA
species :
Viola cuatrecasasii L.B.Sm. & A.Fernández; Caldasia, 6: 159 (1954)
Distribution: Colombia (Nariño, Valle); Ecuador
82 CLM 83 ECU
species :
Viola cucullata Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 3: 283 (1789)
Name: Marsh blue violet (EN), Amerikanisches Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); St. Pierre et Miquelon; Switzerland [I]; Italy [I]; Germany [I]; Mexico [I]
11 ger swi 13 ita 72 SPM 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA 79 mex
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola asarifolia Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 2: 732 (1813)
= Viola barbata Muhl., Cat. 25 (1819)
= Viola canina var. nemoralis Schltdl., 134 (1823)
= Viola caricetorum Greene ex Farw., Papers Mich. Acad. Sc. 1922. 2: 31 (1923)
= Viola ciliata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 360 (1819)
= Viola cordata Walter, Fl. Carol. (Walter) 219 (1788)
= Viola cucullata var. leptosepala (Greene) W.Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 674 (1903)
= Viola cucullata var. macrotis (Greene) W.Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 673 (1903)
= Viola cucullata var. microtitis Brainerd, Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola dicksonii Greene, Pittonia 4: 65 (1899)
= Viola leptosepala Greene, Pittonia 5: 98 (1902)
= Viola macrotis Greene, Pittonia 5: 97 (1902)
= Viola pachyrhizoma F.O.Wolf, 258 (1898)
= Viola resupinata Moench, Methodus (Moench) 230 (1794), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola cuicochensis Hieron.; Bot. Jahrb. 21: 323 (1895)
Distribution: Ecuador
83 ECU
species :
Viola culminis F.Fen. & Moraldo; Nat. Bresciana 33: 22 (2003)
Distribution: N-Italy (S-Alps)
13 ITA
species :
Viola cuneata S.Watson; Proc. Am. Acad. 14: 290 (1879)
Name: Wedgeleaved violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
species :
Viola cunninghamii Hook.fil.; Fl. New Zealand. 1: 16 (1852)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania); New Zealand (widespread); Chatham Isl.
50 AUS 51 CTM NZL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cunninghamii var. radicata Hook.fil., Fl. Nov. Zel. 1: 16 (1852)
species :
Viola curicoensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 183 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Maule)
85 CLE
species :
Viola curtisiae (L.G.Adams) K.R.Thiele; Muelleria 36: 109 (2018)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania)
50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. curtisiae L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 99 (1982)
species :
Viola cuspidifolia W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929(6): 201 (1929)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, Hunan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola cyathiformis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 21: 355 (1925)
Distribution: Chile (Bio Bio)
85 CLE
species :
Viola czemalensis Zuev; Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol., 98(4): 103 (1993)
Distribution: Siberia (Altai)
30 SIB
species :
Viola dacica Borbás; Magyar Növ. Lapok 13: 79 (1890), et ex Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 75 (1891)
Distribution: Bulgaria; Slovakia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Poland; Romania; Ukraine
11 POL SLO 13 BIH BUL NMA ROM SRB 14 UKR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola prolixa (Adamovic) Pancic
= Viola banatica Simonk., Erdely edenyes Fl. 112 (1887)
species :
Viola dactyloides Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 361 (1819)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol); Siberia (C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dactyloides var. multipartita W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 245 (1916)
= Viola digitata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 352 (1819)
= Viola palmata Ging., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
variant :
var. calcicola Vorosch.; Byull. Giavn. Bot. Sada (Moscow), 83: 36 (1972)
Distribution: Siberia
30 SIB
species :
Viola dalatensis Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 1: 178, gallice, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 85: 600 (1939), latine (1938)
Distribution: C-Vietnam
41 VIE
species :
Viola dandoisiorum J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 104: 27 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
species :
Viola danielae Pînzaru; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 44: 228 (2013), nom. nov.
Distribution: Italy (Alpi Graie: Valle Verdassa)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mariae Pînzaru, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 43: 96 (2012)
species :
Viola dasyphylla W.Becker; Kew Bull., 135 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
species :
Viola davidii Franch.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, 8: 230 (1886)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, ?Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang); ?Tibet; Myanmar
36 CHI 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola davidii var. paucicrenata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 420 (1917)
= Viola sikkimensis var. debilis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 260 (1916)
= Viola smithiana W.Becker, Acta Horti Gothob. 2(6): 287 (1926)
species :
Viola decipiens Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 445 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Bio Bio, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola declinata Waldst. & Kit.; Pl. Rar. Hung. 3: 248 (1807)
Distribution: ?Bulgaria; Romania; Ukraine
13 ROM 14 UKR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracilis Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 709 (1832)
species :
Viola decumbens L.fil.; Suppl. 397 (1782)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola procumbens J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat., ed. 13(bis). 2(1): 413 (1791)
variant :
var. scrotiformis (DC.) Jessop; Fl. Pl. South Africa 38: t. 1500 (1967)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola scrotiformis DC. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 299 (1824)
species :
Viola delavayi Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 413 (1886)
Distribution: China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieui H.Lév. & Maire, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(325-330): 282 (1913)
= Viola delavayi f. depauperata Diels, H. Lév., Cat. Pl. Yunnan. 278 (1916)
= Viola delavayi var. villosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 44 (1918)
= Viola impatiens H.Lév., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13(368-369): 343 (1914)
species :
Viola delphinantha Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 1(1): 7 (1843)
Distribution: N-Greece; SW-Bulgaria
13 BUL GRC
species :
Viola demetria Prolongo ex Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Midi Esp. 2: 73 (1839)
Distribution: SW-Spain; WC-Portugal; ?Morocco
12 POR SPA
species :
Viola denizliensis O.D.Dücen, Göktürk, U.Sarpkaya & B.Gürcan; Phytotaxa 369(1): 38 (2018)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Viola diamantiaca Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33(395): 205-206 (1919)
Distribution: China (E-Jilin, E-Liaoning, ?Shaanxi); South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diamantiaca f. glabrior (Kitag.) Kitag., Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur. 453 (1979)
= Viola diamantiaca var. glabrior Kitag., Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo Sect. IV 6: 123 (1942)
species :
Viola dichroa Boiss. & A.Huet; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 5: 48 (1856)
Distribution: Turkey (E-Anatolia)
34 TUR
species :
Viola diffusa Ging. ex DC.; Prodr. 1: 298 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. diffusa
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, SE-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Tibet; Nepal; Japan (Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; India (West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Darjeeling, Nagaland, Meghalaya); Bhutan; Myanmar; Philippines; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Vietnam; Thailand
36 CHI TIB 38 JAP NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA THA VIE 42 NWG PHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diffusa ssp. tenuis W.Becker, Philipp. J. Sci. 19(6): 714-715 (1921)
= Viola diffusa var. brevibarbata Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 264-265 (1991)
= Viola diffusa var. brevisepala W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 251 (1928)
= Viola diffusa var. glabella H.Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, 1(11): 1077 (1901)
= Viola diffusa var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40(2): 115 (1923)
= Viola diffusa var. tomentosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20(2): 127 (1906)
= Viola diffusoides Ching J.Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 19, pl. 1-9 (1988)
= Viola fargesii Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. II. 2: 833 (1902)
= Viola kiusiana Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16(184): 138-139 (1902)
= Viola parkeri Champ. ex Benth., Hook. Kew Journ. 3: 261 (1851)
= Viola wilsonii W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 251-252 (1928)
subspecies :
subsp. apoensis (Elmer) D.M.Moore; Fl. Males., Ser. 1, 7(1): 202 (1971)
Distribution: Philippines (Mindanao); New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG PHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola apoensis Elmer, Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 8: 2878 (1915)
species :
Viola dimorphophylla Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. L. Soc. 149(1): 116 (2005)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola dirimliensis Blaxland; Bot. J. L. Soc. 145(4): 505 (2004)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Viola dirphya A.Tiniakou; Candollea, 46(1): 119 (1991)
Distribution: Greece (Evvoia)
13 GRC
Remarks: sieheana agg.
species :
Viola disjuncta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20: II. 126 (1906) (disiuncta)
Distribution: Siberia (W-Siberia, Altai); Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Kazakhstan
30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atroviolacea W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 17: 75 (1921)
species :
Viola dissecta Ledeb.; Fl. Altaic. 1: 255 (1829)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, N-Sichuan, ?Zhejiang); ?Tibet; South Korea; Mongolia; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan
30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dissecta f. pubescens (Regel) Kitag., J. Jap. Bot. 34(1): 7 (1959)
= Viola dissecta f. viridis Y.N.Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 5 (2006)
= Viola dissecta var. pubescens (Regel) Kitag., Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo Sect. IV 2: 296 (1938)
= Viola pinnata lusus glabra Regel, Pl. Radd. 1: 222 (1861)
= Viola pinnata lusus pubescens Regel, Pl. Radd. 1: 222 (1861)
= Viola pinnata ssp. multifida W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. angustisecta W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. dissecta (Ledeb.) Turcz., Fl. Baic. Dahur. 1: 178 (1842)
= Viola pinnata var. latisecta W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. sibirica Ging., Prodr. 1: 292 (1824)
= Viola ×lii Kitag., Journ. Jap. Bot. 19: 110 (1943)
variant :
var. incisa (Turcz.) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China 13: 93 (2007)
Distribution: Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Mongolia; Kazakhstan
30 SIB 32 KAZ 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola incisa Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 15: 302 (1842)
species :
Viola diversifolia (Ging.) W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boiss. ser. 2, 3: 892 (1903)
Distribution: Andorra; SW-France; NE-Spain (Pyrenees)
12 ADO FRA SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cenisia var. diversifolia Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 301 (1824)
species :
Viola doerfleri Degen; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 64: 710 (1897)
Name: Doerflers Veilchen
Distribution: Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
species :
Viola dombeyana DC. ex Ging.; DC., Prodr. 1: 305 (1824)
Distribution: Peru; Colombia (Cauca, Huila, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Valle); Ecuador
82 CLM 83 ECU PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola capillaris Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola humboldtii Triana & Planch., Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. IV. 17: 121 (1862)
= Viola ramosissima Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 27: II. 336 (1854)
= Viola repens Dombey ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 305 (1824)
= Viola stipularis Kunth, (nom. illeg.)
species :
Viola domeykoana Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 229 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaiso, O´Higgins, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 ARG CLE
species :
Viola domingensis Urb.; Symb. Antill. 7: 287 (1912)
Name: Violeta (Dominican Republic), Violette, Violette des jardins (Haiti)
Distribution: Dominican Republic
81 HIS
species :
Viola douglasii Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 2: 771 (1841)
Name: Douglas´ golden violet (EN), Goldgelbes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon); Mexico (Baja California Norte); Germany [I]
11 ger 73 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chrysantha Hook., Ic. Pl, t. 49 (1836) non Schrad. ex Rchb. 1830
species :
Viola dubyana Burnat ex Gremli; Neue Beitr. Fl. Schweiz 5: 15 (1890)
Name: Dubys Veilchen
Distribution: N-Italy (S-Alps)
13 ITA
species :
Viola duclouxii W.Becker; Kew Bull., 249 (1928)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola dukadjinica W.Becker & Kogan.; Feddes Repert. 23: 145 (1926)
Distribution: Albania; NW-Greece (Smolikas)
13 ALB GRC
species :
Viola dyris Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord, 12: 181 (1921)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dyris var. calcarea Litard. & Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 26: 7 (1931)
= Viola dyris var. orientalis Emb., Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N.: 167 (1932)
species :
Viola ecuadorensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 180 (1922)
Distribution: +Ecuador
83 ECU
species :
Viola egglestonii Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 37: 526 (1910)
Name: Glade violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee)
75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola septemloba ssp. egglestonii (Brainerd) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 33 (1992)
species :
Viola elatior Fr.; Nov. Fl. Suec. ed. 2, 277 (1828)
Name: Hohes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; France; Germany (+Brandenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, +Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Hungary; Italy; Serbia & Kosovo; Slovenia; Croatia; Poland; Romania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Ukraine; Crimea; Sweden; Belgium [I]; China (Xinjiang); Kyrgyzstan; Northern Caucasus; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
10 SWE 11 AUT bgm CZE GER HUN POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 BUL CRO ITA ROM SLV SRB 14 EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 32 KGZ TZK UZB 33 NCS 36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina ssp. elatior (Clus. ex Fr.) Döll, 650 (1843)
= Viola canina ssp. persicifolia (Roth) Celak., 83 (1870), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina ssp. persicifolia (Roth) Kirschl., 13 (1840)
= Viola canina ssp. stricta (Fr.) Hartm., 37 (1846)
= Viola canina var. elatior (Clus. ex Fr.) Kirschl., 13 (1840)
= Viola canina var. persicifolia (Schkuhr) Jess., 218 (1879)
= Viola elatior f. cordifolia Sagorski, 50 (1893)
= Viola elatior f. glabrescens Erdner, 569 (1911)
= Viola elatior var. barbyensis W.Becker, 332 (1924)
= Viola erecta Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. ii. 124 (1782)
= Viola lactea var. stricta Fr., 86 (1823)
= Viola montana DC., Fl. Franc. (DC. & Lam.), ed. 3. 4: 807 (1805)
= Viola montana var. elatior Regel, Pl. Radd. 252 (1861)
= Viola montana var. persicifolia (Roth) Pio, 24 (1813)
= Viola persicifolia var. rothiana Wallr., 101 (1822)
= Viola procera Pall. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1(2): 251 (1842)
= Viola pseudomontana Blocki, Spraw. Kom. Fizyj. Krakow. 22: 2: 213 (1888)
= Viola recta var. persicifolia (Schkuhr) Garcke, 55 (1848)
= Viola stipularis Fr., Fr. & Broberg, 47 (1819), nom. illeg., non Sw.
= Viola stricta Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. 2: 958 (1815), nom. illeg.
= Viola subpubescens Borbás, Natur. und Offenb. 37: 500 (1891), et in Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 347 (1891)
species :
Viola elegantula Schott; Österr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 167 (1857)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Albania; Croatia; Macedonia
13 ALB BIH CRO MNT NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola speciosa Pant., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 23: 79 (1873)
= Viola latisepala Wettst., Luers. Bibl. Bot. Heft 26: 27 (1892)
= Viola elegantula ssp. latisepala (Wettst.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 334 (1910)
species :
Viola eminens K.R.Thiele & Prober; Muelleria 18: 19 (2003)
Distribution: Australia (Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales)
50 AUS
species :
Viola eminii (Engl.) Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 6 (1925)
Distribution: Kenya; E-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; South Sudan; Uganda; Tanzania; Rwanda; Burundi
23 BUR RWA ZAI 24 SSU 25 KEN TAN UGA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abyssinica var. eminii Engl.
= Viola abyssinica var. ulugurensis Engl.
= Viola mearnsii Standl., Smithson. Misc. Coll. 68: No. 5. 9 (1917), non Merr.
variant :
var. duriprati (Fr.) Stork
Distribution: Kenya (mountains); Tanzania
25 KEN TAN
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola duriprati R.E.Fr., Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 8 (1925)
species :
Viola enmae P.Gonzáles; Phytotaxa 283(1): 87 (2016)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola epipsila Ledeb.; Ind. Sem. Horti Dorpat. 5 (1820)
subspecies :
subsp. epipsila
Name: Torf-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Finland; Germany (Brandenburg, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, +Schleswig-Holstein, +Sachsen); Iceland; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Siberia (E-Siberia); China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol); Mongolia; Japan (Hokkaido); Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.); Kazakhstan
10 DEN FIN ICE NOR SWE 11 CZE GER POL SLO 13 ROM 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brachyceras Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 15: 301 (1842)
= Viola epipsila ssp. palustroides W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 72 (1921)
= Viola palustris ssp. epipsila (Ledeb.) C.Hartm., 39 (1866)
= Viola palustris var. epipsila (Ledeb.) Celak., 314 (1887)
= Viola palustris var. epipsila (Ledeb.) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Petersbourg 23(2): 323-324 (1877)
= Viola palustroides (W.Becker) Tzvelev, Arktich. Fl. SSSR, 8: 36 (1980)
variant :
var. repens (W.Becker) R.J.Little; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
Name: Dwarf marsh violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northern Territories, Ontario, Yukon); European Russia; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Mongolia
14 RUS 37 MON 38 JAP NKO 70 ASK 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola achyrophora Greene, Pittonia 5: 33 (1902)
= Viola blanda var. violascens Nakai, (1922)
= Viola blandiformis Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 192 (1925)
= Viola brachyceras var. blandiformis (Nakai) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 32 (2020)
= Viola epipsila ssp. repens (Turcz.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 406 (1917)
= Viola epipsiloides Á. & D.Löve, Bot. Notiser, 128(4): 516 1975 (1976), nom. nov.
