Search

Reset
* Only valid names are shown as results

Filter

Reset

Order

Family (36)

Genus (31)

Prev genus | Next genus

Display options

Ver. 19.4
June 30th, 2024

330.0000 Family Violaceae Batsch; Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 57 (1802), nom. cons.
32 genera, ca. 1050 spp. Systematics following Wahlert et al. 2015
Species listed in database: 1072; hybrids: 203
= Alsodeiaceae J.Agardh; Theoria Syst. Pl.: 197 (1858)
= Leoniaceae A.DC.; A. & C. DC., Prodr. 8: 668. med (1844)
330.2006 Genus Viola L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 933 (1753)
Distribution: cosmopolitan, but chiefly temp. regions. Systematics and synonymy see Marcussen et al. 2022. There remain many undescribed species in the Andes. Also, many synonymized species in sect. Borealiamericanae (Appalachians) deserve resurrection (H. E. Ballard).
Species listed in database: 647; hybrids: 202
= Chrysion Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 5: 509 (1836)
= Cittaronium Rchb.; Deut. Bot. Herb.-Buch: 186 (1841)
= Crocion Nieuwl.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 214 (1914)
= Dischidium Rchb.; Handb. Nat. Pfl.-Syst.: 269 (1837)
= Erpetion DC. ex Sweet; Brit. Fl. Gard. 2: t. 170 (1826)
= Grammeionium Rchb.; Consp. Regn. Veg.: 188 (1828)
= Ion Medik.; Malvenfam.: 102 (1787)
= Jacea Opiz; Bercht. & Opiz, Oekon.-Techn. Fl. Böhm. 2(2): 8 (1839)
= Lophion Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 5: 516 (1836)
= Mnemion Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 5: 510 (1836)
= Oionychion Nieuwl.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 210 (1914)
species :
Viola abbreviata J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 110: 36, figs. 21, 28, 35, 43, 49-51, 53-56, 61-62 (2019)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén, Mendoza)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola abyssinica Steud. ex Oliv.; Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)
Distribution: SE-Nigeria; Cameroon; Bioko Isl. [Fernando Poo]; E-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; Rwanda; Burundi; South Sudan; Ethiopia; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania; E-Zambia; Malawi; E-Zimbabwe; Mozambique; South Africa (Limpopo); Madagascar
22 NGA 23 BIO BUR CMN RWA ZAI 24 ETH SSU 25 KEN TAN UGA 26 MLW MOZ ZAM ZIM 27 SAF 29 MDG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 17 Abyssinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abyssinica var. usambarensis R.E.Fr.; Acta Horti Berg. 8: 5 (1923)
= Viola emirnensis Bojer ex Oliv.; Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)
= Viola zongia Tul.; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 9: 300 (1868)
species :
Viola acanthophylla Leyb. ex Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 442 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
species :
Viola acrocerauniensis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 22: 493 (1986)
Distribution: Albania
13 ALB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola acuminata Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 252 (1842)
Distribution: Siberia (Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Primorye, Sakhalin); China (Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang); Mongolia; North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuminata f. alba Moriya; J. Geobot. 8: 91 (1960)
= Viola acuminata f. glaberrima (H.Hara) Kitam.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20: 196 (1962)
= Viola acuminata f. shikokuensis Maek. ex H.Hara; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola acuminata subsp. grandistipulata (W.Becker) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 18 (2020)
= Viola acuminata var. brevistipulata (W.Becker) Kitag.; Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 451 (1979)
= Viola acuminata var. dentata W.Becker; Fedtsch., Fl. Asiat. Ross. 8: 49 (1915)
= Viola acuminata var. glaberrima H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot. 12: 220 (1936)
= Viola acuminata var. intermedia Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 280 (1916)
= Viola canina lusus brevipetiolata (Regel) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 492 (1862)
= Viola canina var. acuminata (Ledeb.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 247 (1861)
= Viola canina var. brevipetiolata Regel; Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 7, 4(4): 25 (1861)
= Viola laciniosa A.Gray; Narr. Capt. L. M. Perry´s Exped. 2: 308 (1856)
= Viola micrantha proles brevistipulata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 383 (1917)
= Viola micrantha proles grandistipulata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 383 (1917)
= Viola micrantha Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 5: 183 (1832), nom. illeg.
= Viola turczaninowii Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR 15: 395 (1949)
variant :
var. austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Kitag.; Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur.: 451 (1979)
Distribution: Russian Far East
31 RFE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acuminata subsp. austroussuriensis W.Becker; Fl. Aziat. Ross. 8: 49 (1915)
= Viola acuminata var. austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 18 (2020), isonym
= Viola austroussuriensis (W.Becker) Kom.; Alis. Key Pl. Far East. Reg. URSS 2: 767 (1932)
= Viola micrantha lusus austroussuriensis (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 384 (1917)
variant :
var. pilifera C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnanica 13(3): 257 (1991)
Distribution: China (Gansu)
36 CHI
species :
Viola acutifolia (Kar. & Kir.) W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 96 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II 263 (1916)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; China (Xinjiang)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. acutifolia Kar. & Kir.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 15: 163 (1842)
= Viola uniflora var. kareliniana Maxim.; Enum. Pl. Mongolia: 81 (1889)
species :
Viola adenothrix Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 23 (1913)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kosanensis Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola royleana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola rupicola Merr.; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 3: 106 (1923)
species :
Viola adunca Sm.; Cycl. [A. Rees] (London ed.) 37: Viola n. 63 (1817)
Name: Hookedspur violet
Distribution: Alaska; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); St. Pierre et Miquelon; USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Idaho, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Sonora)
70 ASK CDN 71 CDN 72 CDN SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Lophion aduncum (Sm.) Nieuwl. & Lunell; Am. Midl. Nat. 4: 478 (1916)
= Lophion aduncum var. glabrum (Brainerd) Nieuwl. & Lunell; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 478 (1916)
= Viola adunca f. albiflora Vict. & J.Rousseau; Contr. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montréal 36: 20 (1940)
= Viola adunca f. candida Lepage; Naturaliste Canad. 79: 180 (1942)
= Viola adunca f. glabra (Brainerd) G.N.Jones; Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 5: 194 (1936)
= Viola adunca subsp. ashtonae M.S.Baker; Madroño 3: 233 (1936)
= Viola adunca subsp. oxyceras (S.Watson) Piper; Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 11: 395 (1906)
= Viola adunca subsp. radicosa M.S.Baker; Madroño 3: 234, pl. 11, fig. 5 (1936)
= Viola adunca subsp. uncinulata (Greene) Applegate; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 22: 282 (1939)
= Viola adunca var. cascadensis (M.S.Baker) C.L.Hitchc.; Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 440 (1961)
= Viola adunca var. glabra Brainerd; Rhodora 15: 109 (1913)
= Viola adunca var. kirkii V.G.Duran; Leafl. W. Bot. 10: 319 (1966)
= Viola adunca var. longipes Rydb.; Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 263 (1900)
= Viola adunca var. uncinulata (Greene) C.L.Hitchc.; Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 440 (1961)
= Viola canina var. adunca (Sm.) A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11: 292 (1886)
= Viola canina var. longipes (Nutt.) S.Watson; Watson, Bot. California 1: 56 (1876)
= Viola canina var. oxyceras S.Watson; Watson, Bot. California 1: 56 (1876)
= Viola canina var. puberula S.Watson; A. Gray, Manual, ed. 6: 81 (1890)
= Viola cardaminefolia Greene; Pittonia 4: 289 (1901)
= Viola cascadensis M.S.Baker; Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 173 (1949)
= Viola clarkiae A.Nelson; Bot. Gaz. 54: 412 (1912)
= Viola compacta Greene; Pittonia 4: 286 (1901)
= Viola cordulata Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 33 (1910)
= Viola demissa Greene; Pl. Baker. 3: 10 (1901)
= Viola desertorum Greene; Pittonia 4: 291 (1901)
= Viola drepanophora Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 32 (1910)
= Viola fulcrata Greene; Pittonia 4: 285 (1901)
= Viola huronensis Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 96 (1910)
= Viola inamoena Greene; Pl. Baker. 3: 11 (1901)
= Viola longipes Nutt.; Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 140 (1838)
= Viola mamillata Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 33 (1910)
= Viola minima M.S.Baker; Leafl. W. Bot. 5: 141 (1949)
= Viola montanensis Rydb.; Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 263 (1900)
= Viola monticola Rydb.; Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 264 (1900), nom. illeg., non Jord.