= Viola repens Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 11: 88 (1838), et ex Trautv. & C. A. Mey., Fl. Ochot. (Middend. Reise N. & O. Sibir. i 11.) 18 (1856) (non Schwein. (1822))
species :
Viola epirota (Halácsy) Raus; Willdenowia, 13(1): 99 (1983)
Distribution: W-Greece; Albania; Macedonia
13 ALB GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola declinata var. epirota Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 142 (1900)
species :
Viola ermenekensis Yild. & Dinç; Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi 9(1): 2 (2002)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Viola escarapela J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Gayana, Bot. 60(2): 134 (2003), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Maule)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche & Johow, Fl. Chile, 1: 153 (1893)
species :
Viola etrusca Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 22: 499 (1986)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
species :
Viola euboea (Halácsy) Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec., Suppl. 1: 15 (1908)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla ssp. euboea (Halácsy) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: 326 (1910)
= Viola gracilis var. euboea Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 141 (1900)
species :
Viola eugeniae Parl.; Nuovo Gior. Bot. Ital. 7: 68 (1875)
subspecies :
subsp. eugeniae
Name: Apenninen-Veilchen
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
subspecies :
subsp. levieri (Parl.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 299 (1894)
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola levieri Parl. ex Caruel, Fl. Italiana, 9: 181 (1890)
= Viola eugeniae ssp. levieri (Parl.) A.Schmidt, Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 77: 96 (1965), isonym
species :
Viola evae Hieron. ex W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 182 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja, Salta)
85 ARG
variant :
var. flossdorfii (Hicken) Nicola; Phytotaxa 338(2): 235 (2018)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-evae var. flossdorfii Hicken, Darwiniana 1: 31 (1922)
species :
Viola eximia Formánek; Verh. Naturf. Ver. Brünn 38: 221 (1900)
subspecies :
subsp. eximia
Name: Mazedonisches Veilchen
Distribution: W-Macedonia; Albania; Greece
13 ALB GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pascua W.Becker, Bull. Inst. Jard. Bot. Univ. Beograd 1: 34 (1928)
subspecies :
subsp. tringiana Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 462 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola exsul J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Fl. San Juan 2: 145 (2003)
Distribution: Argentina (San Juan)
85 ARG
species :
Viola farkasiana J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 101: 43 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío)
85 CLE
species :
Viola faurieana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 239-240 (1916)
Distribution: ?China; Japan (Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola faurieana f. albifaurieana E.Hama, Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola ugoana Makino ex Muramatsu, Fl. Akitaense 183, t. 3, f. 2 (1932)
species :
Viola fedtschenkoana W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 31 (1915)
Distribution: Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan (Swat); NW-India (Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 40 IND PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola isopetala Juz., Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 681 (1949)
variant :
var. muzaffarabadensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2,40: 59 (1923)
Distribution: NW-India (Jammu & Kashmir)
40 IND
species :
Viola ferdinandea Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 199, fig. 10 (2018)
Distribution: S-Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola ferrarinii Moraldo & Ricceri; Webbia 66(1): 46 (2011)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola ferreyrae P.Gonzáles; Phytotaxa 283(1): 84 (2016)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola filicaulis Hook.fil.; Fl. New Zealand. 1: 16 (1852)
Distribution: New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl.)
51 NZL
species :
Viola fischeri W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 264 (1916)
Distribution: Siberia (W-Siberia)
30 SIB
species :
Viola fissifolia Kitag.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 49(580): 226-228, f. 2 (1935)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola jettmari Hand.-Mazz., Österr. Bot. Z. 87: 302 (1935)
species :
Viola flagelliformis Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. Mexic. 2: 20 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas)
79 MEX
species :
Viola flavicans Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 292 (1864)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Tarija)
83 BOL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola exigua W.Becker, Engl. Jahrb. 37: 590 (1906), non Vell. 1831
species :
Viola flettii Piper; Erythea, 6: 69 (1898)
Name: Olympic violet
Distribution: USA (Washington State: Olympic Mts.)
species :
Viola flos-evae Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Cordova, 4: 5 (1881)
Distribution: Argentina (San Juan)
85 ARG
species :
Viola flos-idae Hieron.
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-idae var. pseudovolcanica Hieron.
species :
Viola fluehmannii Phil.; Anal. Univ Chil. 81: 346 (1893)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Bio Bio, Araucania, Los Lagos)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola escondidaensis W.Becker, Kew Bull., 138 (1928)
species :
Viola formosana Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 28 (1906)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arisanensis W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 314 (1921)
= Viola formosana var. tozanensis (Hayata) C.F.Hsieh, Fl. Taiwan 3: 776, t. 813 (1977)
= Viola tozanensis Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 53 (1908)
variant :
var. kawakamii (Hayata) Wang; A Taxon. Study of Viola of Taiwan 167 (1988)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola formosana var. kawakamii (Hayata) Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang, Fl. China (2007), isonym
= Viola formosana var. stenopetala (Hayata) J.C.Wang, T.C.Huang & T.Hashim., Taiwania 35: 37-41, f. 10 (1990)
= Viola hypoleuca Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 26-27, f. 11 (1913)
= Viola kawakamii Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 52-53 (1908)
= Viola kawakamii var. stenopetala Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 27-28, f. 13 (1913)
= Viola matsudai Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 10: 1-2 (1921)
= Viola takasagoensis Koidz., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7(2): 112 (1939)
species :
Viola forrestiana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19(544-545): 234 (1923)
Distribution: SE-Tibet; ?China (?Shanxi)
36 TIB
species :
Viola forskaalii Greuter; Boissiera 13: 59 (1967)
Distribution: Yemen (W-Yemen)
35 YEM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arborea Forssk. ex DC., DC. Prodr. 1: 300 (1824)
species :
Viola fragrans Sieber; Reise Kreta 2: 320 (1823)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
species :
Viola frank-smithii N.H.Holmgren; Brittonia, 44(3): 303 (1992)
Name: Frank Smith´s violet
Distribution: USA (Utah: Cache Co.: Logan Canyon)
76 USA
species :
Viola friderici W.Beckcr; Fedde, Repert. 21: 359 (1925)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola frigida Phil.; Fl. Atac. 9 (1860)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja, Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola borchersii Phil., Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 494 (1893)
= Viola frigida Phil. ex W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 24: 112 (1927), descr. emend.
= Viola frigida var. borchersi (Phil.) Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 903 (1895)
= Viola molfinoana W.Becker
species :
Viola frondosa (Velen.) Hayek; Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 511 (1925)
Distribution: S-Macedonia (SE of Prilep); Greece
13 GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola zoysii var. frondosa Velen., Rel. Mrkvickanae, 6 (1922)
species :
Viola frusinatae Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 201, fig. 11 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola fuscifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola fuscoviolacea (L.G.Adams) T.A.James; Muelleria, 9: 35 (1996)
Distribution: Australia (S-New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania)
50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. fuscoviolacea L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola galeanaensis M.S.Baker; Madrono, 9: 131 (1947)
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon)
79 MEX
species :
Viola gan-chouenensis W.Becker; Kew Bull., 251 (1928)
Distribution: China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola ganiatsasii Erben; Bios (Thessalonika) Vol. A (App.) 67 (1989)
Distribution: NE-Greece; Bulgaria
13 BUL GRC
species :
Viola gaviolii Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 202, fig. 12 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola gelida J.M.Watson, M.P.Cárdenas & A.R.Flores; Gayana, Bot. 70(2): 390 (2013)
Distribution: C-Chile
85 CLE
species :
Viola germainii Sparre; Lilloa, 17: 384 (1949)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nivalis Phil., Linnaea, 28: 611 (non Benth.) (1856)
species :
Viola glabella Nutt.; Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Pioneer violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington State); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)
70 ASK 73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. sitchensis (Bong. ex Ledeb.) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39: 528 (1866)
= Viola californica M.S.Baker, Madrono, 12: 13 (1953)
= Viola canadensis var. sitchensis Bong. ex Ledeb., Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1: 255 (1842)
species :
Viola glacialis Poepp. & Endl.; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2: 49, t. 165 (1835)
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins, Maule, Bio Bio, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola glandularis H.E.Ballard & P.M.Jørg.; Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 75): 956 (1999), nom. nov.
Distribution: Ecuador; Colombia (Cauca, Nariño)
82 CLM 83 ECU
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glandulifera Hook., Icon. Pl. 1: t. 67 (1837) (nom. illeg.)
species :
Viola glechomoides Leyb.; Flora, 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola gmeliniana Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 354 (1819)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol); Siberia (C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fischeri Sweet, Hort. Brit. (ed. 2) 44 (1830)
= Viola fusiformis Sm., Cycl. 37: nr. 9 (1819)
= Viola gmeliniana var. albiflora W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 401 (1917)
= Viola gmeliniana var. glabra Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 246 (1842)
= Viola gmeliniana var. hispida Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 246 (1842)
= Viola gmeliniana var. scorpiurifolia DC., Prodr. 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola lanceolata Pall., Reise, 3: 223
= Viola suavis Fisch. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 294 (1824)
species :
Viola godoyae Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 493 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
species :
Viola gracilis Sibth. & Sm.; Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 146 (1806)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, WN-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Records for the Balcans and Greece refer to other species like V. euboea
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calycina Boiss. & Heldr., Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 53 (1849)
= Viola olympica Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 1: 55 (1853)
species :
Viola gracillima A.St.-Hil.; Pl. Rem. Bres. 275 (1825)
Distribution: SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina)
84 BRA
species :
Viola graeca (W.Becker) Halácsy; Suppl. Consp. Fl. Graec. 14 (1908)
Distribution: SE-Italy (Monte Gargano); Greece; Macedonia
13 GRC ITA NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla ssp. graeca (W.Becker) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 326 (1910)
species :
Viola grahamii Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 35 (1839)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz); Guatemala
79 MEX 80 GUA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nuevoleonensis W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 18: 125 (1922)
= Viola ciliata Schltdl., Linnaea, 12: 202 (1838)
= Viola lutea Sessé & Moc., non L.
= Viola pringlei Rose & House, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 29: 444 (1905)
= Viola reptans B.L.Rob., Proc. Am. Acad. 27: 165 (1893)
= Viola schaffneriana W.Becker, Feddes Repert. 20: 2 (1924)
species :
Viola grandisepala W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 250 (1928)
Distribution: China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola binchuanensis S.H.Huang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 25(4): 433 (2003)
= Viola brunneostipulosa Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7(2): 380 (1931)
species :
Viola granulosa Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 292 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (La Paz); Chile (Tarapaca)
83 BOL PER 85 CLE
species :
Viola grayi Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 288 (1878)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grayi f. pubescens (Nakai) E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 343 (1976)
= Viola grayi var. pubescens Nakai
= Viola senamiensis Nakai, Journ. Jap. Bot., 15: 405 (1939)
species :
Viola grisebachiana Vis.; Mem. Ist. Veneto 10: 436 (1861)
Distribution: Albania; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Bulgaria; Greece
13 ALB BIH BUL GRC MNT NMA SRB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola korabensis Trinajstic, Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 3: 6 (1975)
species :
Viola grypoceras A.Gray; Narr. Parry´s Jap. Exped. 2: 308 (1856)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, SE-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, E-Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Russian Far East (Kuril Isl.); South Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NNS TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina var. japonica Ging.in DC., Prodr. 1: 298 (1824)
= Viola coreana Boiss., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 58: 213 (1911)
= Viola grayi var. candida H.Boissieu
= Viola grayi var. glabra W.Becker
= Viola grypoceras f. albiflora Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 281 (1916), et 36: 55 (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. chionantha F.Maek., Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 202 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras var. barbata W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 440 (1922)
= Viola grypoceras var. hirsuta P.Y.Fu & Q.H.Liu, nom. nud.
= Viola grypoceras var. imberbis (A.Gray) Ohwi, Fl. Jap. (Ohwi) 796 (1953)
= Viola hideoi var. robustior Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola hosoii Nakai, Journ. Jap. Bot., 15: 407 (1939)
= Viola leveillei H.Boissieu, Bull. Acad. Inter. Geog. Bot. 11: 91 (1902)
= Viola longepedunculata Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 286 (1878)
= Viola sylvestris var. acaulis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris var. grypoceras (A.Gray) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 330 (1877)
= Viola sylvestris var. imberbis A.Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts ser. 2 6 (2): 382 (1859)
= Viola sylvestris var. japonica (Ging.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 146 (1902)
= Viola wichurae Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 562 (1928)
variant :
var. exilis (Miq.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 55 (1922)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; Taiwan
38 JAP KOR TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sylvestris var. exilis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola pruniflora Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 563 (1928)
variant :
var. hichitoana (Nakai) F.Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 203 (1954)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hichitoana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 34 (1922)
= Viola lutchuensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 35 (1922)
= Viola krugiana W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(588-600): 261 (1925)
= Viola lucida Nakai, Journ. Jap. Bot., 15: 406 (1939)
variant :
var. rhizomata (Nakai) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola rhizomata Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 49: 498 (1935)
= Viola yamadoriana Makino, (1966) (nom. nud.)
variant :
var. ripensis N.Yamada & Okamoto; Bull. Osaka Mus. Nat. Hist., 50: 2 (1996)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku)
38 JAP
species :
Viola guadalupensis A.M.Powell & Wauer; Sida, 14(1): 1 (1990)
Name: Guadalupe violet
Distribution: USA (New Mexico, Texas)
77 USA
species :
Viola guangzhouensis A.Q.Dong, J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Novon 19(4): 457 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola guatemalensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 20: 6 (1924)
Distribution: Guatemala; Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de Mexico, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz); Costa Rica; Honduras; Panama
79 MEX 80 COS GUA HON PAN
species :
Viola guaxarensis M.Marrero, Docoito Díaz & Martín Esquivel; Willdenowia 50(1): 16 (2020)
Distribution: Canary Isl.
21 CNY
species :
Viola hallii A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 377 (1872)
Name: Oregon violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
species :
Viola hamiltoniana D.Don; Prodr. Fl. Nep. 206 (1825)
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Darjeeling, West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Nepal; Bhutan; Bangladesh; peninsular Malaysia; Philippines; Thailand; Laos; Java; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Sumatra; Myanmar (Chin); Vietnam; Moluccas (Buru); Sri Lanka
40 BAN BHU IND NEP SRL 41 LAO MYA THA VIE 42 JAW MLY MOL NWG PHI SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20: II. 125 (1906)
= Viola herbivaga Ridl., Journ. Bot., 73: 17 (1935)
= Viola lunata Ridl., Trans. Linn Soc., Bot 9: 17 (1916)
= Viola metziana Hohen. ex Hook.fil., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 184 (1872)
= Viola notoniana Wall., Cat. 39, n. 1449 (1829), nom. nud.
= Viola repens Wall., Cat. 39, n. 1441 (1829), nom. nud.