= Viola odontophora Rydb.; Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 264 (1900)
= Viola oreocallis Greene; Pittonia 4: 288 (1901)
= Viola oreophila Greene; Pittonia 4: 307 (1901)
= Viola oxyceras (S.Watson) Greene; Pittonia 3: 255 (1897)
= Viola oxysepala Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 34 (1910)
= Viola petrophila Greene; Pittonia 4: 286 (1901)
= Viola puberula (S.Watson) Howell; Fl. N. W. Amer. [Howell] 1: 72 (1897)
= Viola retroscabra Greene; Pittonia 4: 290 (1901)
= Viola subvestita Greene; Erythea 5: 39 (1897)
= Viola sylvestris var. puberula (S.Watson) E.Sheld.; Bull. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 9: 17 (1894)
= Viola tidestromii Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 34 (1910)
= Viola uncinulata Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 97 (1910)
= Viola unguiculata Greene; Pittonia 4: 291 (1901)
= Viola verbascula Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 32 (1910)
variant :
var. bellidifolia (Greene) H.D.Harr.; Man. Pl. Colorado 377, 641 (1954)
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia); USA (Colorado, Montana, Wyoming)
71 CDN 73 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bellidifolia Greene; Pittonia 4: 292 (1901)
species :
Viola aduncoides Á.Löve & D.Löve; Bot. Notiser, 128(4): 516 (1975 publ. 1976)
Distribution: Canada (Yukon, N. W. Territories, British Columbia, Saskatchewan)
70 CDN 71 CDN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola aethnensis (DC.) Strobl; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 27: 226 (1877)
subspecies :
subsp. aethnensis
Name: Ätna-Veilchen (DE), Etna Violet (EN)
Distribution: Sicily (Etna)
13 SIC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarata subsp. aethnensis (DC.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 81 (1878)
= Viola calcarata var. aethnensis DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 302 (1824)
= Viola gracilis var. aethnensis (DC.) Guss.; Fl. Sicul. Prodr. 1: 255 (1827)
= Viola heterophylla subsp. aethnensis (Parl.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 326 (1910)
subspecies :
subsp. messanensis (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 13: 504 (1977)
Distribution: S-Italy; NE-Sicily
13 ITA SIC
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola aethnensis subsp. calabra (A.Terracc.) Peruzzi; Inform. Bot. Ital. 42(2): 531 (2010)
= Viola bertolonii subsp. messanensis (W.Becker) A.Schmidt; Flora (Regensb.) 154: 159 (1964)
= Viola calabra (A.Terracc.) Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 191 (2018)
= Viola ferdinandea Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 199, fig. 10 (2018)
= Viola gracilis var. calabra A.Terracc.; Annuario Reale Ist. Bot. Roma 4(1): 77 (1890)
= Viola heterophylla subsp. messanensis (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 325 (1910)
= Viola heterophylla var. messanensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 359 (1905)
subspecies :
subsp. splendida (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 13: 504 (1977)
Distribution: S-Italy (mountains near Salerno)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alburnica Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 187 (2018)
= Viola cervatiana Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 193, fig. 6 (2018)
= Viola cilentana Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 195, fig. 7 (2018)
= Viola gaviolii Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 202, fig. 12 (2018)
= Viola gracilis var. pubescens A.Terracc.; Prodr. Fl. Lucan. 1: 53 (1893)
= Viola heterophylla subsp. splendida (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 325 (1910)
= Viola sirinica Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 220, fig. 21 (2018)
= Viola splendida W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 2: 750 (1902)
= Viola tricolor var. lutea Fiori; Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., n.s., 6: 211 (1899)
= Viola vulturis Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 226, fig. 25 (2018)
species :
Viola aetolica Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(6): 24 (1859)
Distribution: North Macedonia; Albania; Greece
13 ALB GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpestris subsp. aetolica (Boiss. & Heldr.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 345 (1910)
= Viola heterosepala Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 6: 23 (1859)
= Viola saxatilis subsp. aetolica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek
species :
Viola affinis Leconte; Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 138 (1826)
Name: Sand violet
Distribution: Canada (Ontario, Québec); USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
72 CDN 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola affinis f. albiflora L.K.Henry; Castanea 18: 45 (1953)
= Viola affinis var. chalcosperma Griscom; Rhodora 38: 49 (1936)
= Viola affinis var. subarctica J.Rousseau; Canad. J. Res., Sect. C, Bot. Sci. 28: 245 (1952)
= Viola sororia subsp. affinis (Leconte) R.J.Little; Phytologia 72(2): 78 (1992), without basionym ref., et Phytologia 80(4): 295 (1996)
= Viola sororia var. affinis (Leconte) L.E.McKinney; Sida, Bot. Misc. 7: 39 (1992)
species :
Viola aizoon Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 443 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío, Nuble)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cyathiformis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 355 (1925)
species :
Viola alaica Vved.; Acta Univ. As. Med. Ser. VIII b, Bot. Fasc. 3, 79 (1928)
Distribution: Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan
32 KGZ TZK UZB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola oxycentra Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR 15: 682 (1949)
species :
Viola alba Besser; Prim. Fl. Galic. 1: 171 (1809)
subspecies :
subsp. alba
Name: Weißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Sweden (Øland); Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Sachsen [I]); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Spain; Andorra; Baleares; France; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Greece; European Russia; Moldova; Turkey
10 SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 ADO BAL FRA SPA 13 BIH CRO GRC KOS NMA SLV SRB 14 MLD RUS 34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba f. incurva Pau; Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 1895: 155 (1896)
= Viola alba f. virescens (Jord.) Rhiner; 196 (1893)
= Viola alba subsp. stevenii (Besser) Gremli; 105 (1874)
= Viola alba subsp. thessala (Boiss. & Spruner) Hayek; Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 502 (1925)
= Viola alba subsp. virescens (Jord. ex Boreau) P.Fourn.; Fl. Compl. Plaine Franç.: 53 (1928), isonym
= Viola alba subsp. virescens (Jord.) Murr; 202 (1923)
= Viola alba var. besseri (Rupr.) Beck; Fl. Nieder-Österreich 2(1): 513 (1892), nom. illeg.
= Viola alba var. picta (Moggr.) Espeut; Monde Pl., 464: 16 (1999)
= Viola alba var. pungens Gren.; 177 (1847)
= Viola alba var. scotophyllodes Wiesb. ex Dichtl; Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3: 45 (1885)
= Viola alba var. virescens (Jord. ex Boreau) P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 445 (1936), isonym
= Viola alba var. virescens (Jord.) Gremli; 86 (1878)
= Viola hirta subsp. ausonensis Sennen; Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 32: 111 (1932), nom. alt.
= Viola hirta var. picta Moggr.; Contr. Fl. Mentone: 54 (1864)
= Viola martii subsp. alba (Besser) Döll; 648 (1843)
= Viola nigricans Schur ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola odorata subsp. alba (Besser) Bonnier; Bonnier & R. C. V. Douin, 14 (1913), isonym
= Viola odorata var. alba (Besser) Dumort.; Fl. Belg.: 116 (1827), nom. illeg.
= Viola odorata var. alba (Besser) Klett & Richt.; 230 (1830), isonym
= Viola odorata var. inodora Cambess. ex N.E.Br.; Sm., Engl. Bot., ed. 3B(Suppl. 1/4): 29 (1892), nom. nud.
= Viola praecox Heuff. ex Fuss; Fl. Transsilv.: 81 (1866)
= Viola thessala Boiss. & Spruner; Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 8: 51 (1849)
= Viola virescens Jord. ex Boreau; Fl. Centre France, ed. 3 (Boreau) 2: 77 (1857)
variant :
var. scotophylla (Jord.) Gremli; 86 (1878)
Name: Dunkelblütiges Weißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Sachsen [I]); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Hungary; N-Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Greece; European Russia; Northern Caucasus
11 AUT GER HUN LIE SWI 13 CRO GRC ITA SLV 14 RUS 33 NCS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba proles scotophylla (Jord.) Samp.; Ann. Sci. Acad. Polytecn. Porto 4: 120 (1909)
= Viola alba f. albiflora (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Gams; 647 (1925)
= Viola alba f. scotophylla (Jord.) Rhiner; 197 (1893)
= Viola alba subsp. scotophylla (Jord.) Gremli; 105 (1874)
= Viola alba subsp. scotophylla (Jord.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878), isonym
= Viola alba var. albiflora Wiesb. ex Dichtl; Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3: 45 (1885)
= Viola alba var. scotophylla (Jord.) Ces.; Comp. Fl. Ital. 2(33): 806 (1884)
= Viola alba var. violacea Wiesb. ex Dichtl; Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3: 45 (1885)
= Viola multicaulis var. scotophylla (Jord.) Caldesi; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 11: 336 (1879)
= Viola odorata var. scotophylla (Jord.) Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 696 (1878)
= Viola scotophylla f. albiflora (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Murr; 102 (1900)
= Viola scotophylla f. violacea (Wiesb. ex Dichtl) Murr; 102 (1900)
= Viola scotophylla Jord.; Observ. Pl. Nouv. 7: 9 (1849)
subspecies :
subsp. bonaefidei Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot. 8: 85 (1991) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Remarks: Viola alba ssp. dehnhardtii x suavis ssp. barceloi
subspecies :
subsp. cretica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Marcussen; Pl. Syst. Evol. 237(1-2): 71 (2003)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cretica Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 2(8): 51 (1849)
= Viola cretica subsp. glabra A.Tiniakou
subspecies :
subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) W.Becker; Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 8(2): 257 (1902)
Distribution: France; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; Greece (incl. Kiklades); Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq); Iran (N-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Syria (coastal W-Syria)
12 COR FRA SAR 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA 14 KRY UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 33 AZE GEO 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ SYR TUR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba proles esterelensis (Chanay & Millière) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 31 (1896)
= Viola alba var. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Litard.; Briq., Prodr. Fl. Corse 2(2): 191 (1935)
= Viola alba var. lactea Espeut; Monde Pl., 464: 17 (1999), nom. nov.