= Viola serpens var. hamiltoniana (D.Don) Hook.fil. & Thomson ex Boissieu, Bull. S. B. Fr. 57: 259 (1910)
= Viola toppingii Elmer, Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 2: 504 (1908)
species :
Viola hancockii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 249 (1928)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hancockii var. fangshanensis J.W.Wang, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 27(3): 202 (1989)
species :
Viola hastata Michx.; Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 149 (1803)
Name: Halberdleaved yellow violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta Schwein., Am. Journ. Sc. Ser. I. 5: 50 (1822)
= Viola trifida Spreng., Pugill. 1: 22 (1813)
species :
Viola hederacea Labill.; Nov. Holl. Pl. 1: 66, t. 91 (1804)
subspecies :
subsp. hederacea
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia, SE-Queensland, E-New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania); Lord Howe Isl.; peninsular Malaysia [I] (Cameron Highlands [I], Pahang [I]); Myanmar [I]; Thailand [I]; China [I]
36 chi 41 mya tha 42 mly 50 AUS LHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Erpetion cymbalariae DC. ex Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. 2: t. 170 (1826)
= Erpetion hederaceum (Labill.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Erpetion hederaceum (Labill.) Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 2: 45 (1830)
= Erpetion petiolare G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Erpetion reniforme Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard, t. 170 (1826)
= Erpetion spathulatum G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Viola gracilis R.Br. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 305 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. cleistogamoides L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 98 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia, New South Wales, S-Victoria, NE-Tasmania)
50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cleistogamoides (L.G.Adams) Seppelt, Fl. S. Austr., 2: 870 (1986)
subspecies :
subsp. seppeltiana L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia, 8: 387, 99 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia including Kangaroo Is., S-Victoria to the Dandenongs)
50 AUS
subspecies :
subsp. sieberiana (Spreng.) L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia, 8: 387, 99 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (Sydney region, New South Wales, isolated E-Gippsland, Victoria)
50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Erpetion spathulatum Don, Gen. Hist. 1: 335 (1831)
= Viola hederacea var. sieberi (Hook.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii: 266 (1917)
= Viola hederacea var. sieberiana (Spreng.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 428 (1928)
= Viola sieberi Hook., Comp.Bot.Mag.1: 274 (1835)
= Viola sieberiana Spreng., Syst. Veg. (ed. 16) (Spreng.) 4(2, Cur. Post.): 96 (1827)
species :
Viola hediniana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 262-263 (1916)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, Sichuan); India (Arunachal Pradesh)
36 CHI 40 IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola henryi var. cordifolia Chang, nom. nud.
species :
Viola heldreichiana Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 53 (1849)
Name: Heldreichs Veilchen (DE); Heldreich´s Violet (EN)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon); East Aegaean Isl. (Karpathos, Rhodos)
34 CYP EAI LEB TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lesbiaca P.Candargy
= Viola parvula ssp. heldreichiana (Boiss.) Rothm.
species :
Viola helenae C.N.Forbes & Lydgate; Occas. Papers Bishop Mus. Honolulu, 4: 218 (1909)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola hemsleyana Calderón; Phytologia, 52(2): 101 (1982)
Distribution: Mexico (Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Viola henryi H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, 1(11): 1075-1076 (1901)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, NW-Hunan, E-Sichuan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola herzogii (W.Becker) Bornm.; Magyar Bot. Lap. 32: 141 (1933)
Distribution: N-Greece; Macedonia
13 GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola allchariensis var. herzogii W.Becker, Feddes Repert. 17: 75 (1921)
= Viola gracilis var. pinifolia Herzog, Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 24-25: 19 (1920)
= Viola allchariensis var. prilepensis W.Becker, Feddes Repert. 17: 75 (1921)
= Viola mrkvickiana Velen., Reliq. Mrkv. 6 (1922)
= Viola allchariensis f. pinifolia (Herzog) Trinajstic, Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 3: 7 (1975)
species :
Viola hieronymi W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 185 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, La Rioja)
85 ARG
species :
Viola hillii W.Becker; Kew Bull., 134 (1928)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola hirsutula Brainerd; Rhodora, 9: 98 (1907)
Name: Southern woodland violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
species :
Viola hirta L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Behaartes Veilchen, Rauhaariges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Bulgaria; ?Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Portugal; Andorra; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Sicily; Sweden; Finland [I]; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; China (Xinjiang); Turkey (NE-Anatolia)
10 DEN fin GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO FRA POR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ 33 GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarea (Bab.) J.W.White, Dörfl., 228 (1904)
= Viola drymeia Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola foudrasi Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 4 (1849)
= Viola hebecarpa Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola hirsuta Crantz, Inst. 2: 430 (1766)
= Viola hirta f. fraterna (Rchb.) Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta f. pinetorum (Wiesb.) Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta ssp. brevifimbriata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 34 (1909)
= Viola hirta ssp. fraterna (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens, 158 (1834)
= Viola hirta ssp. longifimbriata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 23-24 (1918)
= Viola hirta subf.fallax (T.Marsson) Zablocki, 23 (1947)
= Viola hirta subvar. pseudoarenaria Erdner, 569 (1911)
= Viola hirta var. albiflora Semler, 30 (1899), nom. inval.
= Viola hirta var. apetala Bastard, 28 (1812)
= Viola hirta var. calcarea Bab., 103 (1842)
= Viola hirta var. exigua Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. fallax T.Marsson, 57 (1869)
= Viola hirta var. fertiliflora Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta var. frustranea Neuman, 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta var. grandiflora Wirtg., 22 (1841)
= Viola hirta var. hirsuta Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. lancifolia Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. lilacina Erdner, 569 (1911)
= Viola hirta var. montana Bogenh., 160 (1850), nom. illeg.
= Viola hirta var. montana Dierb., 222 (1825)
= Viola hirta var. oligopetala Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. pratensis Dierb., 222 (1825)
= Viola hirta var. pseudoambigua Wiesb., Formánek, 77 (1886)
= Viola hirta var. variegata Bogenh., 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. vulgaris Rchb., 705 (1832)
= Viola hirto-alba Gren. & Godr., Fl. Fr. 1: 176 (1847)
= Viola maillardi Souché, C. R. Assoc. Fr. Blois, 1884 288 (1885)
= Viola martii K.F.Schimp. & Spenn., Spenn., 1086 (1829), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii ssp. hirta (L.) Kirschl., 6 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii ssp. intermedia Kirschl., 6 (1840)
= Viola martii var. hirta (L.) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola odorata ssp. hirta (L.) Celak., 82 (1870)
= Viola pallida Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796)
= Viola parvula Opiz, Böhm. Gew. (1823) 32, Natural. n. 6: 45 (1824)
= Viola rubra Aubl. ex Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 773 (1841)
= Viola tenerrima Wiesb. ex Nyman, Consp. 78 (1878)
species :
Viola hirtipes S.Moore; J. L. Soc., Bot. 17(102): 379, t. 16, f. 6 (1879)
Distribution: China (E-Jilin, E-Liaoning); South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Russian Far East (Ussuri)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirtipedoides W.Becker, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 73 (1921)
= Viola hirtipes f. glabra E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola hirtipes f. grisea (Nakai) Hiyama, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 94 (1953)
= Viola hirtipes var. grisea Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 129 (1913)
= Viola hirtipes var. lanata Nakai, Chosen Shokubutsu 125 (1914)
= Viola hirtipes var. miyabei (Makino) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola kamibayashii Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 30: 287 (1916)
= Viola miyabei Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16(183): 124 (1902)
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. pallida Yatabe, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6(60): 102 (1892)
species :
Viola hispida Lam.; Fl. Fr. 2: 679 (1778)
Name: Rouen-Veilchen
Distribution: NW-France (near Rouen)
12 FRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pesneaui Lloyd, Fl. Ouest. Fr. ed. III. 43 (1876)
= Viola pilosa Pers., Syn. 1: 255 (1805)
species :
Viola hissarica Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 682 (1949)
Distribution: Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
32 TZK UZB
species :
Viola hondoensis W.Becker & Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. II. 8: 739 (1908)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea; ?China; Siberia (E-Siberia); Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.)
30 SIB 31 RFE 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta var. japonica Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 327 (1877)
= Viola nipponica Maxim., (1877)
= Viola teshioensis Miyabe & Tatew., Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 187 (1936)
= Viola tomentosifolia Makino, (1931)
species :
Viola hookeriana Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 369 (1823)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Viola howellii A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 308 (1887)
Name: Howell´s violet
Distribution: USA (Oregon, Washington State); Canada (British Columbia)
73 USA
species :
Viola huesoensis Martic.; Gayana, Bot. 57(2): 191 (2000 publ. 2001), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola litoralis Phil., Fl. Atac. 9 (1860), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola huidobrii Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 214 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Bio Bio, Araucania, Los Lagos)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lechlerii Griseb., Goett. Abh. 6: 116 (1854)
species :
Viola huizhouensis Y.S.Huang & Q.Fan; PhytoKeys 176: 70, figs. 2-3 (2021)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola hultenii W.Becker; Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 4 (1928)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Kuril Isl.); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blandiformis var. pilosa Hara, (1952)
= Viola pallens ssp. hultenii (W.Becker) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 31 (2020)
species :
Viola humilis Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 369 (1823)
Distribution: Colombia (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Putumayo, Santander); Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz)
79 MEX 82 CLM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kalbreyeri W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 18: 180 (1922)
= Viola prunellifolia Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 370 (1823)
= Viola reticulata Schltdl., Linnaea, 12:201 (1838)
species :
Viola hunanensis Hand.-Mazz.; Symb. Sin. 7(2): 376, f. 10: 2, 3 (1931)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola hybanthoides W.B.Liao & Q.Fan; Phytotaxa 197(1): 20 (2015)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola hymettia Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(1): 57 (1853)
Name: Hymettos-Veilchen
Distribution: France; Greece; East Aegaean Isl.; Italy; SW-Romania; Sicily; European Turkey; Macedonia; Iran (N-Iran); Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan
12 FRA 13 GRC ITA NMA ROM SIC TUE 14 UKR 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 EAI IRN
Remarks: tricolor agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola tricolor var. hymettia (Boiss. & Heldr.) Boiss., Fl. 1: 466 (1867)
= Viola lavrenkoana Klokov, Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Charkov. 8 (1927)
= Viola cretacea Klokov, Schischkin & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 15: 686 (1949)
species :
Viola ilvensis (W.Becker) Arrigoni; Fl. Analítica Toscana 5: 84 (2019)
Distribution: Italy (Elba Isl.)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla ssp. ilvensis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2. 26(2): 324 (1909)
= Viola corsica ssp. ilvensis (W.Becker) Merxm., Feddes Repert. 79: 57 (1968)
species :
Viola improcera L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia, 8: 387, 100 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (Victoria)
50 AUS
Conservation Status: known from only 1 collection besides the type
species :
Viola improvisa Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 35: 135 (2003)
Distribution: European Russia
14 RUS
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola inconspicua Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 58 (1825)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; Java; peninsular Malaysia (once from Penang Hill); Myanmar; Sumatra; Mauritius; India (Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, ?Sikkim); Philippines; Vietnam
29 MAU 33 geo 36 CHI 40 IND 41 MYA VIE 42 JAW MLY PHI SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola apetala Roxb., Hort. Beng. 18 (1814), nomen, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., 2: 449 (1824), Fl. Ind., ed. Carey, 1: 650 (1832)
= Viola inconspicua f. albescens (Taken.) Yonek., J. Jap. Bot. 80(6): 326 (2005)
= Viola inconspicua f. pilosa (F.Maek.) Yonek., J. Jap. Bot. 80(6): 326 (2005)
= Viola minor f. pilosa F.Maek.
= Viola minor var. albescens Taken.
= Viola philippica Sasaki, List Pl. Formosa 298 (1928)
= Viola primulifolia Roxb., not Linnaeus (1753)
= Viola pseudomonbeigii Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 251 (1949)
species :
Viola indica W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20: II. 126 (1906)
Distribution: India (Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya); Pakistan (Chitral, Hazara)
40 IND PAK
form :
f. barbata (W.Becker) S.P.Banerjee & Pramanik; Fasc. Fl. India, 12: 26 (1983)
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh)
40 IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola indica var. barbata W.Becker
species :
Viola ingolensis Elisafenko; Rastitel´n. Mir Aziatsk. Rossii 2(34): 12, figs. 3-7 (2019)
Distribution: Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)
30 SIB
species :
Viola irinae Zolot.; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 21: 230 (1984)
Distribution: Siberia (W-Siberia)
30 SIB
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola isaurica Contandr. & Quézel; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 123: 419 (1976)
Distribution: Turkey (SSW-Anatolia)
34 TUR
species :
Viola ivonis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 608 (1985)
Distribution: Macedonia
13 NMA
species :
Viola iwagawae Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 158 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Yakushima Isl.); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieuana var. iwagawae (Makino) Ohwi, (1953)
species :
Viola jalapaensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 125 (1922)
Distribution: Mexico (Tamaulipas, Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Viola jangiensis W.Becker; Kew Bull., 201 (1929)
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh)
40 IND
species :
Viola japonica Langsd. ex Ging.; DC., Prodr. 1: 295 (1824)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; ?Taiwan; USA [I] (Massachusetts [I])
38 JAP KOR 75 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola japonica f. variegata (Hatus.) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola japonica var. variegata Hatus., Exp. Forest. Kyushu Imp. Univ. 5: 132 (1934)
= Viola kapsanensis var. albiflora (Nakai) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 36 (1922)
= Viola kapsanensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 35 (1922)
= Viola odorata Thunb., Fl. Jap. 326 (1784) (non L.)
species :
Viola jaubertiana Marès & Vigin.; Cat. Pl. Baléar. 37 (1880)
Name: Balearen-Veilchen
Distribution: Baleares (Mallorca)
12 BAL
species :
Viola javanica W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl 34: II. 260 (1916)
Distribution: E-Java
42 JAW
species :
Viola jeniseensis Zuev; Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol., 98(4): 104 (1993)
Distribution: Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)
30 SIB
species :
Viola jinggangshanensis Z.L.Ning & J.P.Liao; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 49(5-6): 383 (2012)
Distribution: China (Jiangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Viola joergensenii W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 22: 353 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca)
85 ARG
species :
Viola johnstonii W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 24: 110 (1927)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
species :
Viola jooi Janka; Österr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 198 (1857)
Name: Karpaten-Veilchen
Distribution: C-Romania; NE-Serbia; Ukraine
13 ROM SRB 14 UKR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sciaphila Soó ex Janka, Österr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 198 (1857)
= Viola transsilvanica Schur, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 10: 184 (1860)
species :
Viola jordanii Hanry; Prodr. Hist. Nat. Vor 169 (1853)
Name: Jordan-Veilchen
Distribution: SE-France; Bulgaria; Hungary; Macedonia; Serbia & Kosovo; Romania; Greece; Ukraine; Crimea; Turkey (SSW-Anatolia)
11 HUN 12 FRA 13 BUL GRC NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY UKR 34 TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola elatior ssp. jordanii (Hanry) Soó, Magyar Növenyvilag Kezikönyve 1: 631 (1951)
= Viola danubialis Borbás, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 75, 183 (1891)
variant :
var. falconeri (Hook.fil. & Thomson) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt 2,34: 380 (1917)
Distribution: NW-India (Kashmir)
40 IND
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola falconeri Hook.fil. & Thomson, Hook. fil. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 185 (1872)
species :
Viola karakalensis Klokov; Fl. URSS 15: 687, t. 22, f. 9 (1949)
Distribution: Iran (N-Iran); Turkmenistan
32 TKM 34 IRN
species :
Viola karlreicheana Sanso, M.Seo & Xifreda; Darwiniana 45(2): 241 (2007), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bicolor Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 899 (1895), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola kauaensis A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 2: 325 (1852)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai, Oahu)
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kauaensis f. maxima Hochr.
variant :
var. hosakae (H.St.John) Havran & Ching Harbin; PhytoKeys 39: 28 (2014)
Distribution: Hawaii
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hosakae H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 173 (1989)
variant :
var. wahiawaensis C.N.Forbes
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola keiskei Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 153 (1865)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); North Korea
38 JAP NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta f. keiskei (Miq.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 86 (1903)
= Viola keiskei f. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 40: 155 (1923)
= Viola keiskei f. okuboi (Makino) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola keiskei ssp. transmaritima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 251 (1916)
= Viola keiskei var. glabra W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 252 (1916)
= Viola keiskei var. okuboi Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 133 (1902)
= Viola okuboi (Makino) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17: 85 (1903)
= Viola okuboi var. glabra Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 86 (1903)
species :
Viola kermesina W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. Nov. Sp. 7: 124 (1909)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola kiangsiensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(601-605): 321 (1925)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Viola kitaibeliana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 383 (1819)
Name: Kleines Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Greece (incl. Kiklades); East Aegaean Isl.; Switzerland; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal; ?Poland; Romania; Ukraine; Crimea; E-European Russia; Sicily; Germany (Baden-Württemberg [I], Rheinland-Pfalz [I], Thüringen); Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; China [I]; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); European Turkey; Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan); Iraq (SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Israel (coastal W-Israel, N-Israel); Syria (Jbel Druze); Canary Isl. (Tenerife); Morocco
11 AUT CZE GER HUN SLO SWI 12 COR POR 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB TUE 14 KRY RUS UKR 20 MOR 21 CNY 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR SYR TUR 36 chi
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensis ssp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Mateo & Figuerola, Fl. Analit. Prov. Valencia (IAM Investig. 14): 369 (1987)
= Viola arvensis ssp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) W.Becker, 42 (1904)
= Viola brockmanniana W.Becker, 70 (1910)
= Viola foucaudii A.Sav., P. David & al., 49 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola foucaudii A.Sav., Foucaud, 75 (1879)
= Viola henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) W.Becker, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 190 (1906)
= Viola kitaibeliana ssp. trimestris (DC.) Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 20 (1999)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. brevicalcarata Font Quer & Svent., Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295 (1993)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Gams
= Viola kitaibeliana var. tokajensis Soó, 183 (1940)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. trimestris (DC.) Espeut, Biocosme Mésogéen 27(4): 132 (2010)
= Viola parviflora Kit., Roem. & Schult., 383 (1819), nom. inval.