= Viola armena Boiss. & A.Huet; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 5: 48 (1856)
= Viola cadevallii Pau; Mem. Acad. Ci. Artes Barcelona ser. 3, 2: 62 (1896)
= Viola dehnhardtii f. cadevallii (Pau) W.Becker; Bot. Zhurn. (St. Petersburg) 5: 24 (1910), nom. superfl.
= Viola dehnhardtii f. glaberrima W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: 24 (1909)
= Viola dehnhardtii subvar. cadevallii (Pau) Litard.; Briq., Prodr. Fl. Corse 2(2): 194 (1935)
= Viola dehnhardtii Ten.; Ind. Sem. Hort. Neap. (1830) 12, ex ej. Syll. 117
= Viola dehnhardtii var. albiflora W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(1): 23 (1909), nom. illeg.
= Viola dehnhardtii var. atlantica Braun-Blanq. & Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 14: 73 (1923)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. burgalensis Sennen & Pau; Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 6: 24 (1907)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. cadevallii (Pau) W.Becker; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 187 (1906)
= Viola dehnhardtii var. gomarica Emb. & Maire; Jahand. et al., Cat. Pl. Maroc 2: 506 (1932)
= Viola esterelensis Chanay & Millière; Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 6(2): 184 (1879)
= Viola hirta subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital., ed. 2,: 296 (1894)
= Viola lauzuricae Marcet; Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 45: 234 (1947)
= Viola maroccana (Maire) Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 23: 168 (1932)
= Viola odorata subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878)
= Viola odorata var. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 1: 458 (1867)
= Viola pentelica Vierh.; Verh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 64: 266 (1914)
= Viola pyrenaica var. maroccana Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 13: 14 (1922)
subspecies :
subsp. neusii Orell & Romo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 59 Bot. 8: 83 (1991) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Baleares
12 BAL
Remarks: Viola alba ssp. dehnhardtii x jaubertiana
species :
Viola albanica Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 141 (1900)
Distribution: Albania; N-Greece
13 ALB GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola albida Palib.; Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 17(1): 30 (1899)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Primorye); China (Anhui, ?Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shandong, ?Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang); North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Kyushu)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida f. rugata (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 528 (2017)
= Viola albida f. variegata F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 105 (1954)
= Viola albida f. viridis Y.N.Lee; Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 4 (2006)
= Viola albida var. chaerophylloides (Regel) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola albida var. rugata Y.N.Lee; Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 16 (2005)
= Viola albida var. suavis Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 49: 419 (1935)
= Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 19: 17 (1902), isonym
= Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 2(2): 856 (1902)
= Viola chaerophylloides f. viridis (Y.N.Lee) M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 528 (2017)
= Viola dentariifolia H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 1076 (1901)
= Viola dissecta subvar. albida (Palib.) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 155 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. albida (Palib.) Nakai; Icon. Pl. Koisik. 1: 93, t. 47 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. chaerophylloides (Regel) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26(305): 153 (1912)
= Viola napellifolia Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(424): 86, 93 (1922)
= Viola pinnata f. pedata Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 152 (1866)
= Viola pinnata f. trisectopinnatifida Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 152 (1866)
= Viola pinnata var. chaerophylloides Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 222 (1861)
= Viola prionantha var. incisa Kitag.; Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 6(4): 123 (1942)
= Viola sieboldiana var. chaerophylloides (Regel) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32(382): 226 (1918)
= Viola ×savatieri f. detonsa (Kitag.) Kitag.; Neolin. Fl. Manshur.: 459 (1979)
= Viola ×savatieri var. detonsa Kitag.; Lin. Fl. Manshur.: 324 (1939)
variant :
var. eizanensis (Makino) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chaerophylloides f. simplicifolia Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 17 (1905)
= Viola chaerophylloides var. eizanensis (Makino) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola dissecta subvar. simplicifolia (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 155 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. eizanensis Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 155 (1912)
= Viola eizanensis (Makino) Makino; J. Jap. Bot. 1: 15 (1917)
= Viola eizanensis f. simplicifolia (Makino) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 199 (1954)
= Viola eizanensis var. simplicifolia (Makino) Makino; J. Jap. Bot. 1: 16 (1917)
= Viola pinnata f. triphylla Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 152 (1866)
variant :
var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida f. sieboldiana (Maxim.) H.Hara; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 195 (1954)
= Viola albida var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 23 (2020)
= Viola chaerophylloides f. sieboldiana (Maxim.) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola chaerophylloides var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 87 (1905)
= Viola dissecta f. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 154 (1912)
= Viola dissecta var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 282 (1916)
= Viola napellifolia var. sieboldiana (Maxim.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (86), (93) (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. sieboldiana Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg ser. 3, 23: 313 (1877)
= Viola sieboldiana (Maxim.) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 144 (1905)
species :
Viola alexandrowiana (W.Becker) Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR 15: 412 (1949)
Distribution: Siberia (Buryatia, Irkutsk); Mongolia
30 SIB 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola phalacrocarpa subsp. alexandrowiana W.Becker; Fl. Aziatik Ross. 8: 72 (1915)
species :
Viola alexejana Kamelin & Junussov; Dokl. Akad. Nauk Tadzh. SSR 23(4): 208 (1980)
Distribution: Tajikistan
32 TZK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola allchariensis Beck; Jahres-Kat. Wien. Bot. Tauschver. 1894: 6 (1894)
subspecies :
subsp. allchariensis
Distribution: C-North Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
subspecies :
subsp. gostivarensis W.Becker & Bornm.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 75 (1921)
Distribution: NW-North Macedonia
13 NMA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gostivariensis (W.Becker & Bornm.) Bornm.; Magyar Bot. Lap. 32: 141 (1933)
species :
Viola alliariifolia Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 36: 32 (1922)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brevistipulata var. renifolia (Koidz.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 198 (1954)
= Viola glabella var. renifolia Koidz.; Icon. Pl. Koisikav. 3: 113 (1917)
species :
Viola allochroa Botsch.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. & Zool. Acad. Sci. Uzbekistan. 11: 10 (1948)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan (Tianshan)
32 KAZ KGZ UZB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola alpina Jacq.; Enum. Stirp. Vindob. 159 (1762)
Distribution: E-Austria; Poland; Slovakia; Romania
11 AUT POL SLO 13 ROM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola baumgarteniana Schur; Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 87 (1866)
= Viola microphylla Schur; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 394 (1858), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola altaica Ker Gawl.; Edwards´s Bot. Reg. 54 (1815)
Name: Altai-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; China (Xinjiang); Mongolia
11 ger 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ TZK 36 CHI 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion grandiflorum Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 5: 514 (1836)
= Viola monochroa Klokov; Komarov, Fl. USSR 15: 688 (1949)
= Viola pallasii Fisch. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot. 1: 886 (1821), nom. inval.
= Viola speciosa Schrad. ex Rchb.; Fl. Germ. Excurs. 2: 708 (1832), pro syn.
species :
Viola amamiana Hatus.; Sci. Rep. Yokosuka City Mus. 15: 13 (1969)
Distribution: Ryukyu Isl.
38 NNS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola ambigua Waldst. & Kit.; Pl. Rar. Hung. 2: 208 (1804)
Name: Steppen-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany; Austria; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; ?Slovenia; Croatia; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Siberia (W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]
11 AUT CZE GER HUN SLO 13 BUL CRO KOS NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ 33 GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ambigua subsp. campestris (M.Bieb.) Gams; 643 (1925)
= Viola campestris M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 1: 171 (1808)
= Viola revoluta Heuff. ex Rchb.; Fl. Germ. Excurs. 705 (1832)
= Viola suaveolens E.P.Perrier & Songeon; Billot, Annot. Fl. France Allemagne: 183 (1860), pro syn.
species :
Viola amurica W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 62 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 230-231 (1916)
Distribution: Siberia (Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Primorye); China (NE-Heilongjiang, E-Jilin)
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
species :
Viola anagae Gilli; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., 89(9-10): 595 (1978 publ. 1979)
Name: Anaga-Veilchen (DE); Violeta de Anaga (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola angkae Craib; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1925: 14 (1925)
Distribution: N-Thailand
41 THA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola angustifolia Phil.; Linnaea 28: 612 (1856)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola wikipedia J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 117(ed. 1): 47 (2019), nom. superfl.
species :
Viola anitae J.M.Watson; Int. Rock Gard. 108: [89], figs.13, 14, 42, 46, 47, 53-57, 59, 63 (2018)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 6 Rhizomandinium
species :
Viola annamensis Baker f.; J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Thailand 4: 128 (1921)
Distribution: NE-Thailand; C-Vietnam; Borneo (Kalimantan)
41 THA VIE 42 BOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola rheophila Okamoto; Bull. Osaka Mus. Nat. Hist. 37: 10 (1984)
species :
Viola apoensis Elmer; Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 8: 2878 (1915)
Distribution: Philippines (Mindanao); New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diffusa subsp. apoensis (Elmer) D.M.Moore; Fl. Males., Ser. 1, 7(1): 202 (1971)
species :
Viola appalachiensis L.K.Henry; Castanea 18: 131 (1953)
Name: Appalachian violet
Distribution: USA (Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola allegheniensis L.K.Henry; Castanea 18: 53 (1953), non Roem. & Schult.
= Viola walteri var. appalachiensis (L.K.Henry) L.E.McKinney ex S.P.Grund & B.L.Isaac; Castanea 72(1): 59 (2007)
species :
Viola araucaniae W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 181 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Araucanía)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola arborescens L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
Distribution: SW-Portugal; Spain; Baleares; France; Sardinia; Morocco; Algeria
12 BAL FRA POR SAR SPA 20 ALG MOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 15 Xylinosium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arborescens f. albido-tomentosa W.Becker; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 189 (1906)
= Viola arborescens f. integrifolia (Ging.) Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 6: 24 (1895), nom. illeg.
= Viola arborescens f. latifolia (DC.) Fern.Casado; Lagascalia 14(1): 136 (1986)
= Viola arborescens f. willkommii Fern.Casado; Lagascalia 14(1): 136 (1986), without type, as nom. nov.
= Viola arborescens var. compacta (Willk.) Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 6: 24 (1895)
= Viola arborescens var. compacta Willk.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 87 (1891)
= Viola arborescens var. elongata Willk.; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 87 (1891)
= Viola arborescens var. integrifolia Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 299 (1824)
= Viola arborescens var. intermedia Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 4 (1896)
= Viola arborescens var. latifolia Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 299 (1824)
= Viola arborescens var. serratifolia Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 299 (1824)
= Viola fruticans Bubani; Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 3: 111 (1901)
= Viola longiviola Pourr. ex Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 380 (1819)
= Viola saxicola Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 380 (1819)
= Viola suberosa Desf.; Fl. Atlant. 2: 313 (1799)
= Viola tuberosa Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 773 (1841), nom. inval.
species :
Viola argentina W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 184 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (Cordoba, La Rioja, San Juan)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola arguta Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 391 (1819)
Distribution: Colombia (Cesar, Magdalena); Ecuador; Peru
82 CLM 83 ECU PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arguta subsp. meridionalis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 93 (1907)
= Viola arguta var. glaberrima W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 92 (1907)
= Viola arguta var. meridionalis (W.Becker) L.B.Sm. & A.Fernández; Caldasia 6: 164 (1954)
= Viola corchorifolia Dombey ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola punicea Ruiz & Pav. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 304 (1824)
species :
Viola arsenica Beck; Jahres-Kat. Wien. Bot. Tauschver. 1894: 6 (1894)
Distribution: S-North Macedonia (Alsar, 40 km SW of Prilep)
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola arvensis Murray; Prodr. Stirp. Götting. 73 (1770)
subspecies :
subsp. arvensis
Name: Acker-Stiefmütterchen (DE), European field pansy (EN)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Tenerife [I], La Gomera [I], La Palma Isl. [I]); South Africa [I]; Siberia (Altai, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia); Russian Far East [I] (Kamchatka [I], Primorye [I], Sakhalin [I]); Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, W-Anatolia); China [I]; Mongolia; South Korea [I]; Australia [I] (New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]; Greenland [I]; Canada (Alberta [I], British Columbia [I], Manitoba [I], New Brunswick [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I], Prince Edward Isl. [I], Québec [I], Saskatchewan [I]); St. Pierre et Miquelon [I]; USA [I] (Arkansas [I], California [I], Connecticut [I], Delaware [I], Georgia [I], Iowa [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Indiana [I], Kansas [I], Kentucky [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Minnesota [I], Missouri [I], Mississippi [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], Nebraska [I], New Hampshire [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], South Carolina [I], Tennessee [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Vermont [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I], West Virginia [I]); Colombia [I]; Ecuador [I]; Bolivia [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Ñuble [I], Biobío [I], Araucanía [I], Los Rios [I], Los Lagos [I]); Falkland Isl. [I]
10 DEN FIN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 cny mdr 27 saf 30 SIB 31 rfe 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 chi 37 MON 38 kor 50 aus 51 nzl 70 gnl 71 CDN 72 CDN spm 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 82 clm 83 bol ecu 85 arg cle 91 fal
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion agreste (Jord.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 16: 341 (1868)
= Mnemion arvense (Murray) Nieuwl.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 217 (1914)
= Mnemion gracilescens (Jord.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 16: 342 (1868)
= Mnemion obtusifolium (Jord.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 16: 341 (1868)
= Mnemion segetale (Jord.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 16: 341 (1868)
= Viola agrestis Jord.; Observ. Pl. Nouv. 2: 15 (1846)
= Viola anglica Drabble; J. Bot. 64: 269 (1926)
= Viola arvatica Jord.; Mém. Acad. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Sci. 1: 24 (1852)
= Viola arvensis f. subpatens C.G.Westerl.; Bot. Not. 1906: 23 (1906)
= Viola arvensis f. timbalii (Jord.) Font Quer; Treb. Mus. Ci. Nat. Barcelona, Sèr. Bot. 5(5): 19 (1924)
= Viola arvensis subsp. andina W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 591 (1906)
= Viola arvensis subsp. communis Wittr.; Acta Horti Berg. 2(1
= Viola arvensis subsp. curtisepala Wittr.; Acta Horti Berg. 2(1
= Viola arvensis subsp. patens Wittr.; Acta Horti Berg. 2(1
= Viola arvensis subsp. sublilacina Wittr.; Acta Horti Berg. 2(1
= Viola arvensis var. anglica (Drabble) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. arvatica (Jord.) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. deseglisei (Jord. ex Boreau) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. flava DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 6: 618 (1815)
= Viola arvensis var. latifolia (Drabble) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola arvensis var. ruralis (Jord.) Besnou; Fl. Manche: 45 (1881)
= Viola arvensis var. segetalis (Jord.) Besnou; Fl. Manche: 45 (1881)
= Viola arvensis var. segetalis (Jord.) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018), isonym
= Viola atlantica Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 215 (1874)
= Viola aurasiaca Pomel; Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 2: 342 (1875)
= Viola deseglisei Jord. ex Boreau; Fl. Centre France, éd. 3, 2: 82 (1857)
= Viola gracilescens Jord.; Observ. Pl. Nouv. 2: 20 (1846)
= Viola gracilis var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt.; Fl. Algèrie [Batt. & Trabut] Dicot.: 105 (1888)
= Viola latifolia Drabble; J. Bot. 64: 266 (1926)
= Viola longifolia Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid, ser. 2, 17(7-12): 51 (1919), nom. illeg.
= Viola obtusifolia Jord.; Mém. Acad. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Sci. 1: 23 (1852)
= Viola segetalis Jord.; Observ. Pl. Nouv. 2: 12 (1846)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis Wahlenb.; Fl. Upsaliensis: 287 (1820)
= Viola timbalii Jord.; Mém. Acad. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Sci. 1: 22 (1852)
= Viola tricolor proles arvensis (Murray) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 44 (1896)
= Viola tricolor f. gracilescens (Jord.) Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 79 (1893), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor f. ruderalis Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 81 (1893)
= Viola tricolor f. segetalis (Jord.) Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 79 (1893)
= Viola tricolor f. turgida Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 78 (1893)
= Viola tricolor subsp. arvensis (Murray) Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 210 (1828)
= Viola tricolor subsp. arvensis (Murray) Wigand; Fl. Kurhessen: 82 (1859)
= Viola tricolor subsp. banatica (Kit.) Simonk.; 112 (1887)
= Viola tricolor var. agrestis (Jord.) Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 81 (1893)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 1: 465 (1867), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) DC.; Prodr. [De Candolle] 1: 303 (1824), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis (Murray) Pio; 30 (1813)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensis DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 303 (1824), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor var. bannatica (Kit.) Rchb.; 709 (1832)
= Viola tricolor var. bicolor Merrem; 104 (1809)
= Viola tricolor var. gracilenta Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 79 (1893)
= Viola tricolor var. gracilescens (Jord.) Gren.; 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. intermedia Wender.; 62 (1846)
= Viola tricolor var. montana Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 402, 404 (1919)
= Viola tricolor var. parviflora Hayne; t. 4 (1813)
= Viola tricolor var. segetalis (Jord.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor var. timbalii (Jord.) Gaut.; Cat. Rais. Fl. Pyr.-Or.: 96 (1898)
subspecies :
subsp. megalantha Nauenb.; Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 81 (1986), nom. inval., et Haussknechtia 12: 53 (2010)
Name: Großblütiges Acker-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen); Switzerland; Austria; Hungary; France; Italy; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; European Russia; Ukraine
11 AUT GER HUN SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS UKR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola megalantha (Nauenb.) G.H.Loos; Jahrb. Bochum. Bot. Vereins 1: 129 (2010)
= Viola megalantha (Nauenb.) Landolt; Fl. Indicativa 270 (2010), isonym, nom. inval.