= Viola tricolor ssp. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Furrer & Longa, 67 (1915)
= Viola tricolor ssp. henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor ssp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Nägeli, Schinz & R. Keller, 366 (1909)
= Viola tricolor ssp. machadeana (Cout.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor ssp. minima Gaudin, Fl. HeIv. 2: 210 (1828)
= Viola tricolor ssp. olyssiponensis (Rouy) Nyman, 47 (1889)
= Viola tricolor ssp. parviflora (Kit.) Nyman, 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor ssp. trimestris (DC.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor subvar. pygmaea Rouy & Foucaud, 48 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Gams, 601 (1925)
= Viola tricolor var. hirta Ging., DC., 304 (1824)
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Hampe, 19 (1836)
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 257 (1842)
= Viola tricolor var. mediterranea Gren., 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. minima (Gaudin) Moritzi, 167 (1832)
= Viola tricolor var. nemausensis (Jord.) Nyman, 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor var. procerior Gaudin, 211 (1828), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor var. triphylla Wender., 62 (1846)
species :
Viola kitamiana Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 564 (1928)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. kitamiana (Nakai) Maek. ex Toyok., (1957)
species :
Viola kizildaghensis Dinç & Yild.; Bot. J. L. Soc. 138(4): 483 (2002)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
species :
Viola kjellbergii Melch.; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin, 12: 206 (1934)
Distribution: New Guinea (Papua New Guinea); Sulawesi
42 NWG SUL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lagaipensis D.M.Moore, Nova Guinea, Bot., No. 11, 182 (1963)
species :
Viola kopaonikensis Pancic ex Tomovic & Niketic; Phytotaxa 253(4): 242 (2016)
Distribution: Serbia
13 SRB
species :
Viola koritnicensis Trinajstic; Glasn. Prir. Mus. Beogradu, B, 40: 28 (1985)
Distribution: Serbia & Kosovo
13 SRB
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola kosanensis Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 28 (1913)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, NE-Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pendulicarpa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 55-56 (1918)
= Viola polymorpha Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 247, 261 (1949)
= Viola pseudoarcuata Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 245 (1949)
= Viola serrula W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 247-248 (1928)
= Viola weixiensis Ching J.Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 17-19, f. 10 (1988)
= Viola fukienensis W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 22: 337 (1926)
species :
Viola kosaninii (Degen) Hayek; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 94: 155 (1918)
Distribution: N-Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola delphinantha ssp. kosaninii Degen, Mag. Bot. Lapok 10: 108 (1911)
species :
Viola kunawarensis Royle; Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 75 (1834)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; China (Gansu, Qinghai, NW-Sichuan, Xinjiang); Tibet; Pakistan (Hazara, Baltistan); India (Ladakh, Leh, Rupshu, Zanskar, Poonch, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim); Nepal
32 KAZ TZK 36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola thianschanica Maxim., Bull. Acad. Petersb. 26: 427 (1880)
= Viola gmeliniana var. glabra Regel & Herder, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39: 527 (1866)
= Viola kunawarensis var. angustifolia W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 397 (1917)
= Viola kunawurensis f. longifolia C.J.Wang
species :
Viola kusanoana Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 173 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea (Ullung Do Isl.); Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.)
31 RFE 38 JAP KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dageletiana Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 195 (1925)
= Viola insularis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32: 108 (1918)
= Viola kusanoana var. glabra Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 57 (1922)
= Viola silvestriformis W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 242 (1916)
form :
f. subrosea H.Igarashi; J. Jap. Bot., 75(3): 187 (2000)
Distribution: Japan
38 JAP
species :
Viola kusnezowiana W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 9, 88 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 254 (1916)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
species :
Viola labradorica Schrank; Denkschr. Bot. Ges. Regensb. 1: II. (1818) 12
Name: Alpine violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); Greenland; St. Pierre et Miquelon
70 GNL 72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola adunca var. minor (Hook.) Fernald, Rhodora 51: 57 (1949)
= Viola canina var. muhlenbergii (Torr.) A.Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11(11): 292 (1886)
= Viola conspersa Rchb., Pl. Crit. 1: 44 (1823)
= Viola muhlenbergiana Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola muhlenbergiana var. minor Hook., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Hooker) 1: 78 (1830)
= Viola muhlenbergii Torr., Fl. N. Middle United States 1: 256 (1824)
species :
Viola lactea Sm.; Sowerby, Engl. Bot. 7: t. 445 (1798)
Name: Milchweißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: England; France; Ireland; Spain; Portugal; Channel Isl.
10 GRB IRE 12 CIS FRA POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina ssp. lancifolia (Thore) Döll, 649 (1843)
= Viola canina var. lactea (Sm.) Bab., 34 (1843)
= Viola canina var. lancifolia (Thore) Woerl., 170 (1889)
= Viola lactea var. pumila (Fr.) Nyman, 78 (1878)
= Viola lamiifolia Pritz., Ic. Ind. 1163 (1855)
= Viola lancifolia Thore, Essai Chloris 357 (-358) (1803)
= Viola lusitana Brot., Phyt. Lusit. Fasc. 1, No. 11 (1801)
= Viola pumila var. lancifolia (Thore) DC., 299 (1824)
= Viola recta var. lactea (Sm.) Garcke, 55 (1848)
species :
Viola lactiflora Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28(336): 329 (1914)
Distribution: China (Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Liaoning, Sichuan, SW-Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea; North Korea; Japan [I]
36 CHI 38 jap KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola limprichtiana W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 185-186 (1917)
species :
Viola lainzii P.Monts.; An. Jard. Bot. Madrid, 54(1): 237 (1996)
Distribution: Spain
12 SPA
species :
Viola lanaiensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 11. 214 (1916)
Distribution: Hawaii (Lanai)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola helenae var. lanaiensis Rock
= Viola robusta var. oblongifolia Drake, nom. nud.
species :
Viola lanceolata L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Bog white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); St. Pierre et Miquelon; Venezuela [I]; Colombia [I]
72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA 82 clm ven
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola attenuata Sweet, Hort. Brit. (Sweet), ed. 3. 54 (1839)
= Viola lanceolata ssp. vittata (Greene) Russell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 484 (1955)
= Viola lanceolata var. vittata (Greene) Weath. & Griscom., Rhodora 36: 48 (1934)
= Viola vittata Greene, Pittonia 3: 258 (1898)
species :
Viola langeana Valentine; Feddes Repert. 79: 57 (1968)
Distribution: WC-Spain; C-Portugal
12 POR SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola caespitosa Lange, Willk. & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. 3: 701 (1878) non D. Don
species :
Viola langsdorfii (Regel) Fisch. ex Ging.; DC., Prodr. 1: 296 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. langsdorfii
Name: Aleutian violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (California, Oregon, Washington State); Canada (British Columbia, Yukon)
70 ASK 73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola superba M.S.Baker, Madroño 5: 220, tab. 20, 22, fig. 10 (1940)
= Viola simulata M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 237 (1936)
= Viola peduncularis Langsd. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. sachalinensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 253 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin, Kamchatka)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kamtschadalorum W.Becker & Hultén, Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 6 (1928)
= Viola kurilensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola langsdorfii ssp. kamtschadalorum (W.Becker & Hultén) Tzvelev
= Viola langsdorfii var. caulescens Ging., (1824)
= Viola sapporensis Franch. ex Boissieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 47: 321 (1925)
= Viola ursina Kom., Fedde Rebert. 13: 235 (1914)
species :
Viola lanifera W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 183 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
species :
Viola laricicola Marcussen; Bot. J. L. Soc. 142(1): 119 (2003)
Distribution: SE-France (Col du Lautaret, Col du Vars); NW-Italy (Col du Montgenevre)
12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: sieheana agg.
species :
Viola lehmannii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 91 (1907), et ex H. E. Ballard & P. M. Jørg., Cat. Vasc. PI. Ecuador (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 75): 956 (1999)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz); Peru; Ecuador
83 BOL ECU PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lehmannii ssp. cordifolia W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 92 (1907)
= Viola lehmannii ssp. ovalifolia W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 91 (1907)
species :
Viola leyboldiana Phil.; Linnaea, 33: 1864 (1865) 16
Distribution: Chile (Valparaiso, Maule)
85 CLE
species :
Viola libanotica Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 52 (1849)
Distribution: Lebanon (C-Lebanon)
34 LEB
species :
Viola lilliputana Iltis & H.E.Ballard; Brittonia 64(4): 355 (2012)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola lilloana W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 23: 225 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, Tucuman)
85 ARG
species :
Viola limbarae (Merxm. & W.Lippert) Arrigoni; Parlatorea 07:19 (2005)
Distribution: Sardinia
12 SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola corsica ssp. limbarae Merxm. & W.Lippert, Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 13: 506 (1977)
species :
Viola lithion N.H.Holmgren & P.K.Holmgren; Brittonia, 44(3): 300 (1992)
Name: Rock violet
Distribution: USA (Nevada: White Pine Range, Utah: Pilot Range)
76 USA
species :
Viola livonica Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 35: 144 (2003)
Distribution: Latvia
14 LAT
species :
Viola llullaillacoensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 24: 109 (1927)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
species :
Viola lobata Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 298 (1843)
Name: Pine violet, Yellow wood violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon); Mexico (Baja California Norte)
73 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lobata ssp. psychodes (Greene) Munz, Aliso 4: 94 (1958)
= Viola lobata var. psychodes (Greene) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia no. 1: 8 (1976 (1975))
= Viola montana Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: ed. II. (1873) 55 non L.
= Viola psychodes Greene, Pittonia, 3: 318 (1898)
= Viola sequoiensis Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 185 (1863)
variant :
var. integrifolia S.Watson; W. H. Brewer et al., Bot. California 1: 57 (1876)
Distribution: USA (California, SW-Oregon)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lobata ssp. integrifolia (S.Watson) R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 78 (1992)
species :
Viola lologensis (W.Becker) J.M.Watson; Gayana, Bot. 68(2): 302 (2011)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cotyledon ssp. lologensis W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 135 (1928)
species :
Viola longipetiolata Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 206, fig. 14 (2018)
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola lucens W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 250 (1928)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Viola lungtungensis S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 2: 60 (2019)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola lutea Huds.; Fl. Angl. 331 (1762)
subspecies :
subsp. lutea
Name: Gelbes Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: France; Switzerland; ?N-Spain
11 SWI 12 FRA
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion elegans Spach, 513 (1836), nom. illeg.
= Mnemion grandiflorum (L.) Spach, 514 (1836)
= Viola amoena T.F.Forst., Symons, Syn. 198 (1798)
= Viola elegans Kirschl., 18 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola grandiflora L., 518 (1771), nom. illeg.
= Viola grandiflora Vest, 158 (1821), nom. illeg.
= Viola hispida Lapeyr., Hist. Pl. Pyrenées 123 (1813)
= Viola lutea var. elegans Gams, 607 (1925)
= Viola lutea var. pyrenaica Gren., 185 (1847)
= Viola tricolor ssp. lutea (Huds.) Syme, 27 (1864)
subspecies :
subsp. calaminaria (DC.) Rothm.; 7 (1963)
Name: Gelbes Galmei-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Netherlands; Belgium; W-Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
11 BGM GER NET
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calaminaria (DC.) Lej., Rev. Fl. Spa 49 (1824)
= Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria (DC. ex Ging.) Nauenb., Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 92 (1986), isonym
= Viola lutea subvar. multicaulis (W.D.J.Koch) Gams, 607 (1925)
= Viola lutea var. multicaulis W.D.J.Koch, 87 (1836)
= Viola lutea var. tricolor Kaltenb., 65 (1843)
= Viola sudetica var. calaminaria DC., 303 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. sudetica (Willd.) Nyman; 81 (1878)
Name: Sudeten-Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: Czech Republic; Slovakia; Austria
11 AUT CZE SLO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sudetica Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol. Suppl. 12 (1813)
= Viola lutea var. sudetica (Willd.) W.D.J.Koch, 87 (1836)
= Viola lutea ssp. sudetica (Willd.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centr. 18(2): 388 (1905), isonym
subspecies :
subsp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) U.Hildebr.et al.; 216 (2006)
Name: Violettes Galmei-Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: C-Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
11 GER
Remarks: known only from one small population
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calaminaria ssp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) J.Heimans, 268 (1966)
= Viola calaminaria var. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) W.Ernst, 32 (1965)
= Viola guestphalica Nauenb., Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 98 (1986), nom. nov. inval., et Haussknechtia 12: 54 (2010)
= Viola lutea ssp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) U.Hildebr. & al., 216 (2006), nom. inval.
= Viola lutea var. westfalica A.A.H.Schulz, Jahres-Ber. Westfal. Prov.-Vereins Wiss. 40: 218 (1912)
species :
Viola lyallii Hook.fil.; Handb. N. Zeal. Fl. 16 (1864)
Distribution: New Zealand (widespread); Chatham Isl.
51 CTM NZL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cunninghamii var. gracilis Hook.fil., (1852)
= Erpetion spathulatum A.Cunn., (1840) (non G. Don
species :
Viola macedonica Boiss. & Heldr.; Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 1: 56 (1854)
subspecies :
subsp. macedonica
Distribution: Macedonia; Albania; Greece
13 ALB GRC NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpestris ssp. macedonica (Boiss. & Heldr.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 345 (1910)
= Viola pindicola Formánek
= Viola saxatilis ssp. macedonica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 516 (1927)
= Viola tricolor ssp. macedonica (Boiss. & Heldr.) A.Schmidt, Feddes Repert. 74: 30 (1967)
= Viola tricolor var. macedonica (Boiss. & Heldr.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
subspecies :
subsp. bosniaca (Formánek) Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 655 (1985)
Distribution: Bosnia
13 BIH
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bosniaca Formánek, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. (1887) 368, Beck, in Annal, Naturh. Hofmus. Wien, 10: 179 (1895
species :
Viola macloskeyi F.E.Lloyd; Erythea, 3: 74 (1895)
Name: Smooth white violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); St. Pierre et Miquelon
72 SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amoena Leconte, Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 144 (1828)
= Viola blanda ssp. macloskeyi (Lloyd) A.E.Murray, Kalmia, 12: 26 (1982)
= Viola blanda var. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) Jeps., Man. Fl. Pl. Calif. [Jeps.] 648 (1925)
= Viola clandestina Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 173 (1813)
= Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens (Banks ex Ging.) M.S.Baker, Madroño 12(2): 60 (1953)
= Viola macloskeyi var. pallens (Banks ex Ging.) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 445 (1961)
= Viola obliqua Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) i. 172 (1813)
= Viola pallens (Banks ex Ging.) Brainerd, Rhodora, 247 (1905)
= Viola pallens var. subreptans J.Rousseau, Naturaliste Canad. 65: 306 (1938)
= Viola rotundifolia var. pallens Banks ex Ging., Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 295 (1824)
species :
Viola macroceras Bunge; Fl. Altaic. 1: 256-257 (1829)
Distribution: Mongolia; China (Xinjiang); Kyrgyzstan; Northern Caucasus; Siberia (Altai, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; India (Uttar Pradesh); Pakistan (Chitral, Skardu, Baltistan)
30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ TZK 33 NCS 36 CHI 37 MON 40 IND PAK
species :
Viola maculata Cav.; Ic. 6: 20, t. 539 (1800)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (O´Higgins, Maule, Bio Bio, Araucania, Los Lagos, Aisen, Magallanes, Reg. Metropolitana); Falkland Isl.
85 ARG CLE 91 FAL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola buchtieniana W.Becker, Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12: 2 (1906)
= Viola fimbriata Steud., Flora, 39: 423 (1856)
= Viola glandulosa Dombey ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola grandidentata Kalela, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 54: No. 5, 17 (1940)
= Viola lutea Comm. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola macloviana Gand., Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 59: 705 (1912) (1913)
= Viola maculata Cav. ex Weibel, Candollea, 10: 76 (1943), descr. emend.
= Viola maculata f. chilensis Weibel, Candollea 10: 79 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. chillanensis Sparre, Lilloa 17: 395, tab. 5 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. constitucionensis Sparre, Lilloa 17: 397, fig. 4, tab. 7 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. grandidentata (Kalela) Weibel, Candollea 10: 81 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. munozii Sparre, Lilloa 17: 398, fig. 5, tab. 8 (1949)
= Viola maculata var. megaphylla DC.
= Viola maculata var. pubescens Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 90: 894 (1895)
= Viola pyrolifolia Poir., Encyc. 8: 636 (1808)
= Viola tetrapetala Molina, Sagg. Chile, ed. II. 133
= Viola valdiviana Kalela, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 54: No. 5, 14 (1940)
variant :
var. microphyllos (Poir.) DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Aisen, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola maculata f. fimbriata (Steud.) Weibel, Candollea 10: 84 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. septentrionalis (Kalela) Weibel, Candollea 10: 84 (1943)
= Viola maculata ssp. microphyllos (Poir.) Weibel, Candollea 10: 83 (1943)
= Viola microphyllos Poir., Encyc. 8: 628 (1808)
= Viola microphyllos f. macropoda Speg.