species :
Viola athois W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 2: 854 (1902)
Name: Athos-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: NE-Greece (Athos)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola atropurpurea Leyb.; Anales Univ. Chile 159 (1858)
Name: Escarapela, carabello [Chile]
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, Neuquen, San Juan); Chile (Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lehmannii subsp. cordifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 92 (1907)
species :
Viola aurantiaca Leyb.; Flora 47: 41 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, Maule)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola curicoensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 183 (1922)
species :
Viola aurata Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 492 (1892)
Name: Estrellita [Chile]
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola aurea Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 185, f. 54 (1863)
subspecies :
subsp. aurea
Name: Golden violet
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea subsp. aurea (Kellogg) J.C.Clausen; Madroño 17: 295 (1964)
= Viola purpurea var. aurea (Kellogg) M.S.Baker ex Jeps.; Fl. Calif. (Jeps.) 2: 521 (1936)
subspecies :
subsp. arizonensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Madroño 12: 11 (fig. 2) (1953)
Distribution: USA (Arizona)
76 USA
subspecies :
subsp. mohavensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen; Madroño 12: 9 (-11) (1953)
Distribution: USA (Arizona, California, Nevada)
76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea subsp. mohavensis (M.S.Baker & Clausen ex S.F.Blake) Clausen; Madroño 17: 295 (1964)
= Viola purpurea var. mohavensis (Baker & Clausen) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia 1: 8 (1975)
species :
Viola auricolor Skottsb.; Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., n.f., 56(5): 130, 260 (1916)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Santa Cruz); Chile (Aisén)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola auricula Leyb.; Flora 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola auriculata Leyb.; Anales Univ. Chile (1863) II. 672, ex Phil.f. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Chil. 20
species :
Viola austrosinensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 158(4): 756 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola austroyunnanensis Y.S.Chen; Phytotaxa 613(2): 154 (2023)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
species :
Viola babunensis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 21(2): 600 (1985)
Distribution: North Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola bakeri Greene; Pittonia 3: 307 (1898)
Name: Baker´s violet
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington State)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bakeri subsp. shastensis M.S.Baker; Madroño 15: 203 (1960)
= Viola nuttallii var. bakeri (Greene) C.L.Hitchc.; Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. (C. L. Hitchcock & al.) 3: 447 (1961)
= Viola praemorsa var. bakeri (Greene) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia 1: 8 (1975)
species :
Viola balansae Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 1: 177 (1939), gallice, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 85: 599 (1939), latine
Distribution: N-Vietnam
41 VIE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola bangii Rusby; Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 6: 5 (1896)
Distribution: Ecuador; ?Peru; Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL ECU
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nivalis Benth.; Pl. Hartw.: 160 (1845), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola banksii K.R.Thiele & Prober; Muelleria 18: 15 (2003)
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland); New Zealand [I]
50 AUS 51 nzl
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Erpetion reniforme Sweet; Brit. Flow. Gard, t. 170 (1826)
= Viola hederacea f. reniformis (Sweet) Voss; Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3. 1: 93 (1894)
= Viola hederacea var. elatines DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
= Viola reniformis (Sweet) R.Br. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 305 (1824)
species :
Viola baoshanensis W.S.Shu, W.Liu & C.Y.Lan; Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 42(3): 118, fig. 1 (2003)
Distribution: China (Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola barhalensis G.Knoche & Marcussen; Phytotaxa 275(1): 14 (2016)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola barroetana W.Schaffn. ex Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. 20 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola baxteri House; Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 254: 500 (1924)
Distribution: USA (New York, etc.)
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola beamanii Calderón; Phytologia 52(2): 105 (1982)
Distribution: Mexico (Mexico State, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola beati J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Willdenowia 49(1): 36 (2019)
Distribution: NW-Argentina
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 11 Xylobasis
species :
Viola beckeriana J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Rock Gard. Quart. 71(2): 166 (2013)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola beckiana Fiala; Glasn. Mus. Bosni Herceg. 7: 423 (1895)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina
13 BIH
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola beckwithii Torr. & A.Gray; Pacif. Rail. Rep. 2: 119, t. 1 (1856)
Name: Beckwith´s violet
Distribution: USA (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola beckwithii subsp. glabrata M.S.Baker; Madroño 12: 18 (1953)
= Viola beckwithii var. cachensis C.P.Sm.; Muhlenbergia 7: 136 (1911)
= Viola decora Kellogg; Pacif. Rural Press (1879), ex Curran, in Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: III 131 (1885)
species :
Viola behboudiana Rech.f. & Esfand.; Anz. Oesterr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. 87: 297 (1950)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran); Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sind)
34 IRN 40 PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola makranica Omer & Qaiser; Pakistan J. Bot. 17(1): 137 (1985)
species :
Viola belophylla Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 55: 467 (1908)
Distribution: China (Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola monbeigii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 248 (1928)
species :
Viola bertolonii Pio; De Viola 34 (1813)
Distribution: SE-France; NW-Italy
12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla Bertol.; Rar. Lig. [Ital.] Pl. 3: 53 (1810), nom. illeg.
= Viola heterophylla subsp. ovatifolia (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 325 (1910)
= Viola heterophylla var. ovatifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 359 (1905)
species :
Viola betonicifolia Sm.; Rees, Cyclop. 37(1): Viola n. 7 (1817)
Distribution: Ukraine [I]; Uzbekistan; Tajikistan; Afghanistan (Paktia / Khost); China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, ?Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, ?Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); SE-Tibet; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Taiwan; Pakistan (Kurram, N. W. Frontier Prov., Murree, Hazara, Chitral, Swat, Baltistan); Nepal; Bhutan; India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, Poonch, Kashmir, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sikkim); Sri Lanka; Sri Lanka; Bangladesh; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia; Sumatra; Sulawesi; Philippines; Java; Lesser Sunda Isl.; Lesser Sunda Isl. (Alor, Bali, Timor); Australia (South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania)
14 ukr 32 TZK UZB 34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 38 JAP TAI 40 BAN BHU IND NEP PAK SRL 41 MYA THA VIE 42 JAW LSI MLY PHI SUL SUM 50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albescens (Nakai) Makino; Yagai-Shokub.-Dzufu 2: 25 (1932)
= Viola betonicifolia subsp. australiensis W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54 Beibl. 120: 166 (1917), nom. superfl.
= Viola betonicifolia subsp. nepalensis (Ging.) W.Becker; B. Jahrb. 54 (Beibl. 120): 166 (1917)
= Viola betonicifolia var. albescens (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola betonicifolia var. cordifolia H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot. 49: 133 (1974)
= Viola betonicifolia var. longiscapa DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola betonicifolia var. yuanfengia S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 1: 82 (2019)
= Viola caespitosa D.Don; Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 205 (1825)
= Viola hissarica Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR 15: 682 (1949)
= Viola inconspicua subsp. dielsiana W.Becker; Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 120: 172 (1917)
= Viola longiscapa DC. ex G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
= Viola lungtungensis S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 2: 60 (2022)
= Viola mandshurica f. pubescens Araki; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 262 (1951)
= Viola mandshurica var. albescens Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 60 (1922)
= Viola nilagirica Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 36: I. 556 (1863)
= Viola oblongosagittata f. pubescens (Araki) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 225 (1954)
= Viola oblongosagittata var. albescens (Nakai) T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 31: 282 (1956)
= Viola oblongosagittata var. violascens Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 37 (1922)
= Viola patrinii Matsum. & Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 30 (1906) (non DC.)
= Viola patrinii var. caespitosa (D.Don) Ridl.; J. Bot. 73(1): 17-18 (1935)
= Viola patrinii var. napaulensis Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola phyteumifolia DC. ex G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 322 (1831)
= Viola walkeri Wight; Ill. Ind. Bot. 1: 42 (1838)
species :
Viola bhutanica H.Hara; J. Jap. Bot., 48(12): 356 (1973)
Distribution: S-Tibet; Bhutan
36 TIB 40 BHU
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola biflora L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Zweiblütiges Veilchen (DE), Twinflower violet (EN)
Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sachsen, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; N-Spain; Andorra; France; +Monaco; Corsica; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; C-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Ukraine; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin); Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan, Paktia / Khost); China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan); Tibet; Mongolia; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima Isl.); Taiwan; Taiwan; Pakistan (Kurram, Chitral, Hazara, Gilgit, Astor, Baltistan); Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar (Magway); N-Sumatra; Alaska; Canada (Yukon); USA (Colorado)
10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 ADO COR FRA MCO SPA 13 BIH BUL CRO ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB 14 RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 34 AFG 36 CHI TIB 37 MON 38 JAP NKO NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 MYA 42 SUM 70 ASK CDN 73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Chrysion biflorum (L.) Spach; Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 510 (1836)
= Dischidium biflorum (L.) Opiz; Seznam, 38 (1852)
= Viola biflora f. glabrifolia Hid.Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Pref. Mus., Nat. Sci. 1(7): 6 (1974)
= Viola biflora var. acuminata Maxim.; Acta Hort. Petrop. 11: 62 (1890)
= Viola biflora var. cuspidata Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 1: 9 (1887)
= Viola biflora var. grandifolia Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 269 (1919), nom. illeg.
= Viola biflora var. hirsuta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 42 (1918)
= Viola biflora var. nudicaulis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 42-43 (1918)
= Viola biflora var. parvifolia Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 269 (1919)
= Viola biflora var. uniflora DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 5: 808 (1805)
= Viola biflora var. valdepilosa Hand.-Mazz.; Symb. Sin. 7(2): 381 (1931)
= Viola biflora var. vegeta (Nakai) Hid.Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Pref. Mus., Nat. Sci. 1(7): 6 (1974)
= Viola chingiana W.Becker; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 38: 117 (1925)
= Viola crassa var. tayemonii (Hayata) S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 10 (1992)
= Viola crassa var. vegeta Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 565 (1928)
= Viola kanoi Sasaki; Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 19: 104 (1929)
= Viola lutea Lam.; Fl. Franç. (Lam.) 2: 680 (1779)
= Viola nudicaulis (W.Becker) S.Y.Chen; Fl. Xizang. 3: 297 (1986), no basionym ref.