= Viola microphyllos f. septentrionalis Kalela
variant :
var. popetae Sparre
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins)
85 CLE
species :
Viola magellanica G.Forst.; Comm. Götting. 9: 41, t. 8 (1789)
Distribution: Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Los Lagos, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola magniflora Molina, Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili, ed. 2. 283 (1810)
species :
Viola magellensis Porta & Rigo ex Strobl; Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 229 (1877)
Distribution: C-Italy; Albania; N-Greece
13 ALB GRC ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albanica Halácsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 141 (1900)
species :
Viola magnifica Ching J.Wang ex X.D.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 263-264, f. 2, 9-11 (1991)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, E-Sichuan, Zhejiang)
36 CHI
species :
Viola majchurensis Pissjauk.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS, 15: 177 (1953)
Distribution: Uzbekistan; Tajikistan
32 TZK UZB
species :
Viola mandonii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 95 (1907)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL PER
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola humboldtii var. renifolia Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 18 (1889)
species :
Viola mandshurica W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 179-180 (1917)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, ?Shaanxi, Shandong, ?Shanxi); Taiwan; South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Russian Far East (incl. Kuril Isl.); Nepal; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]
31 RFE 33 geo 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO TAI 40 NEP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida ssp. marginata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40: 141 (1924)
= Viola alsioviana f. intermedia (Kitag.) Taken.
= Viola chinensis G.Don, Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
= Viola chinensis (G.Don) Nakai, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 31: 446 (1911)
= Viola chinensis var. media Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 284 (1916)
= Viola chinensis var. transitica Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 283 (1916)
= Viola hsinganensis Taken., Sci. Contr. Northeast Norm. Univ. 1: 81, t. 2, f. 8 (1955)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiflora P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng, Fl. Pl. Herb. Chin. Bor.-Orient. 6: 293 (1977)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiikedaeana E.Hama, Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola mandshurica f. ciliata (Nakai) F.Maek.in Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. glabra (Nakai) Hiyama in Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. macrantha (Maxim.) Nakai ex Kitag., ? 321 (1939)
= Viola mandshurica var. ciliata Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 60 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. glabra Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 60 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. glabripetala Hiyama, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 93 (1953)
= Viola mandshurica var. media (Nakai) Hiyama, J. Jap. Bot. 28: 93 (1953)
= Viola oblongosagittata f. ishizakii Yamam., J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 5: 352 (1933)
= Viola oldhamiana Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 42: 559 (1928)
= Viola patrinii f. glabra (Nakai) F.Maek.
= Viola patrinii var. macrantha Maxim., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 48 (1859)
= Viola philippica f. intermedia (Kitag.) Kitag., Lin. Fl. Manshur. 322 (1939)
= Viola rhodosepala Kitag., Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 48: 611 (1934)
= Viola yedoensis f. intermedia Kitag., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 103 (1934)
variant :
var. ikedaeana (W.Becker ex Taken.) Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 208 (1954)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Korea; Taiwan
38 JAP KOR TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ikedaeana W.Becker ex Taken., Fukuoka Hakubuts. Zasshi (Ed. Ann. Soc. Hist.-Nat. Fukuok.) 2: 193 (1938)
variant :
var. triangularis (Franch. & Sav.) Mizush.; Misc. Rep. Res. Inst. Nat. Resources 38: 122 (1955)
Distribution: Bonin Isl. (Chichijima, Hahajima)
38 OGA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boninensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 37 (1922)
= Viola patrinii var. triangularis Franch. & Sav., (1873)
= Viola niijimensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 39 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. boninensis (Nakai) Mizush., (1952)
species :
Viola maoershanensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. L. Soc. 159(2): 351 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangxi)
36 CHI
species :
Viola marcelorosasii J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 104: 11 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
species :
Viola maroccana (Maire) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord, 23: 168 (1932)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pyrenaica var. maroccana Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 13: 14 (1922)
species :
Viola mauritii Tepl.; Zap. Ural´sk. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestv. 7(3): 37 (1882)
Distribution: Mongolia; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; ?China
14 RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 37 MON
species :
Viola maviensis H.Mann; Proc. Am. Acad. 7: 150 (1867)
Distribution: Hawaii (Molokai, Maui, Hawaii Isl.)
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hawaiiensis H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 169 (1989)
= Viola kohalana (Rock) H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 179 (1989)
= Viola maviensis var. kohalana Rock
= Viola rockii H.St.John, Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 190 (1989)
species :
Viola maximowicziana Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 16: 128 (1902)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
species :
Viola maymanica Grey-Wilson; Kew Bull., 29(1): 41 (1974)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Faryab)
34 AFG
species :
Viola mearnsii Merr.; Philipp. Journ. Sci. 5: 201 (1910)
Distribution: Philippines
42 PHI
species :
Viola membranacea W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. Nov. Sp. 7: 123 (1909)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola mercurii Orph. ex Halácsy; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 61: 497 (1894)
Distribution: S-Greece (Killini)
13 GRC
species :
Viola merrilliana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralb. 34: II. 234 (1916)
Distribution: Philippines (Luzon)
42 PHI
species :
Viola merxmuelleri Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 20: 30 (1984)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
species :
Viola metajaponica Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 192 (1925), nom. nov.
Distribution: Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cordoba, La Pampa, Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucuman)
85 ARG
species :
Viola miaolingensis Y.S.Chen; Phytotaxa 400(4): 251 (2019)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola micranthella Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 291 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija); Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG
species :
Viola microcentra W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 17: 73 (1921)
Distribution: Japan (Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: status uncertain
species :
Viola milanae Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 38: 191 (2006)
Distribution: Siberia (Tuva, Altai)
30 SIB
species :
Viola minuta M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 173 (1808)
subspecies :
subsp. minuta
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan
33 AZE GEO NCS
subspecies :
subsp. dagestanica (Rupr.) V.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 31: 224 (1998)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Azerbaijan
33 AZE NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola minuta var. dagestanica Rupr., Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. (Sci. Phys. Math.), ser. 7, 15, 2: 157 (1869)
subspecies :
subsp. meyeriana (Rupr.) V.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 31: 225 (1998)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]
33 GEO NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola minuta var. meyeriana Rupr., Fl. Caucasus 157 (1869)
= Viola meyeriana (Rupr.) Klokov, Fl. URSS 15: 479, t. 22, f. 3 (1949)
species :
Viola minutiflora Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 493 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Bio Bio, Araucania)
85 CLE
species :
Viola mirabilis L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Wunder-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hessen [I], Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, +Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; NE-Spain (Pyrenees); Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Norway; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Crimea; Sweden; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Russian Far East; Kazakhstan; North Korea; China (Gansu, ?Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol); Mongolia; Siberia (E-Siberia); Japan (Honshu)
10 DEN FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX POL SLO SWI 12 FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO ITA MNT ROM SLV SRB 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 33 GEO NCS 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola apetala Gilib., Fl. Lituan. 2: 124 (1782)
= Viola brachysepala Maxim., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 50 (1859)
= Viola mirabilis f. latisepala W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 236 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis f. seiichii E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 339 (1976)
= Viola mirabilis f. strigosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 236 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis ssp. brachysepala (Maxim.) Vorosch., A. K. Skvortsov (ed.), Florist. issl. v razn. raionakh SSSR: 182 (1985)
= Viola mirabilis ssp. subglabra (Ledeb.) Zuev, Fl. Sibir. (Geraniac.-Cornac.), 10: 87 (1996)
= Viola mirabilis var. apetala (F.W.Schmidt) Pohl, 231 (1809)
= Viola mirabilis var. brachysepala (Maxim.) Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 4: 450 (1861)
= Viola mirabilis var. brevicalcarata Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33: 9 (1919)
= Viola mirabilis var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 237 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis var. kusnetzoffii Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 4: 450 (1861)
= Viola mirabilis var. platysepala Kitag., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 103 (1934)
= Viola mirabilis var. strigosa (W.Becker) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 17 (2020)
= Viola mirabilis var. subglabra Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 251 (1842)
= Viola mirabilis var. vulgaris Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 1: 251 (1842)
= Viola subglabra (Ledeb.) Baikov ex A.V.Grebenjuk & Chepinoga, Konspekt Fl. Irkutsk. Obl. 182 (2008)
species :
Viola missouriensis Greene; Pittonia, 4: 141 (1900)
Name: Missouri violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola candidula Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 85, pl. 2, 3 (1913)
= Viola langloisii Greene, Pittonia 3: 87 (1896)
= Viola lucidifolia Newbro, Stud. Nat. Hist. Iowa Univ. 17: 56, pl. 4, fig. 3
= Viola sororia var. missouriensis (Greene) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 42 (1992)
species :
Viola modesta Fenzl; Pugill. 12 no. 39 (1842)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia); Iran (S-Iran, W-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan); Israel (Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, NW-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Armenia
33 ARM 34 IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ebracteolata Fenzl, Russegg., Reisen 1, 2: 934, no. 39 (1842)
species :
Viola modestula Klokov; Fl. URSS 15: 687, t. 22, ff. 6, 7 (1949)
Distribution: Iran (N-Iran); Turkmenistan
32 TKM 34 IRN
species :
Viola molisana Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 216, fig. 18 (2018)
Distribution: Italy (Molise)
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola monbeigii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 248 (1928)
Distribution: China (Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola mongolica Franch.; Pl. David. 1: 42 (1884)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi); South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dolichoceras Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 258-260, f. 1, 1-8 (1991)
= Viola liaosiensis P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or., 6: 292 (1977)
= Viola mongolica f. longisepala P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng, Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or., 6: 292 (1977)
species :
Viola montagnei Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 222 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, O´Higgins, Maule, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-mariae Hieron.
= Viola flos-mariae var. nivea Hieron.
= Viola flos-mariae var. virescens Hieron.
variant :
var. glandulosa Phil.; Linnaea 33: 15 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola montcaunica Pau; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 23 (Act.): 129 (1895)
Distribution: N- & C-Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cornuta ssp. montcaunica (Pau) Rivas Mart., An. Inst. Bot. A. J. Cavanilles, 36: 307 1979 (1980)
species :
Viola moupinensis Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 412 (1886)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Tibet; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar; Nepal
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola paravaginata Hara, J. Jap. B. 43: 47 (1968)
= Viola moupinensis var. lijiangensis Ching J.Wang, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 20-21 (1988)
= Viola palustris var. moupinensis Franch., Pl. David. 2: 20 (1888)
= Viola rosthornii E.Pritz. ex Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(3-4): 477 (1900)
= Viola vaginata ssp. alata W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 253 (1916)
= Viola vaginata var. sutchuensis Franch. ex H.Boissieu, Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, 1(11): 1078 (1901)
species :
Viola mucronulifera Hand.-Mazz.; Sinensia 2(1): 4-5 (1931)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kwangtungensis Melch., Sunyatsenia 1(2-3): 124-126, t. 31 (1933)
species :
Viola muehldorfii Kiss; Bot. Közlem. 19: 92 (1921)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang); Russian Far East; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lasiostipes Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 32 (1922)
species :
Viola muliensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. L. Soc. 149(3): 365 (2005)
Distribution: China (Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: status uncertain, not listed in Fl. China
species :
Viola munbyana Boiss. & Reut.; Pugillus 15 (1852)
Distribution: NW-Sicily; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia
13 SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola battandieri W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 366 (1905)
= Viola fontanesii Coss. ex Batt., Fl. Alger., Suppl. Phanerog. 20 (1910)
= Viola gracilis var. munbyana (Boiss. & Reut.) Batt., Fl. Algèrie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 104 (1888)
= Viola munbyana var. battandieri (W.Becker) Batt., Fl. Algèrie, Suppl. Phan. [Batt.]: 20 (1910)
= Viola munbyana var. kabylica Batt., [nom. illeg.]
= Viola munbyana var. rifana Emb. & Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 17: 38 (1927)
= Viola nebrodensis var. grandiflora Guss.
= Viola nebrodensis var. lutea Guss.
= Viola villarii Sennen & Mauricio, Diagn. Nouv. Pl. Espagne & Maroc: 227 "1936" (1951)
species :
Viola munozensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 23: 226 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Tucuman)
85 ARG
species :
Viola murronensis Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 217, fig. 19 (2018)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola muscoides Phil.
Distribution: Chile (Aisen)
85 CLE
species :
Viola nagasawai Makino & Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 30 (1906)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acutilabella Hayata, Ic. Pl. Formos. 10: 1 (1921)
= Viola nagasawai var. acutilabella (Hayata) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola diffusa var. nagasawai (Makino & Hayata) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 29 (1992)
variant :
var. pricei (W.Becker) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang; Taiwania 35: 47-49, f. 14 (1990)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nagasawai C.F.Hsieh, Fl. Taiwan 3: 776 (1977) (non Makino & Hayata 1906)
= Viola pricei W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 252 (1928)
= Viola diffusa var. pricei (W.Becker) S.S.Ying, Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 32 (1992)
species :
Viola nana (DC.) Le Jol.; Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 7: 267 (1860)
Distribution: England; Channel Isl.; France; ?Germany; ?Switzerland; Spain
10 GRB 12 CIS FRA SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kitaibeliana var. nana (DC.) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola tricolor var. nana (Godr.) Nyman, 80 (1878)
= Viola nana (DC.) Godr., Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 19: 166 (1875), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. nana DC., Prodr. [DC.] 1: 304 (1824)
species :
Viola nanlingensis J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 45(3): 233 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola nannae R.E.Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 10 (1925)
Distribution: Kenya (mountains)
25 KEN
species :
Viola nannei Pol.; Linnaea, 41: 547 (1877)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz); Panama; Costa Rica
79 MEX 80 COS PAN
species :
Viola nantouensis S.S.Ying; Mem. Coll. Agric. Nation. Taiwan Univ., 28(2): 45 (1988)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola nassauvioides Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 346 (1893)
Distribution: Chile
85 CLE
species :
Viola nebrodensis C.Presl; J. & C. Presl, Del. Prag. 26 (1822)
Name: Madonie-Veilchen
Distribution: N-Sicily (Le Madonie)
13 SIC
species :
Viola nephrophylla Greene; Pittonia, 3: 144 (1896)
Name: Northern bog violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Sonora)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arizonica Greene, Pittonia 5: 33 (1902)
= Viola austiniae Greene, Pittonia 5: 30 (1902)
= Viola cognata Greene, Pittonia 3: 145 (1896)
= Viola crassula Greene, Pittonia 5: 95 (1902)
= Viola cucullata f. prionosepala (Greene) Brainerd, Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola galacifolia Greene, Pittonia 5: 30 (1902)
= Viola lunellii Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 95 (1910)
= Viola mccabeiana M.S.Baker, Madrono, 5: 226 (1940)
= Viola nephrophylla var. arizonica (Greene) Kearney & Peebles, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29: 487 (1939)
= Viola nephrophylla var. cognata (Greene) C.L.Hitchc., Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. [C. L. Hitchcock & al.] 3: 445 (1961)
= Viola peramoena Greene, Pittonia 5: 94 (1902)
= Viola pratincola Greene, Pittonia, 4: 64 (1899)
= Viola prionosepala Greene, Pittonia 5: 99 (1902)
= Viola retusa Greene, Pittonia, 4: 6 (1899)
= Viola subjuncta Greene, Pittonia 5: 31 (1902)
= Viola vagula Greene, Pittonia 4: 67 (1899)
species :
Viola niederleinii W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 184 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja)
85 ARG
species :
Viola nitida Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. L. Soc. 159(2): 350 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola nobilis W.Becker; Engl. Jahrb. 37: 590 (1906)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola novae-angliae House; Rhodora, 6: 226 (1904)
Name: New England blue violet
Distribution: USA (Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, Wisconsin); Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Ontario)
74 USA 75 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola septentrionalis var. grisea Fernald, Rhodora 37: 301, tab. 375 (1935)
= Viola sororia var. grisea (Fernald) L.E.McKinney, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 226 (2010)
= Viola novae-angliae ssp. grisea (Fernald) Gil-ad, Boissiera 53: 68 (1997)
= Viola sororia var. novae-angliae (House) L.E.McKinney, Sida, Bot. Misc., 7: 44 (1992)
species :
Viola nubigena Leyb.; Flora, 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola nuda W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26(703-708): 26 (1929)
Distribution: China (W-Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola nujiangensis Y.S.Chen & X.H.Jin; Phytotaxa 230(2): 193 (2015)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola nummulariifolia Vill.; Prosp. Pl. Dauph. 26 (1779)
Name: Pfennigblättriges Veilchen
Distribution: Corsica; SE-France; NW-Italy
12 COR FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nummularia Vuk., Rad Jugos. Akad. Zagreb. 66: 16 (1883)
species :
Viola nuttallii Pursh; Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 174 (1813)
Name: Nuttall´s violet
Distribution: USA (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Crocion nuttallii (Pursh) Nieuwl. & Lunell, Am. Midl. Nat, 4: 478 (1916)
species :
Viola oahuensis C.N.Forbes; Occas. Papers Bishop Mus. Honolulu, 4: 216 (1909)
Distribution: Hawaii (Oahu)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola obituaria J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 145: 22, 19-21, 35-38, 40, 42, 44-46 (2022)
Distribution: Chile
85 CLE
species :
Viola oblonga Blatt.; Journ. Ind. Bot. Soc. 9: 200 (1930)
Distribution: Pakistan (Waziristan)
40 PAK
Remarks: status doubtful
species :
Viola obtusa (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26: 151 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea
38 JAP KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola odorifera Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 151, in syn. (1912)
= Viola fragrans Tanaka ex Makino, (1912)
= Viola ovato-oblonga var. obtusa Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
variant :
var. tsuifengensis Hashim.; Ann. Tsukuba Bot. Gard. 6: 3 (1987)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
species :
Viola occulta Lehm.; Ind. Sem. Horti Bot. Hamb. 1829 (1829)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Israel (N-Israel); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Laghman, Parwan); Crimea; European Russia; Georgia [Caucasus]; Northern Caucasus; Azerbaijan (incl. Nachichevan); Armenia; Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
14 KRY RUS 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG IRN ISR LEB TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Ion occultum (Lehm.) Nevski, Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS, Ser. 1, Fasc. 4, 217 (1937)
= Viola appendiculata Steud., Nom. ed. II. 2: 770 (1841)
species :
Viola ocellata Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Am. 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Pinto violet, Western heart´s ease violet, Southern two-eye violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
species :
Viola odontocalycina Boiss.; Fl. 1: 461 (1867)
Distribution: Turkey (N-Anatolia)
34 TUR
species :
Viola odorata L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. odorata
Name: Wohlriechendes Veilchen, März-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl. [I]; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain [I]; Andorra [I]; Hungary; Italy; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Portugal [I]; Malta; Norway; Poland; Romania; Sardinia; Sicily; Sweden; Crimea; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; E-European Russia; Belarus [I]; Ukraine; Kazakhstan [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); European Turkey; Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Azores (Sao Miguel Isl., Sao Jorge, Faial, Flores Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Hawaii [I] (Hawaii Isl. [I]); Chatham Isl. [I]; New Zealand [I]; India [I]; Pakistan [I]; Nepal [I]; Vietnam [I]; USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I], Colorado [I], Connecticut [I], Georgia [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oklahoma [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], Tennessee [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I]); Canada [I] (British Columbia [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I]); Costa Rica [I]; Panama [I]; Mexico [I]; Ecuador [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); Java [I]; Myanmar [I]; Peru [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Haiti [I]; Dominican Republic [I]; Argentina [I]; Venezuela [I]; Chile [I]; Bolivia [I]; Colombia [I]; Fiji [I]; China [I]; Taiwan [I]; Japan [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Honduras [I]
10 DEN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ado cis COR FRA por SAR spa 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 blr est KRY lat lit RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 AZO MDR 32 kaz tzk uzb 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB TUR 36 chi 38 jap tai 40 ind nep pak 41 mya vie 42 jaw 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 60 fij 63 haw 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 cos hon pan 81 his pue trt 82 clm ven 83 bol ecu per 85 arg cle
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bruneauniana Hort. ex Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. I. 946
= Viola consimilis Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 18 (1852)
= Viola favrati Hausskn. ex Favrat, Bull. trav. Soc. Murith. Fasc. xiii-xv. (1887) 61
= Viola floribunda Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 19 (1852)
= Viola foliosa Celak., Arch. Naturw. Landesd. Böhm. 3: 477 (1875)
= Viola gonzali Sennen, Bol. Soc. Iber., 25: 135 (1926)
= Viola hortensis Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 82 (1866)
= Viola hybrida Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola incompta Jord., Obs. Pl. Crit. 7: 11 (1849)
= Viola italica Voigt ex Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. III. 1206 (1870)
= Viola jucunda Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 20 (1852)
= Viola leucantha Schur, Enum. Pl. Transs. 82 (1866)
= Viola martia Garsault, Fig. Pl. Anim. Med, t. 622 (1764), Descr. Pl. Anim. 360 (1767), Thell. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. II. 8: 908
= Viola martii K.F.Schimp. & Spenn., Spenn., 1086 (1829), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii ssp. odorata (L.) Kirschl., 6 (1840)
= Viola martii var. odorata (L.) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola odora Neck., Delic. Gallo-Belg. 2: 367
= Viola odorata f. albiflora (Oborny) Neuman, 268 (1901)
= Viola odorata f. albiflora (Pancic) Niketic, Bot. Serbica 38(2): 226 (2014)
= Viola odorata f. albiflora Murr, 202 (1923), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata f. arborea hort. ex Gams, 651 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. longifimbriata Neuman, 268 (1901)
= Viola odorata f. semperflorens hort. ex Gams, 651 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. subcarnea (Jord.) Gams, 650 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. sulphurea (Cariot) Gams, 651 (1925)
= Viola odorata f. variegata (DC.) Gams, 650 (1925)
= Viola odorata var. alba H.Mart., 44 (1817)
= Viola odorata var. albiflora Bogenh., 161 (1850)
= Viola odorata var. albiflora Hampe, 19 (1836), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata var. barraui O.Bolòs & Vigo, But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 38 Bot., 1: 80 (1974), nom. nov.
= Viola odorata var. hispidula Freyn, 284 (1878)
= Viola odorata var. incompta (Jord.) Espeut, Monde Pl., 464: 15 (1999)
= Viola odorata var. magna H.Mart., 44 (1817)
= Viola odorata var. pallens Klett & Richt., 230 (1830)
= Viola odorata var. pallida Bogenh., 161 (1850)
= Viola odorata var. pallida Erdner, 569 (1911), nom. illeg.
= Viola odorata var. parmensis hort. ex Thorsrud & Reisæter, 121 (1948), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata var. purpurascens Bogenh., 161 (1850)
= Viola odorata var. semperflorens hort. ex Thorsrud & Reisæter, 121 (1948), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata var. subcarnea (Jord.) Parl., 130 (1890)
= Viola odorata var. sulphurea (Cariot) Rouy & Foucaud, 26 (1896)
= Viola odorata var. variegata DC., 296 (1824)
= Viola officinalis Crantz, Inst. 2: 431 (1766)
= Viola parmensis Hort. ex Vilm., Fl. Pl. Terre, ed. I. 946 (1863)
= Viola perennis Miégev., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 12: 340 (1865)
= Viola perplexa Gremli, Excurs. Schweiz, ed. II. 106 (1874)
= Viola pirottae Chiov., Bull. Soc. Bot. It. 287 (1893)
= Viola propinqua Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 18 (1852)
= Viola pseudosuavis Schur, Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn, 15: II. 103 (1877)
= Viola reptans C.Presl ex Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 705 (1832)
= Viola sarmentosa M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucasus 1: 172 (1808)
= Viola semperflorens Hort. ex Steud., Nom. ed. I. 887 (1821)
= Viola spectabilis C.Richt., Österr. Bot. Zellschr. 35: 419 (1885)
= Viola steveni Besser ex Fauc., Excurs. Bot. Valais, 96
= Viola suaveolens Schur, Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn, 15: II. 107 (1877)
= Viola suavissima Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 21 (1852)
= Viola subcarnea Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 17 (1852)
= Viola sulfurea Cariot, Etud. des Fleurs, ed. VII. 2: 81
= Viola thessala Heldr. ex Nyman, Consp. 78
= Viola umbrosa Ces. ex Chiov., Bull. Soc. Bot. It. (1893) 287. in syn.
= Viola vinealis Bor., Fl. Centr. Fr. ed. III. 2: 75 (1857)
= Viola wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 1: 457 (1867)
subspecies :
subsp. maderensis (Lowe) Kunkel; Cuad. Bot. Canar., 22: 28 (1974)
Name: Madeira-Duftveilchen (DE)
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Canary Isl. (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY MDR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola maderensis Lowe, Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 4: 36 (1831)
= Viola odorata var. maderensis (Lowe) Webb
= Viola plantaginea Webb ex Christ, Bot. Jahrb. 9: 96 (1888)
subspecies :
subsp. stolonifera (J.J.Rodr.) Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot., 8: 83 (1991)
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola stolonifera J.J.Rodr., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 25: 238 (1878)
species :
Viola oligoceps Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 252 (1949)
Distribution: China (S-Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola oligyrtia A.Tiniakou
Distribution: Greece (Peloponnisos: Mt. Oligyrtos)
13 GRC
Remarks: sieheana agg.
species :
Viola orbelica Pancic; Magyar Bot. Lapok 32: 9 (1933)
Distribution: SW-Bulgaria; NE-Greece; S-Serbia; E-Macedonia
13 BUL GRC NMA SRB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola saxatilis f. orbelica (Pancic) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1): 517 (1925)
= Viola alpestris f. orbelica (Pancic) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 26(3): 345 (1910)
species :
Viola orbiculata Geyer ex A.Gray; Mem. Am. Acad. N. S. 4: 11 (1849)
Name: Darkwoods violet
Distribution: USA (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sempervirens var. orbiculata (A.Gray) J.K.Henry, Fl. S. Brit. Columbia 208 (1915)
= Viola sempervirens ssp. orbiculata (A.Gray) M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 55 (1935)
species :
Viola oreades M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucasus 3: 167 (1819)
Distribution: Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia); Crimea; Georgia [Caucasus]
14 KRY 33 GEO 34 TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola altaica ssp. oreades (M.Bieb.) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centrbl. 40, 2: 91 (1924)
= Viola altaica var. longicalcarata Kupffer, Mat. Fl. Kavk. 3, 9: 241 (1909)
species :
Viola orientalis (Maxim.) W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8. 95 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 265 (1916)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, E-Jilin, Liaoning, E-Shandong); Russian Far East (Ussuri); Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola conferta (W.Becker) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 31 (1922)
= Viola orientalis ssp. xanthopetala (Nakai) Espeut, Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 37 (2020)
= Viola orientalis var. conferta W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 50 (1918)
= Viola uniflora f. glabricapsula Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 172 (1912)
= Viola uniflora var. capsulaglabra Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 9: 752 (1876)
= Viola uniflora var. glabricapsula Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 172 (1912)
= Viola uniflora var. orientalis Maxim., Enum. Pl. Mongolia 1: 81 (1889)
= Viola xanthopetala Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 29 (1922)
species :
Viola orphanidis Boiss.; Fl. Or. 1: 464 (1867)
subspecies :
subsp. orphanidis
Distribution: Albania; SW-Bulgaria; Greece; Macedonia; Serbia & Kosovo
13 ALB BUL GRC NMA SRB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola orphanidis f. glabrescens Diklic & Nikolic, Glasn. Prir. Mus. Beogradu, B, 29: 18 (1974)
= Viola orphanidis var. pirinica Delip., Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 495 (1979)
subspecies :
subsp. crinita Delip.; Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 494 (1979)
Distribution: Bulgaria; Macedonia
13 BUL NMA
subspecies :
subsp. nicolai (Pant.) Valentine; Feddes Repert. 74: 30 (1967)
Distribution: Montenegro
13 MNT
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nicolai Pant., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 23: 4 (1873)
species :
Viola orthoceras Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 258 (1842)
Distribution: Georgia [Caucasus]
33 GEO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cornuta ssp. orthoceras (Ledeb.) Kupffer, Mat. Fl. Kavk. 3, 9: 223 (1909)
species :
Viola ovalleana Phil.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 494 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
species :
Viola ovatooblonga (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 21: 59 (1907)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea
38 JAP KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grypoceras var. ovato-oblonga (Makino) W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 40: 41 (1923)
= Viola grypoceras var. pubescens Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 55 (1922)
= Viola micrantha ssp. shikokuensis W.Becker, (1916)
= Viola obtusa Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola ovato-oblonga f. pubescens F.Maek., Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 211 (1954)
= Viola ovato-oblonga f. variegata E.Hama, J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 339 (1976)
= Viola sylvestris f. ovato-oblonga Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris var. montana Yatabe, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6: 131 (1892)
= Viola sylvestris var. ovato-oblonga (Miq.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 137 (1902)
species :
Viola oxyodontis H.E.Ballard; Phytologia, 74(5): 359 (1993)
Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Sinaloa)
79 MEX
species :
Viola pachyrrhiza Boiss. & Hohen.; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, 6: 21 (1846)
Distribution: Iran (W-Iran); Iraq (NE-Iraq)
34 IRN IRQ
species :
Viola pacifica Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR, 15: 411 (1949)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. brevicalcarata W.Becker
species :
Viola painteri Rose & House; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 29: 443 (1905)
Distribution: Mexico (Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz)
79 MEX
species :
Viola pallascaensis W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 18: 181 (1922)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola palmata L.; Sp. Pl. 933 (1753)
Name: Early blue violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Ontario); Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon); Japan [I]; Germany [I]
11 ger 38 jap 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola congener Leconte, Ann. Lyc. N. York, 2: 140 (1828)
= Viola cucullata var. palmata (L.) A.Gray, Manual (Gray), ed. 2. 43 (1856)
= Viola falcata Greene, Pittonia, 4: 3 (1899)
= Viola palmata var. dilatata Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina (Elliott) 1: 300 (1817)
= Viola palmata var. triloba (Schwein.) Ging. ex DC., Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 291 (-292) (1824)
= Viola stoneana House, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 253 (1905)
= Viola triloba f. dilatata (Elliott) E.J.Palmer & Steyerm., Brittonia 10: 115 (1958)
= Viola triloba Schwein., Am. Journ. Sc. Ser. I. 5: 57 (1822)
= Viola triloba var. dilatata (Elliott) Brainerd, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 587 (1911)
= Viola viarum f. pilifera E.J.Palmer & Steyerm., Brittonia 10: 116 (1958)
variant :
var. heterophylla Elliott; Sketch Bot. S. Carolina [Elliott] 1: 300 (1817)
Name: Salad violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia)
77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola esculenta Elliott ex Greene, Pittonia 3(19): 314 (1898)
= Viola palmata var. esculenta (Elliott ex Greene) D.B.Ward, Phytologia 88(3): 244 (2006), nom. illeg. nom. superfl.
species :
Viola palmensis Webb & Berthel.; Phyt. Canar. 1: 112 (1837)
Name: La Palma-Stiefmütterchen (DE); Pensamiento de la cumbre (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (La Palma Isl.)
21 CNY
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion palmense Webb & Berthel., Phyt. Canar. 1: 112 (1837)
species :
Viola palustris L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. palustris
Name: Marsh violet (EN), Sumpf-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Faeroe Isl.; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra; Portugal; Iceland; Italy; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Slovenia; Croatia; Greece; Norway; Poland; Romania; N-European Russia; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; Ukraine; Sweden; Morocco; Azores (Sao Jorge, Pico, Flores Isl.); Alaska; USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan); Greenland; Mexico (Chiapas)
10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO COR FRA POR SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA ROM SLV 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 MOR 21 AZO 70 ASK GNL 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cucullata Bigelow ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola inodora Gilib., Fl. Lituan. 2: 123 (1782)
= Viola juressi Link, Schrad. Neues Journ. Bot. 1: 111. 140 (1806), in obs., nomen, Neves ex Cout. in Bol. Soc. Brot., 10: 28, in obs., descr., ex Wein in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 1906, 12: 139 (1892)
= Viola palustris ssp. brevipes M.S.Baker, Madroño 3: 235, pl. 11, fig. 6 (1936)
= Viola palustris ssp. juressi (Link ex Wein) Cout., Not. Fl. Port. 5: 12 (1921)
= Viola palustris var. brevipes (M.S.Baker) R.J.Davis, Madroño 11: 144 (1951)
= Viola pubinervis Rehm & Wolosz., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 43: 196 (1893)
= Viola scanica Fr., Summa Veg. Scand. 35, 153
subspecies :
subsp. pubifolia Kuta; Fragm. Flor. Geobot., 35(1-2): 21 (1991)
Distribution: Poland
11 POL
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pubifolia (Kuta) G.H.Loos, Jahrb. Bochum. Bot. Vereins (2010)
species :
Viola papuana W.Becker & Pulle; Lorentz, Nova Guinea, 8: 670 (1912)
Distribution: New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola klossii Ridl., Trans. Linn Soc., Bot. 9: 18 (1916)
species :
Viola paradoxa Lowe; Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 6: reimp. 28 (1838)
Name: Madeira-Veilchen
Distribution: Madeira (Madeira Isl.)