= Viola schachimardanica Khalk.; Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Akad. Nauk Uzb. SSR. 19: 58 (1974)
= Viola schulzeana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 261-262 (1916)
= Viola tayemonii Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 6: 3 (1916)
= Viola uniflora Krock.; 516 (1790) non L.
= Viola wallichiana subsp. brevicornis W.Becker ex Limpr.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 440 (1922)
species :
Viola binayensis Okamoto & K.Ueda; M. Kato, Taxon. Stud. Pl. Seram Is.: et in Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 143 (1986), without latin descr. or type, 37(1-3): 1 (1986), with latin descr. & type
Distribution: Moluccas (Seram)
42 MOL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola bissetii Maxim.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 54: I. 5 (1879)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bissetii f. albiflora Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (91) (1922)
= Viola bissetii var. kiusiana Terao; Acta Phytotax. Geobot., 28(1-3): 63 (1977)
= Viola vaginata var. angustifolia Yatabe; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 5: (319) (1891)
species :
Viola blanda Willd.; Hort. Berol, t. 24 (1804)
Name: Sweet white violet
Distribution: Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
71 CDN 72 CDN 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alsophila Greene; Pittonia 4: 7 (1899)
= Viola amoena Leconte; Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 144 (1826), nom. illeg.
= Viola blanda var. amoena Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; Prelim. Cat.: 6 (1888)
= Viola blanda var. palustriformis A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
= Viola burtonii Reeks; List Fl. Pl. Ferns Newfoundland: 2 (1873), nom. prov.
= Viola leconteana G.Don; Gen. Hist. 1: 324 (1831)
species :
Viola bocquetiana Yild.; Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi 1(1): 2 (1994)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola boissieuana Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 16: 127 (1902)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieuana var. pseudoselkirkii (Nakai) Yahara; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Bot. 14(2): 96 (1987)
= Viola pseudoselkirkii Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 195 (1925)
= Viola sieboldii subsp. boissieuana (Makino) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola sieboldii var. pseudoselkirkii (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
species :
Viola boliviana Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 16: 18 (1889)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz); Argentina (Jujuy)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bangiana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 89 (1907)
= Viola boliviana f. albiflora Kuntze; Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2): 8 (1898)
= Viola crinita Wedd. ex W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22(2): 88 (1907)
= Viola huanucoensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 186 (1922)
= Viola truncata W.Becker; Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
species :
Viola bornmuelleri Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 21(2): 574 (1985)
Distribution: North Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola brachyphylla W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 73 (1924)
Distribution: North Macedonia; N-Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola breviflora Jungsim Lee & M.Kim; Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 44(2): 84 (2014)
Distribution: South Korea
38 KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola breviflora f. albiflora M.Kim; Korean Endemic Pl. 529 (2017)
species :
Viola brevipes (M.S.Baker) Marcussen; ined.
Distribution: Alaska; Greenland; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan); USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming); Mexico (Chiapas)
70 ASK CDN GNL 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola palustris subsp. brevipes M.S.Baker; Madroño 3: 235, pl. 11, fig. 6 (1936)
= Viola palustris var. brevipes (M.S.Baker) R.J.Davis; Madroño 11: 144 (1951)
species :
Viola brevistipulata (Franch. & Sav.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 265 (1916)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Primorye); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brevistipulata f. albescens E.Hama; Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola brevistipulata f. ciliata (M.Kikuchi) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 198 (1954)
= Viola brevistipulata f. pubescens (Nakai) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 198 (1954)
= Viola brevistipulata subsp. minor (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola brevistipulata var. ciliata M.Kikuchi; Rep. (Annual) Gakugei Fac. Iwate Univ. 1: 79 (1950)
= Viola brevistipulata var. kishidae (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola brevistipulata var. minor Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 47: 260 (1933)
= Viola brevistipulata var. pubescens Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 556 (1928)
= Viola flaviflora Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 15: 401 (1939)
= Viola kishidae Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 69 (1922)
= Viola pubescens var. brevistipulata Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 288 (1878)
variant :
var. acuminata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 557, 591 (1928)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brevistipulata f. acuminata (Nakai) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 27 (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata f. glabra S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata f. incisa S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata f. parviflora S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata var. ciliata (Nakai ex Tatew.) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961), nom. illeg.
= Viola brevistipulata var. incisa (S.Watan.) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola flaviflora var. acuminata (Nakai) Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 15: 403 (1939)
= Viola hidakana f. ciliata (Nakai ex Tatew.) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 17: 27 (1957)
= Viola hidakana var. ciliata Nakai ex Tatew.; J. Sapporo Soc. Agric. 26: 281 (1934)
variant :
var. crassifolia (Koidz.) F.Maek. ex S.Akiyama, H.Ohba & Tabuchi; Fl. Japan, 2c: 187 (1999)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola decumbens J.F.Gmel.; Syst. Nat. ed. 13[bis].: 413 (1791), nom. illeg.
= Viola glabella var. crassifolia Koidz.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 31: 139 (1917)
= Viola yubariana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 31 (1922)
variant :
var. hidakana (Nakai) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 28 (1961)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brevistipulata subsp. hidakana (Nakai) S.Watan.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 19: 27 (1961)
= Viola brevistipulata var. yezoana Toyok. ex H.Nakai, H.Igarashi & H.Ohashi; J. Jap. Bot. 71(6): 357 (1996) (nom. nov. for V. hidakana var. ciliata)
= Viola hidakana Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 36: 30 (1922)
= Viola selkirkii f. laciniata (Nakai) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 217 (1954)
= Viola yezoensis f. takahasii (Makino) F.Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 224 (1954)
variant :
var. laciniata (Boiss.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 266 (1916)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brevistipulata f. laciniata (H.Boissieu) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 198 (1954)
= Viola laciniata (Boissieu) Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto 7: 113, cum descr. ampl. (1938)
= Viola uniflora var. laciniata H.Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 47: 323 (1900)
= Viola yamamotoi Koidz. ex Yamam.; (1939)
species :
Viola bridgesii Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 16: 18 (1889)
Distribution: Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cummingii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
species :
Viola brittoniana Pollard; Bot. Gaz. 26: 332 (1898), et Man. Fl. N. States [Britton] 635 (1901)
Name: Northern coastal violet
Distribution: USA (Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atlantica Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 24(2): 92 (1897) non Pomel 1874
= Viola pedatifida subsp. brittoniana (Pollard) L.E.McKinney; Sida, Bot. Misc. 7: 22 (1992)
= Viola pedatifida var. brittoniana (Pollard) R.J.Little & L.E.McKinney; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
species :
Viola bubanii Timb.-Lagr.; Congr. Sci. Fr. 19 Sess. (Toulouse) 1: 280 (1852)
Distribution: N-Portugal; N-Spain; SW-France (Pyrenees)
12 FRA POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bubanii subsp. palentina (Losa) Rivas Mart.Izco & M.Costa; Trab. Dep. Bot. Fisiol. Veg. Univ. Madrid 3: 102 (1971)
= Viola bubanii subsp. trinitatis (Losa) M.Laínz; Aport. Conoc. Fl. Gallega 6: 5 (1968)
= Viola bubanii var. tenuicula Merino; Brotéria, Sér. Bot. 10: ? (1912)
= Viola cornuta var. palentina Losa; Farm. Nueva 39: 49 (1940), nom. alt.
= Viola hispida Lapeyr.; Hist. Pl. Pyrénées: 123 (1813), nom. illeg.
= Viola lutea subsp. trinitatis (Losa) Font Quer; Fl. Hisp. Herb. 6: no. 565 (1951)
= Viola lutea var. bubanii (Timb.-Lagr.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 81 (1878)
= Viola lutea var. hispida Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 81 (1878)
= Viola lutea var. pyrenaica Gren.; Gren. & Godr., Fl. France Corse 1: 185 (1847)
= Viola palentina Losa; Collect. Bot., Barcelona 2: 295 (1950)
= Viola trinitatis Losa; Contrib. Estud. Fl. Veg. Prov. Zamora 80 (1949)
species :
Viola bulbosa Maxim.; Melanges Bot. 748 (1876)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai, ?Shaanxi, NW-Sichuan); Tibet; Nepal; India (Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim)
36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 3 Bulbosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola filifera Kom.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 235 (1914)
= Viola hookeri Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 32: 5 (1886) non Thomson ex Hook.f.
= Viola multistolonifera C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 382, f. 1, 17-19 (1992)
species :
Viola bustillosia Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 211 (1846)
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
species :
Viola calcarata L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. calcarata
Name: Sporn-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany (Bayern); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; France; Italy; Slovenia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia
11 AUT GER LIE SWI 12 FRA 13 BIH ITA KOS MNT NMA SLV SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion calcaratum (L.) Spach; Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 512 (1836)
= Viola alpina Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796)
= Viola apennina N.Terracc.; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 327 (1889)
= Viola calcarata f. albiflora (DC.) Gams; 610 (1925)
= Viola calcarata f. rotundifolia (Hegetschw.) Gams; 610 (1925)
= Viola calcarata subsp. caulescens Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 216 (1828)
= Viola calcarata subsp. subacaulis Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 215 (1828)
= Viola calcarata var. albiflora DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 302 (1824)
= Viola calcarata var. bertolonii DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 302 (1824)
= Viola calcarata var. brevicornis Moritzi; 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. decipiens DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 302 (1824)
= Viola calcarata var. flava Gren. & Godr.; Fl. France Corse 1: 185 (1848)
= Viola calcarata var. grandiflora Moritzi; 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. halleri DC.; 302 (1824), nom. inval.