21 MDR
species :
Viola parnonia Kit Tan, Sfikas & Vold; Ann. Bot. Fenn., 34(3): 149 (1997)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola parvula Tineo; Pl. Rar. Sic. Pug. 5 (1817)
Distribution: Corsica; Greece; Spain; Portugal; Italy; Macedonia; Sicily; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan (Nachichevan); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (Jbel Druze); Morocco
12 COR POR SPA 13 GRC ITA NMA SIC 20 MOR 33 ARM AZE GEO 34 CYP LEB SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aetnensis Tornab., Fl. Sicula (1887) 138, et Fl. Aetnea, 1: 132 (1889)
= Viola micrantha C.Presl, Delic. Prag. 27
= Viola modesta Ball, J. Bot. (London) 11: 300 (1873) [nom. illeg.] non Fenzl
= Viola parvula var. tenella (Webb) Pau, Font Quer, Iter Marocc. 1929 no. 308, in sched. (1930)
= Viola sosnowskyi Kapeller, Not. Syst. Geogr. Inst. Bot. Tphilis., Fasc. 10, 45 (1941)
= Viola tenella Poir., Encyc. 8: 644 (1808)
= Viola tezensis Ball, Journ. L. Soc. 16: 350 (1877)
= Viola tricolor ssp. parvula (Tineo) Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France [Rouy & Foucaud] 3: 49 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. parvula (Tineo) Batt., Fl. Algerie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 104 (1888)
= Viola parvula ssp. peloponnesiaca Rothm.
species :
Viola patrinii Ging.; DC., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
Name: China violet
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, ?Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, ?Shaanxi); Siberia (C-Siberia); South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Mongolia; Myanmar (Kachin, Shan); India; Vietnam; Jamaica [I]; Costa Rica [I]; New Caledonia [I]
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO 40 IND 41 MYA VIE 60 nwc 80 cos 81 jam
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola averyi Kellogg, Pacif. Rural Press (1879), ex Curran, in Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: III. 131 (1885)
= Viola grandifolia Wall., Cat. n. 1447 (1831)
= Viola mandshurica var. patrinii (DC.) Y.N.Lee, Fl. Korea: 1159 (1996)
= Viola mysurensis B.Heyne ex Wall., Cat. n. 1446 (1831)
= Viola nepaulensis DC. ex D.Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 205
= Viola nipponica Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 21: 56 (1907)
= Viola patrinii f. glabra (Nakai) F.Maek.in Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 3: 212 (1954)
= Viola patrinii f. hispida W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 245-246 (1916)
= Viola patrinii f. prunellifolia (Nakai) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 212 (1954)
= Viola patrinii f. toyokoroensis Koji Ito, J. Jap. Bot., 71(5): 301 (1996)
= Viola patrinii var. angustifolia Regel
= Viola patrinii var. glabra (Nakai) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 212 (1954)
= Viola patrinii var. subsagitata Maxim., Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 48 (1859)
= Viola phalacrocarpa f. glaberrima (W.Becker) F.Maek. ex H.Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 213 (1954)
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. glaberrima W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 246 (1916)
= Viola phalacrocarpoides Makino, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 23: 136 (1909)
= Viola primulifolia Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 513 (1790)
= Viola primulifolia var. glabra Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 190 (1925)
= Viola primulifolia var. prunellifolia Nakai, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 189 (1925)
= Viola prunellifolia Fisch. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola reinii W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(11): 422 (1917)
= Viola roxburghiana Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 76 (1845)
= Viola walkerii Wight, Illustr. Ind. Bot. 1: 42
species :
Viola pedata L.; Sp. Pl. 933 (1753)
Name: Birdfoot violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Ontario)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Oionychion pedatum (L.) Nieuwl. & Kaczm., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 210 (1914)
= Oionychion pedatum var. ampliatum Nieuwl. & Kaczm., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 211 (1914)
= Oionychion pedatum var. inornatum (Greene) Nieuwl. & Kaczm., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 210 (1914)
= Viola digitata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 171 (1813)
= Viola multifida Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 5 (1768)
= Viola pedata var. atropurpurea Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 291 (1824)
= Viola pedata var. inornata Greene, Pittonia 3: 35 (1896)
= Viola pedata f. lineariloba (DC.) F.Seym., Phytologia Mem., 5: 602 (1982)
= Viola pedata var. concolor Holm ex Brainerd
= Viola pedata var. lineariloba DC., Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 291 (1824)
= Viola redunca House, Torreya 6: 171 (1906)
= Viola pinnata Richardson, Frankl. 1st Journ. App. 734
variant :
var. ranunculifolia (Juss. ex Poir.) Ging. ex DC.; Prodr. (A. DC.) 1: 291 (1824)
Distribution: USA (North Carolina, South Carolina)
78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pedata f. ranunculifolia (Juss. ex Poir.) Fernald, Rhodora 51: 56 (1949)
= Viola ranunculifolia Juss. ex Poir., Encycl. [J. Lamarck & al.] 8: 626 (1808)
species :
Viola pedatifida G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 320 (1831)
Name: Prairie violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola delphinifolia Nutt., Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 136 (1838)
= Viola palmata var. pedatifida (G.Don) Cronquist, H. A. Gleason & A. Cronquist, Man. Vasc. Pl. Northeast. U. S. & Adjacent Canada, ed. 2: 864 (1991)
species :
Viola pedunculata Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Am. 1: 141 (1857)
Name: California golden violet, Johnny-jump-up
Distribution: USA (California); Mexico (Baja California Norte)
79 MEX
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pedunculata ssp. tenuifolia Baker & Clausen, Madroño 10: 127, tab. 5, 8 (1949)
= Viola pedunculata var. tenuifolia (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
species :
Viola pentadactyla Fenzl; Pugill. 12 no. 41 (1842)
subspecies :
subsp. pentadactyla
Distribution: Turkey (S-Anatolia); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (NW-Syria, Jbel Druze)
34 ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
subspecies :
subsp. hierosolymitana Zohary; Fl. Palaestina, 2: 459 (1972)
Distribution: Israel
34 ISR
species :
Viola perinensis W.Becker; Feddes Repert. 17: 74 (1921)
Distribution: S-Bulgaria; N-Greece
13 BUL GRC
species :
Viola perreniformis (L.G.Adams) R.J.Little & Leiper; Austrobaileya 9(1): 82 (2013)
Distribution: Australia (E-Queensland, E-New South Wales)
50 AUS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea ssp. perreniformis L.G.Adams, Fl. Australia, 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola petelotii W.Becker ex Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 1: 181 (1939)
Distribution: N-Vietnam
41 VIE
species :
Viola petraea W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 21: 354 (1925)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola petraea f. albida W.Becker, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 136 (1928)
= Viola caviahuensis M.Sheader & A.Sheader, Alpine Gardener 82(3): 245 (2014), nom. nov. for V. copahuensis
= Viola copahuensis M.Sheader & A.Sheader, Alpine Gardener 82(2): 210 (2014)
= Viola pachysoma M.Sheader & J.M.Watson, Phytotaxa 382(1): 114 (2018), nom. nov.
species :
Viola phalacrocarpa Maxim.; Melanges Bot. 9: 726 (1876)
Distribution: China (E-Gansu, Hebei, SE-Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, E-Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan); Russian Far East; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); South Korea; North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola conilii Franch. & Sav., Enum. Pl. Jap. 285 (1879)
= Viola hirta var. glabella Regel, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Petersbourg (Ser. 7) t. 4, 77 (1861)
= Viola ishidoyana Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 129 (1913)
= Viola oudemansii W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2, 34: 422 (1916)
= Viola phalacrocarpa f. plena Okuhara ex T.Shimizu, Fl. Nagano Pref. 1506 (1997)
= Viola phalacrocarpa var. ishidoyana (Nakai) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola prionantha var. latifolia Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 153 (1865)
= Viola pseudoprionantha W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 423 (1917)
= Viola seoulensis Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 32: 218 (1918)
species :
Viola philippiana Greene; Pittonia, 2: 14 (1889), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chrysantha Phil., Linnaea, 33: 1864 (1865) 15
= Viola toroensis Martic., Gayana, Bot. 57(2): 192 (2000 publ. 2001), nom. nov. superfl.
species :
Viola philippica Cav.; Icon. Descr. Pl. Hisp. 6: 19 (1801)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Hainan, Henan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, ?Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Taiwan; Cambodia; Laos; Malaysia; Vietnam; Russian Far East; South Korea; North Korea; Philippines; Sumatra; Java; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Flores); Sulawesi; India (Uttar Pradesh, Manipur); Myanmar
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 KOR NKO TAI 40 IND 41 CBD LAO MYA VIE 42 JAW LSI PHI SUL SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alisoviana f. candida (Kitag.) Taken., ? 1: 80 (1955)
= Viola alisoviana f. intermedia (Kitag.) Taken., ? 1: 80 (1955)
= Viola alisoviana Kiss, Bot. Közlem. 19: 93 (1921)
= Viola edanoii W.Becker, Philipp. Journ. Sc., 19: 722 (1921) (1922)
= Viola patrinii var. chinensis Ging., not Hayata 1916?
= Viola patrinii var. gmeliniana Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 152 (1965)
= Viola philippica f. candida (Kitag.) Kitag., Lin. Fl. Manshur. 322 (1939)
= Viola philippica ssp. malesica W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 178 (1917)
= Viola philippica ssp. munda W.Becker, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 175-176 (1917)
= Viola philippica var. yunnanfuensis W.Becker, Acta Hort. Gothob. 2: 286 (1926)
variant :
var. pseudojaponica (Nakai) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China (2007)
Distribution: China; Japan (Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.
36 CHI 38 JAP NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pseudojaponica Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 561 (1928)
= Viola yedoensis var. pseudojaponica (Nakai) T.Hashim., J. Jap. Bot. 51: 340 (1976)
species :
Viola philippii Leyb.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 681 (1859)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza); Chile (Maule, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola microphylla Phil., Linnaea, 28: 611 (1856)
variant :
var. arbuscula (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 909 (1895)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arbuscula Phil., Anal. Univ. Chil. 81: 491 (1893)
species :
Viola phitosiana Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 396 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola pilosa Blume; Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) 57 (1823), et Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 57 (1825)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Nangarhar, Paktia / Khost, Parwan); Pakistan (Waziristan, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Pakistani Punjab, Murree, Hazara); Myanmar (Kachin, Mon); Thailand; W-China; Malaysia; Java; Nepal; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Timor); Sulawesi; Moluccas (Buru, Seram); SE-Tibet; China (Guizhou, Sichuan); Bhutan; India (Poonch, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala); Sumatra; Java; Sri Lanka; Vietnam
34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP PAK SRL 41 MYA THA VIE 42 JAW LSI MOL SUL SUM
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aspera Ging. ex DC., Prodr. 1: 295 (1824)
= Viola buchaniana DC. ex D.Don, l. c. 206 (1825), pro syn.
= Viola burgersdijkii Oudem., Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 77 (1867)
= Viola celebica W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 14: 321 (1916)
= Viola crenata Moon, (1824) (nom. nud.)
= Viola dubia Wall., Cat. n. 1450 (1829)
= Viola glandulifera Wall., Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 452 (1824) (?)
= Viola glaucescens Oudem., Ann. Mus. B. Lugd.-Bat. 3: 74 (1867)
= Viola griffithiana Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 1: 54 (1854)
= Viola palmaris Buch.-Ham. ex DC., Prodr. 1: 298 (1824)
= Viola pogonantha W.W.Sm., Notes Bot. Gard. Edin 12: 228 (1920)
= Viola repens Buch.-Ham. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 296 (1824)
= Viola royleana Wall., Cat. n. 1448 (1829)
= Viola sarmentosa Burgersd., Miq. Pl. Jungh. 120
= Viola serpens ssp. gurhwalensis W.Becker
= Viola serpens var. glabra Hook.fil. & Thomson, Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 184 (1872)
= Viola serpens Wall., Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall., 2: 449 (1824)
= Viola serpens Wall. ex Ging., DC.
= Viola wightiana Wall., Cat. n. 4021 (1829)
species :
Viola pinetorum Greene; Pittonia, 2: 14 (1889)
Name: Mountain yellow violet
Distribution: USA (California)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. pinetorum Greene, Fl. Francisc. 243 (1891)
= Viola purpurea ssp. xerophyta M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen, Madroño 10: 116, tab. 4, 7 (1949)
variant :
var. grisea (Jeps.) R.J.Little; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 5(2): 633 (2011)
Name: Grey-leaved violet
Distribution: USA (California)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pinetorum ssp. grisea (Jeps.) R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 77 (1992)
= Viola purpurea var. grisea Jeps., Fl. Calif. (Jeps.) 2: 521 (1936)
species :
Viola pinnata L.; Sp. Fl. 934 (1753)
Distribution: Austria; France; Switzerland; Italy; Slovenia
11 AUT SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA SLV
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola multifida Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 352 (1819)
species :
Viola pitouchaoensis S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 2: 54 (2019)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola placida W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36: II. 58 (1918)
Distribution: N-India (Sikkim)
40 IND
species :
Viola pluviae Marcussen, H.E.Ballard & Blaxland; Nordic J. Bot. 36(9)-e01931: 3 (2018)
Distribution: USA (Washington State)
species :
Viola poetica Boiss. & Spruner; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 1(6): 21 (1845)
Distribution: SC-Greece (Fokis, Fthiotis)
13 GRC
species :
Viola polycephala H.E.Ballard & P.M.Jørg.; Novon, 7(1): 13 (1997), nom. nov.
Distribution: Ecuador
83 ECU
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola parvifolia Benth., Pl. Hartw. 161 (1843) (nom. illeg.)
species :
Viola polyodonta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 332 (1910)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina (E-Bosnia)
13 BIH
Remarks: Status uncertain, probably var. of Viola dacica
species :
Viola polypoda Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 36: I. 555 (1863)
Distribution: Chile (Tarapaca, Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo)
85 CLE
species :
Viola portalesia Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 209, t. 6 (1846)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaiso, O´Higgins, Maule, Bio Bio, Araucania, Los Lagos)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola berteroniana Steud., Flora, 39: 422 (1856)
= Viola rubella Hook. & Arn., Hook. Bot. Misc. 3: 144 (1833)
variant :
var. integerrima (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 897 (1895)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaiso, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola integerrima Phil., Linnaea, 28: 672 (1856)
species :
Viola portulacea Leyb.; Flora, 48: 381 (1865)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, Neuquen); Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 ARG CLE
species :
Viola praemorsa Douglas; Bot. Reg, t. 1254 ex Lindl. (1829)
Name: Canary violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon, Washington State); Canada (British Columbia)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nuttallii ssp. praemorsa (Douglas) Piper, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 11: 393 (1906)
= Viola nuttallii var. praemorsa (Douglas) S.Watson, Botany (Fortieth Parallel) 35 (1871)
variant :
var. flavovirens (Pollard) R.J.Little; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
Distribution: USA (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flavovirens Pollard, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 405 (1897)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. flavovirens (Pollard) Fabijan, Canad. J. Bot., 65(12): 2579 (1987)
variant :
var. linguifolia (Nutt.) M.Peck; Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
Distribution: USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola erectifolia A.Nelson, Bot. Gaz. 29: 143 (1900)
= Viola linguifolia Nutt., Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 141 (1838)
= Viola nuttallii var. linguifolia (Nutt.) Jeps., Man. Fl. Pl. Calif. (Jeps.) 645 (1925)
= Viola nuttallii var. linguifolia (Nutt.) Piper, Fl. S. E. Washington (Piper & Beattie) 166 (1914)
= Viola nuttallii var. major Hook., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Hooker) 1: 79 (1830)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. arida M.S.Baker, Brittonia 9: 227, fig. 11 (1957)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. linguifolia (Nutt.) M.S.Baker, Madroño 10(4): 128 (1949)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. major (Hook.) M.S.Baker, Madroño 10(4): 128 (1949)
= Viola praemorsa ssp. oregona M.S.Baker, Brittonia 9: 228, fig. 12 (1957)
= Viola praemorsa var. altior Blank., Sci. Stud. Montana Coll. Agric., Bot. 1: 83 (1905)
= Viola praemorsa var. major (Hook.) M.Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
= Viola vallicola var. major (Hook.) Fabijan, Canad. J. Bot., 65(12): 2575 (1987)
species :
Viola prenja Beck; Ann. Naturh. Mus. (Wien) 2: 81 (1887)
Distribution: Bosnia (Prenj Planina)
13 BIH
Remarks: Status uncertain, probably var. of Viola pyrenaica
Conservation Status: only once found
species :
Viola primulifolia L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Primelblättriges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuta Bigelow, Fl. Boston., ed. 2 95 (1824)
= Viola ovata Raf. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola primulifolia ssp. villosa (Eaton) N.H.Russell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 487 (1955)
= Viola primulifolia var. acuta (Bigelow) Torr. & A.Gray, Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 139 (1838)
= Viola primulifolia var. villosa Eaton, Man. Bot. (A. Eaton), ed. 5. 443 (1829)
variant :
var. occidentalis A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lanceolata ssp. occidentalis (A.Gray) N.H.Russell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 485 (1955)
= Viola primulifolia ssp. occidentalis (A.Gray) L.E.McKinney & R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 79 (1992)
= Viola occidentalis (A.Gray) Howell, Fl. N. W. Amer. 1: 69 (1897)
species :
Viola principis H.Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 57: 258 (1910)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); SE-Tibet
36 CHI TIB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canescens ssp. lanuginosa W.Becker, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 256 (1916)
= Viola principis var. acutifolia Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 264 (1991)
= Viola pulla W.Becker, Kew Bull., 250 (1928)
species :
Viola prionantha Bunge; Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, Ser. 6, Sci. Math. 2: 82 (1833)
subspecies :
subsp. prionantha
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan); Kyrgyzstan; Russian Far East; USA [I] (Kansas [I], Nebraska [I])
31 RFE 32 KGZ 36 CHI 74 usa
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola prionantha var. sylvatica Kitag., Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 2: 296 (1938)
= Viola prionantha var. trichantha C.J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 262 (1991)
= Viola taishanensis Ching J.Wang, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 262-263 (1991)
subspecies :
subsp. confusa (Champ. ex Benth.) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China (in prep.)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, ?Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan); Taiwan; Japan; Vietnam
36 CHI 38 JAP TAI 41 VIE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola angustistipulata Chang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s., 1(3): 250, 261 (1949)
= Viola stenocentra Hayata ex Nakai, Bot. Mag., Tokyo, 36: 38 (1922)
= Viola tienschiensis W.Becker, Fedde, Repert. 17: 314 (1921)
= Viola confusa Champ. ex Benth., Hooker´s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: 260-261 (1851)
subspecies :
subsp. jaunsariensis W.Becker; Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(120): 181 (1917)
Distribution: SE-Tibet; China (NW-Yunnan); Nepal; Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Paktia / Khost); Pakistan (Baltistan); NW-India (Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh)
34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP PAK
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola betonicifolia ssp. jaunsariensis (W.Becker) Hara, J. Jap. B. 49: 133 (1974)
= Viola kashimiriana W.Becker, Engl. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 120, 182 (1917)
= Viola patrinii var. suaveolens G.Watt, J. L. S. B 18: 379 (1881)
species :
Viola producta W.Becker; Engl. Jahrb. 37: 591 (1906)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca)
83 BOL
Conservation Status: Known only from type
species :
Viola pseudaetolica Tomovic, Melovski & Niketic; Phytotaxa 253(4): 242 (2016), nom. nov.