= Viola calcarata var. longipes Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 38 (1896)
= Viola calcarata var. ramosa Moritzi; 168 (1832)
= Viola calcarata var. rosularis Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 39 (1896)
= Viola calcarata var. rotundifolia (Hegetschw.) Rouy & Foucaud; 39 (1896)
= Viola calcarata var. serpentini H.Sund. ex Murr; 490 (1926)
= Viola calcarata var. subacaulis (Gaudin) Moritzi; 168 (1832)
= Viola decumbens Moench; Suppl. Meth.: 73 (1802), nom. illeg.
= Viola gracilis Biv.; Stirp. Rar. Sicilia 4: 25 (1818), nom. illeg.
= Viola macrantha A.Huet ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 81 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola madonia C.Presl ex Rchb.; Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 3: 60 (1825)
= Viola minae Strobl; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 27: 225 (1877)
= Viola pallidiflora A.Huet ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 81 (1878), nom. inval.
subspecies :
subsp. cavillieri (W.Becker) Negodi; Atti Soc. Naturalisti Mat. Modena 74: 4 (1943)
Distribution: NW-Italy; SE-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarata subsp. cavillieri (W.Becker) Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 13: 503 (1977), isonym
= Viola cavillieri W.Becker; Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 45 (1902)
= Viola heterophylla subsp. cavillieri (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 324 (1910)
= Viola heterophylla var. cavillieri (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 358 (1905)
subspecies :
subsp. villarsiana (Roem. & Schult.) Merxm.; Feddes Repert. 74: 30 (1967)
Distribution: SE-France; Italy
12 FRA 13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola villarsiana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 388 (1819)
subspecies :
subsp. zoysii (Wulfen) Merxm.; Feddes Repert. 74: 30 (1967)
Name: Zoys-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: SE-Austria; Slovenia; Albania
11 AUT 13 ALB SLV
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarata var. zoysii (Wulfen) DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 302 (1824)
= Viola clementiana var. pancicii Bald.; Malpighia 19: 64 (1891)
= Viola zoysii Wulfen; Jacq., Collectanea 4: 297 (1791)
species :
Viola calchaquiensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 226 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola calcicola R.A.McCauley & H.E.Ballard; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 7(1): 13, figs. 1-4 (2013)
Distribution: USA (Texas: Culberson Co.)
77 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola caleyana G.Don; Gen. Hist. 1: 329 (1831)
Distribution: Australia (E-New South Wales, Victoria, NE-Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
species :
Viola californica M.S.Baker; Madrono 12: 13 (1953)
Distribution: USA (California)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola cameleo H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1074 (1901)
Distribution: China (Sichuan, NW-Yunnan); N-India (Sikkim)
36 CHI 40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cameleo var. gongshanensis Y.S.Chen; Fl. China
= Viola gongshanensis S.H.Huang; nom. nud.
= Viola henryi var. cameleo (H.Boissieu) Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s. 1(3): 233 (1949)
species :
Viola canadensis L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Canadian white violet
Distribution: Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec, ?Newfoundland); USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
72 CDN 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Lophion canadense (L.) Spach; Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 517 (1836)
= Lophion rydbergii (Greene) Nieuwl. & Lunell; Am. Midl. Nat. 4: 478 (1916)
= Viola albiflora Link; Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 241 (1821)
= Viola canadensis subsp. rydbergii (Greene) House; Fl. Colorado: 233 (1906)
= Viola canadensis var. corymbosa Nutt.; Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 143 (1838)
= Viola canadensis var. neomexicana (Greene) House; Rydb., Fl. Colorado: 233 (1906)
= Viola canadensis var. pubens Farw.; Rep. (Annual) Michigan Acad. Sci. 19: 248 (1917)
= Viola canadensis var. rydbergii (Greene) House; Rydb., Fl. Colorado: 233 (1906)
= Viola canadensis var. scariosa Porter; Trans. New York Acad. Sci. 8: 63 (1889)
= Viola geminiflora Greene; Pittonia 5: 29 (1902)
= Viola muriculata Greene; Pittonia 5: 28 (1902)
= Viola negulosa Greene; Pittonia 5: 26 (1902)
= Viola neomexicana Greene; Pittonia 5: 28 (1902)
= Viola rydbergii Greene; Pittonia 5: 27 (1902)
= Viola scouleri Douglas ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 773 (1841), nom. inval.
species :
Viola canescens Wall.; Fl. Ind., ed. 1820 2: 450-451 (1824)
Distribution: ?China (?Guangxi); S-Tibet; Pakistan (Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Murree, N. W. Frontier Prov., Pakistani Punjab); Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal); Myanmar
36 TIB 40 BHU IND NEP PAK 41 MYA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola serpens var. canescens (Wall.) Hook.f. & Thomson; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 184 (1872)
species :
Viola canina L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. canina
Name: Hunds-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Iceland; Svalbard; Faeroe Isl.; England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; France; Channel Isl.; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Malta; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (E-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia); Iran (N-Iran)
10 DEN FIN FOR GRB ICE IRE NOR SVA SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO CIS COR FRA POR SAR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MLT MNT NMA ROM SLV SRB TUE 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 20 MOR 30 SIB 32 KAZ 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 IRN TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abulensis f. clandestina Caball.; Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 7: 648 (1947)
= Viola abulensis M.Á.Fernández Casado & Nava; Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44(2): 306 (1987)
= Viola albertina Greene; Pittonia 4: 288 (1901)
= Viola apetala F.W.Schmidt; Neue Abh. Böhm. Ges. 1: 61 (1791)
= Viola asarifolia Schreb. ex Muhl.; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 3: 178 (1793)
= Viola canina lusus apetala (F.W.Schmidt) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 492 (1862)
= Viola canina lusus sabulosa (Klett & Richt.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 491 (1862)
= Viola canina f. elongata Rhiner; 197 (1893), nom. inval.
= Viola canina f. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Döll; 649 (1843)
= Viola canina f. hamata Brenner; Meddeland. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 18: 162 (1892)
= Viola canina f. lucorum (Rchb.) Döll; 649 (1843)
= Viola canina f. pinetorum Woerl.; 167 (1889)
= Viola canina subsp. calcarea (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 160 (1834)
= Viola canina subsp. coerulea Kirschl.; 9 (1840), nom. inval., pro parte
= Viola canina subsp. contracta (Vl.V.Nikitin) Vl.V.Nikitin; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 86(1): 135 (2001)
= Viola canina subsp. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Schübl. & G.Martens; 160 (1834)
= Viola canina subsp. flavicornis (Sm.) Syme; 21 (1864)
= Viola canina subsp. lucorum Schübl. & G.Martens; Fl. Würtemberg: 159 (1834), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina subsp. pumila Wigand; Fl. Kurhessen: 81 (1859)
= Viola canina subsp. reichenbachii A.T.Grimme; 132 (1958), nom. inval.
= Viola canina subsp. ruppii Schnittsp.; 25 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina var. acaulis Wimm. & Grab.; Fl. Siles. 1: 218 (1827)
= Viola canina var. alba Boenn.; Prodr. Fl. Monast. Westphal.: 71 (1824)
= Viola canina var. alpina Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 669 (1821 publ. 1822)
= Viola canina var. angustifolia Fresen.; 182 (1832)
= Viola canina var. apetala (F.W.Schmidt) Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 199 (1828)
= Viola canina var. caespitosa Boenn.; Prodr. Fl. Monast. Westphal.: 71 (1824)
= Viola canina var. calcarea Rchb.; Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 2: t. 150 (1824)
= Viola canina var. caulescens Tosco ex Ariello & Bellia; Rea 8: 24 (1977)
= Viola canina var. collina Wallr.; Sched. Crit.: 98 (1822)
= Viola canina var. contracta Vl.V.Nikitin; Fl. Vostochnoi Evropy 9: 193 (1996)
= Viola canina var. dunensis W.Becker; Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 1904: 8 (1904)
= Viola canina var. elatior Laest.
= Viola canina var. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Rchb.; Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 2: 60 (1824)
= Viola canina var. frustranea Laest.; Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1824: 163 (1824)
= Viola canina var. glauca Hartm.; Handb. Skand. Fl.: 109 (1820)
= Viola canina var. intermedia (Krock.) Wimm. & Grab.; Fl. Siles. 1: 218 (1827)
= Viola canina var. lanceolata Martrin-Donos; Pl. Crit. Tarn: 113 (1862)
= Viola canina var. longifolia Neilr.; Fl. Nied.-Oesterr.: 773 (1850)
= Viola canina var. lucorum Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 698 (1878)
= Viola canina var. macrantha DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 298 (1824)
= Viola canina var. macrantha Wallr.; Sched. Crit.: 503 (1822)
= Viola canina var. maculata Boenn.; Prodr. Fl. Monast. Westphal.: 71 (1824)
= Viola canina var. minor DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 6: 617 (1815)
= Viola canina var. pumila Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 669 (1821 publ. 1822)
= Viola canina var. pusilla Bab.; 34 (1843)
= Viola canina var. pusilla Tourlet; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 50: 306 (1903)
= Viola canina var. pygmaea Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 199 (1828), nom. superfl.