Distribution: Serbia; Macedonia; Albania; Montenegro; Bosnia & Hercegovina
13 ALB BIH MNT NMA SRB
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola saxatilis var. pseudolutea Hayek, Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 99: 134 (1924)
species :
Viola pseudograeca Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 489 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola pseudovulcanica W.Becker; Fedde, Repert. 21: 358 (1925)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro)
85 ARG
species :
Viola pubescens Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 3: 290 (1789)
Name: Downy yellow violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Canada (?Manitoba, Ontario, Québec)
73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Crocion eriocarpum (Nutt.) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 214 (1914)
= Crocion pubescens (Aiton) Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Nat., 3: 215 (1914)
= Viola pensylvanica Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 149 (1803)
= Viola pubescens var. peckii House, Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 243-244: 50 (1923)
variant :
var. scabriuscula Schwein. ex Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Downy yellow violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan)
74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola eriocarpa f. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Deam, Fl. Indiana 691 (1940)
= Viola eriocarpa var. leiocarpa Fernald & Wiegand, Rhodora 23: 275 (1921 publ. 1922)
= Viola eriocarpon (Nutt.) Schwein., Am. Journ. Sc. Ser. I. 5: 75 (1822)
= Viola pensylvanica var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald, Rhodora 43: 617 (1941)
= Viola pubescens var. eriocarpa Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. (Nuttall). 1: 150 (1818)
= Viola pubescens var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) B.Boivin, Phytologia 15: 435 (1967)
species :
Viola pubipetala S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 4: 40 (2021)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola pulvinata Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 434 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola pumila Chaix; Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauph. 1: 339 (1786)
Name: Zwerg-Veilchen, Niedriges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Austria; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; France; Germany (+Brandenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Hungary; Italy; Croatia; Serbia & Kosovo; ?Slovenia; Poland; Romania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Ukraine; Estonia; Crimea; Sweden; Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia); Kyrgyzstan; Kazakhstan; Georgia [Caucasus]; Uzbekistan
10 SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 BUL CRO ITA ROM SRB 14 EST KRY RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ UZB 33 GEO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina ssp. pratensis (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Döll, 650 (1843)
= Viola canina ssp. pumila (Chaix) Döll, 649 (1896), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina var. pratensis (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Kirschl., 14 (1840)
= Viola lactea Koch & Ziz, Cat. Pl. Palat. 6, Fr., Nov. Suec. 86
= Viola lactea var. lanceolata Klett & Richt., 236 (1830)
= Viola lancea Poir., Encyc. 8: 635 (1808)
= Viola montana Ledeb., Fl. All. 1: 261
= Viola montana var. pratensis (Mert. & W.D.J.Koch) Wimm. & Grab., 222 (1827)
= Viola pratensis Mert. & W.D.J.Koch, Deutschl. Fl. 2: 267 (1826)
= Viola pratensis var. humilis Mert. & W.D.J.Koch, 268 (1826)
species :
Viola purpurea Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. 1: ed. II. (1873) 55
Name: Mountain violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nuttallii Benth., Pl. Hartw. 298 (1843)
variant :
var. aurea (Kellogg) M.S.Baker ex Jeps.; Fl. Calif. (Jeps.) 2: 521 (1936)
Name: Golden violet
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. aurea (Kellogg) J.C.Clausen, Madroño 17: 295 (1964)
= Viola aurea Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 185. f. 54 (1863)
variant :
var. dimorpha (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
Name: Dimorphic mountain violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. dimorpha M.S.Baker & Clausen, Madroño 10: 122 (tt. 4, 8) (1949)
= Viola purpurea var. geophyta (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell, Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
= Viola purpurea ssp. geophyta M.S.Baker & Clausen ex M.Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
variant :
var. integrifolia (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada, Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. integrifolia M.S.Baker & Clausen, Madroño 10: 118 (t. 4) (1949)
variant :
var. mesophyta (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
Distribution: USA (California, ?Oregon)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. mesophyta M.S.Baker & Clausen, Madroño 10(4): 114 (1949), et ex M. Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
variant :
var. mohavensis (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia, 1: 8 (1975)
Distribution: USA (Arizona, California, Nevada)
76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aurea ssp. arizonensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen, Madroño 12: 11 (fig. 2) (1953)
= Viola aurea ssp. mohavensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen, Madroño 12: 9 (-11) (1953)
= Viola purpurea ssp. mohavensis (M.S.Baker & Clausen ex Blake) Clausen, Madroño 17: 295 (1964)
variant :
var. venosa (S.Watson) Brainerd; Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 224: 111, Sp. no. 48c (1921)
Distribution: USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming); Canada (British Columbia)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atriplicifolia Greene, Pittonia 3: 38 (1898)
= Viola purpurea ssp. atriplicifolia (Greene) M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen, Madroño 10: 126 (1949)
= Viola purpurea ssp. venosa (S.Watson) M.S.Baker & Clausen, Madroño 10: 125 (1949)
= Viola purpurea var. atriplicifolia (Greene) M.Peck, Man. Pl. Oregon 486 (1941)
= Viola purpurea var. atriplicifolia (Greene) R.J.Davis, Fl. Idaho 477 (1952)
= Viola venosa (S.Watson) Rydb., Mem. N. York Bot. Gard. 1: 262 (1900)
species :
Viola pusilla Poepp.; Froriep, Notiz. Gebiet Natur-u. Heilk. Ser. I. 23: 277 (1829)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, O´Higgins, Maule, Bio Bio, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola asterias Hook. & Arn.
= Viola miersii Bertero ex Steud.
= Viola stellata Miers
species :
Viola pusillima Wedd.; Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 291 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL PER
species :
Viola pygmaea Juss. ex Poir.; Encyc. 8: 630 (1808)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, Salta); Peru; Ecuador; Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL ECU PER 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpina Ruiz & Pav. ex Ging., DC., Prodr. 1: 300 (1824)
= Viola orbignyana Remy, Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser. 3).6: 353 (1846)
species :
Viola pyrenaica Ramond ex DC.; Lam. & DC., Fl. Fr. ed. 3, 4: 803 (1805)
Name: Pyrenäen-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Macedonia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia & Kosovo; Austria; Bulgaria; France; Germany (Bayern); Greece; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Spain; Andorra; C-Italy; Slovenia; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; ?Iran (?N-Iran); ?Romania
11 AUT GER LIE SWI 12 ADO FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL GRC ITA NMA SLV SRB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola glabrescens Focke, Gremli, Beitr. Fl. Schweiz 61 (1870)
= Viola hirta ssp. sciaphila (W.D.J.Koch) Bonnier, Bonnier & R. C. V. Douin, 13 (1913)
= Viola ignobilis Rupr., Mém. Acad. Sci. Pétersb. ser. 7, 15 (2): 148 (1869) p. p.
= Viola martii var. sciaphila (W.D.J.Koch) Jess., 219 (1879)
= Viola pyrenaica ssp. montserratii Fern.Casado & Nava, Candollea, 41(1): 102 (1986)
= Viola sciaphila W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. ed. 2: 90 (1843)
species :
Viola quercetorum M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 101 (1948)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea ssp. quercetorum (M.Baker & J.C.Clausen) R.J.Little, Phytologia, 72(2): 77 (1992)
species :
Viola raddeana Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(2): 463, 501 (1861)
Distribution: China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, ?Nei Mongol); South Korea; North Korea; Japan (Honshu, Kyushu); Russian Far East (Amur)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola deltoidea Yatabe, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 5(56): 318-319 (1891)
= Viola raddeana var. japonica Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6(60): 50 (1892)
= Viola thibauderi Boissieu, 1900 (not Franch. & Sav.)
species :
Viola ramiflora K.O.Yoo; Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 49(2): 140 (2019)
Distribution: South Korea
38 KOR
species :
Viola ramosiana W.Becker; Philipp. Journ. Sc., 19: 716 [1921] (1922)
Distribution: Philippines (Luzon)
42 PHI
Remarks: status doubtful
species :
Viola rauliniana Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 372 (1985)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
species :
Viola raunsiensis W.Becker & Kosanin; Bull. Inst. Jard. Bot. Univ. Beograd 1: 33 (1928)
Distribution: N-Albania
13 ALB
Remarks: Status uncertain, near Viola allchariensis, possibly a hybrid V. dukadjinica x epirota
species :
Viola rausii Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München, 21(2): 524 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola regina J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 122: 33 (2020)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaíso)
85 CLE
species :
Viola reichei Skottsb.; Scott, Rep. Princeton Univ. Exped. Patag. 8: Suppl. 176 (1914)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Maule, Bio Bio, Araucania, Los Lagos, Aisen, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola magelanica Reiche, Fl. Chile, 1: 145 (1896) (non G. Forst.)
= Viola reichei f. gunckelii Sparre
= Viola maculata ssp. reichei (Skottsb.) Weibel, Candollea 10: 82 (1943)
species :
Viola reichenbachiana Jord. ex Boreau; Fl. Centre Fr. ed. 3, 2: 78 (1857)
Name: Wald-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece (incl. Kiklades); East Aegaean Isl.; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Hungary; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia & Kosovo; Macedonia; Poland; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; C-European Russia; W-European Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Crimea; Sardinia; Sicily; Sweden; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; Morocco; Algeria; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); NW-India (Kashmir); Pakistan (Waziristan, Chitral, Swat, Hazara)
10 DEN GRB IRE SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 COR FRA SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 EAI TUR 40 IND PAK
Remarks: sieheana agg.
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arenicola Chabert, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 18: 196 (1871)
= Viola bertoti Souché, Bull. Soc. bot. Rochel. (1892) ex Corbiere. Nouv. Fl. Norm. (1893) 77
= Viola canina ssp. silvatica (Fr.) Kirschl., 8 (1840)
= Viola canina ssp. sylvestris Lam. ex Schübl. & G.Martens, 159 (1834)
= Viola canina var. reichenbachiana (Jord. ex Boreau) Baker, Hook. fil., 45 (1870)
= Viola canina var. silvatica Fr., Fr. & Broberg, 46 (1819)
= Viola canina var. sylvestris Schltdl., 134 (1823)
= Viola canina var. tracheliifolia Wallr., 98 (1822)
= Viola canina var. vulgaris Kirschl., 8 (1840)
= Viola degener Schweigg. ex K.G.Hagen, 87 (1819)
= Viola degener Schweigg. ex Mert. & Koch, Deutschl. Fl. 2: 264
= Viola flavicornis E.Forst. ex Nyman, Consp. 77 (1878)
= Viola formosa Vuk., Rad Jugos. Akad. Zagreb. 66: 29 (1883)
= Viola idaea Gand.
= Viola leucocentra Pinkw., Baenitz, Herb. Eur., 3 (1897)
= Viola maculata Giraudias, Lucante, Rev. de Bot. (1886)
= Viola neglecta M.Bieb., Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 172 (1808), nom. illeg.
= Viola nemoralis Jord., Pugill. Pl. Nov. 21 (1852)
= Viola reichenbachiana var. leucantha (Beck) M.Porter, M.J.Y.Foley & L.Lewis, Brit. Irish Bot. 2(3): 262 (2020)
= Viola reichenbachiana var. punctata (Rouy & Foucaud) P.D.Sell, Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola silvatica ssp. reichenbachiana (Jord. ex Boreau) Syme, 20 (1864)
= Viola silvatica ssp. sylvestris (Lam.) Semler, 31 (1899), nom. illeg.
= Viola silvatica var. micrantha (Döll) T.Marsson, 58 (1869)
= Viola silvatica var. reichenbachiana (Jord. ex Boreau) Nyman, 77 (1878)
= Viola sylvestris f. leucantha Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(1): 521 (1893)
= Viola sylvestris f. pygmaea (Gaudin) Gams, 635 (1925)
= Viola sylvestris ssp. nemorum Döll, 652 (1843)
= Viola sylvestris ssp. reichenbachiana (Jord. ex Boreau) Tourlet, 61 (1908)
= Viola sylvestris subvar. punctata Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France [Rouy & Foucaud] 3: 13 (1896)
= Viola sylvestris var. micrantha Döll, 652 (1843)
= Viola sylvestris var. tenuis F.W.Schultz, 63 (1845)
= Viola vicina Martrin-Donos, Fl. Tarn, 80
= Viola vulgaris Rupr., Fl. Ingr. 135 (1860)
= Viola wettsteinii Richt., Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 37: 197 (1887)
species :
Viola renifolia A.Gray; Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 288 (1870)
Name: White violet
Distribution: Alaska; USA (Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Idaho, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon)
70 ASK 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blanda var. renifolia (A.Gray) A.Gray, Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
= Viola brainerdii Greene, Pittonia 5: 89 (1902)
= Viola renifolia var. brainerdii (Greene) Fernald, Rhodora 14: 88 (1912)
= Viola mistassinica Greene, Pittonia 4: 5 (1899)
species :
Viola replicata W.Becker; Engl. Jahrb. 37: 589 (1906)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola rheophila Okamoto; Bull. Osaka Mus. Nat. Hist., 37: 10 (1984)
Distribution: Borneo (Kalimantan); NE-Thailand
41 THA 42 BOR
species :
Viola rhodopeia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 334 (1910)
Distribution: S-Bulgaria (W-Rodopi)
13 BUL
variant :
var. congesta Delip.; Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya, 7: 495 (1979)
Distribution: Bulgaria
13 BUL
species :
Viola rhombifolia Leyb.; Anal. Univ. Chil. 680 (1859)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Reg. Metropolitana)
85 CLE
species :
Viola riviniana Rchb.; Pl. Crit. 1: 81 (1823)
Name: Hain-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Albania; Austria; Belgium; Luxembourg; England; Channel Isl.; Bulgaria; Corsica; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Denmark; Faeroe Isl.; Finland; France; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Greece; East Aegaean Isl.; Ireland; Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Spain; Andorra