= Viola canina var. reichenbachii Kirschl.; 10 (1840), nom. inval.
= Viola canina var. repens Hartm.; Handb. Skand. Fl.: 109 (1820)
= Viola canina var. rotundifolia Rhiner; 197 (1893), nom. inval.
= Viola canina var. sabulosa Klett & Richt.; Fl. Leipzig: 234 (1830)
= Viola canina var. sabulosa Rchb.; Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 2: t. 153 (1824)
= Viola canina var. stricta Hartm.; Bot. Not. 1841: 82 (1841)
= Viola canina var. subacaulis Boenn.; Prodr. Fl. Monast. Westphal.: 71 (1824)
= Viola canina var. sylvatica Fr.; Fl. Hall.: 46 (1817)
= Viola canina var. sylvestris Hartm.; Handb. Skand. Fl.: 109 (1820)
= Viola canina var. umbrosa Wallr.; Sched. Crit.: 98 (1822)
= Viola celtica Sauze & Maillard ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola cetia Beck ex Borbás; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 42: 287 (1892). nomen
= Viola elatior Wimm.; Fl. Schles.: 46 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola ericetorum Schrad. ex Link; Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 240 (1821)
= Viola ferrariensis Campana ex Pio; Viola: 22 (1813)
= Viola filipes Greene; Pittonia 4: 289 (1901)
= Viola flavicornis Sm.; Engl. Fl. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola kutzingiana Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 10 (1896)
= Viola leucoceras Borbás ex J.Murr; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 134 (1890)
= Viola lucorum (Rchb.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; 851 (1909)
= Viola lucorum Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 698 (1878)
= Viola procumbens Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 123 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Viola pseudocanina Schur; Verh. Naturf. Ver. Bruenn 15: II. 113 (1877)
= Viola pulchella Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 130 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Viola pumila var. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) DC.; 299 (1824)
= Viola punctata Schwein.; Amer. J. Sci. Arts 5: 67 (1822), nom. illeg.
= Viola radicans DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola ramosa Gaterau; Desc. Pl. Montauban: 154 (1789)
= Viola schmidtiana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 363 (1819)
= Viola silvatica subsp. ericetorum (Schrad. ex Link) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 77 (1878)
= Viola sylvestris Lam.; Fl. Fr. 2: 680 (1779) nom. illeg.
= Viola uliginosa Muhl.; Cat. Pl. Amer. Sept.: 25 (1813)
= Viola wahlenbergii Beurl. ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 77 (1878), nom. inval.
subspecies :
subsp. silvensis (Font Quer) O.Bolòs & Vigo; But. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat., 38 Bot. 1: 80 (1974)
Distribution: NE-Spain
12 SPA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola montana subsp. silvensis Font Quer; Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 4: 301 (1954)
subspecies :
subsp. einseleana (F.W.Schultz ex Nyman) Erben; Carinthia II II 192/112(2): 565 (2002) [nothossp.]
Distribution: Europe
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ×einseleana F.W.Schultz ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 77 (1878)
species :
Viola capillaris Pers.; Syn. 1: 256 (1805)
Distribution: Chile (O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 3 Rübellium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola setosa Sm.; Rees, Cycl. 37: no. 60 (1818)
= Viola stipularis Cav.; Icon. (Cavanilles) 6: 21 (1800), non Sw. 1788
variant :
var. araucana (Phil.) Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 433 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dumetorum var. araucana Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 345 (1892)
variant :
var. dumetorum (Phil.) Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 433 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío)
85 CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dumetorum Phil.; Linnaea 28: 612 (1857), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola caspia (Rupr.) Freyn; Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. 2, 2: 840 (1902)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Azerbaijan (Talysh); Pakistan (Swat); NW-India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 33 AZE 40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola caspia subsp. sylvestrioides Marcussen; Violets Subgen. Viola Europe 7: 16 (2003)
= Viola fedtschenkoana var. muzaffarabadensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2,40: 59 (1923)
= Viola fedtschenkoana W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 8, 31 (1915)
= Viola isopetala Juz.; Komarov, Fl. USSR 15: 681 (1949)
= Viola masenderana Freyn ex W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 298 (1910), nom. inval.
= Viola neglecta M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 172 (1808), nom. illeg.
= Viola riviniana subsp. neglecta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40(2): 55 (1923)
= Viola silvatica var. caspia Rupr.; Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 7 (1869)
= Viola sylvestris subsp. caspia (Rupr.) Kupffer; Fl. Caucas. Crit. 3(9): 211 (1923)
species :
Viola caucasica (Rupr.) Kolen. ex Juz.; Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. (Sci. Phys. Math.), ser. 7, 15 2: 156 (1869)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan
33 AZE GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola cazorlensis Gand.; Bull. Assoc. Fr. Bot. 5: 226 (1902)
Distribution: SE-Spain (Jaén, Murcia)
12 SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 14 Delphiniopsis
species :
Viola cenisia L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1325 (1763)
Name: Mont-Cenis-Veilchen
Distribution: Switzerland; E-France; Italy (W-Alps, C-Alps)
11 SWI 12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alpina All.; Fl. Pedem. 2: 98 (1785), nom. illeg.
= Viola cenisia var. ovatifolia DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 301 (1824)
= Viola integrifolius Dulac; Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées 179 (1867)
= Viola scardica Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 81 (1878)
species :
Viola cephalonica Bornm.; Mitt. Thür. Bot. Ver. nov. ser. 37: 50 (1927)
Distribution: W-Greece (Kefallenia)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae. Status uncertain, probably to Viola gracilis
species :
Viola cerasifolia A.St.-Hil.; Pl. Rem. Bres. 277 (1825)
Distribution: SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul)
84 BRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola balsaminoides Gardner; Hooker´s Icon. Pl. 3: t. 217 (1839)
= Viola cerasifolia subsp. conferta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22(2): 88 (1907)
= Viola cerasifolia subsp. selloiana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22(2): 88 (1907)
= Viola cerasifolia var. intermedia A.St.-Hil.; Hist. Pl. Remarq. Brésil: 279 (1826)
= Viola conferta A.St.-Hil.; Hist. Pl. Remarq. Brésil: 279 (1826)
= Viola diffusa Vell.; Fl. Flumin. 8: t. 163 (1831), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola chalcosperma Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 523 (1910)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A species separate from V. sororia
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracilis Clementi; Sertul. Orient.: 16 (1855), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola chamaedrys Leyb.; Flora 47: 41 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola chamissoniana Ging.; Linnaea 1: 408 (1826)
Distribution: Hawaii (Oahu)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola helioscopia Hillebr.; Fl. Hawaiian Isl.: 17 (1888)
species :
Viola changii J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Nordic J. Bot. 25(5-6): 303 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola chaozhouensis Yan S.Huang, J.H.Ding & Q.Fan; Nordic J. Bot. 2023(6)-e03941: 5 (2023)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola charlestonensis M.S.Baker & J.C.Clausen ex Clokey; Madrono 8: 58 (1945)
Name: Charleston Mountain violet
Distribution: USA (Nevada: Charleston Mts., Utah: Zion NP)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola purpurea var. charlestonensis (Baker & J.C.Clausen) S.L.Welsh & Reveal; Great Basin Nat. 35(4): 371 (1975)
species :
Viola cheeseana J.M.Watson; Int. Rock Gard. 117: 40, figs. 49, 59-65 (2019), nom. nov.
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen); Chile (Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 3 Grandiflos
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola truncata var. glandulifera W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 186 (1922)
species :
Viola cheiranthifolia Bonpl.; Pl. Aequin. 1: 111, t. 32 (1807)
Name: Teide-Stiefmütterchen (DE); Violeta del Teide (ES)
Distribution: Canary Isl. (Tenerife)
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion cheiranthifolium (Bonpl.) Webb & Berthel.; Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3(2
= Viola canariensis Berthel.; Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 5: 420 (1827)
= Viola teydea Berthel.; Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 5: 420 (1827)
species :
Viola chelmea Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(1): 54 (1853)
Distribution: North Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola cinerea Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 1: 7 (1843)
Distribution: Iran (S-Iran); Oman (Mascat & Oman, Dhofar)
34 IRN 35 OMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
species :
Viola clauseniana Baker; Madrono 4: 194 (1938)
Name: Clausen´s violet
Distribution: USA (Utah: Zion Natl Park)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 2 Clausenianae
species :
Viola cleistogamoides (L.G.Adams) Seppelt; Fl. S. Austr. 2: 870 (1986)
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia, New South Wales, S-Victoria, NE-Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea subsp. cleistogamoides L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola cochranei H.E.Ballard; Phytologia 74(5): 357 (1993)
Distribution: Mexico (Guanajuato, Jalisco, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi); Guatemala
79 MEX 80 GUA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola collina Besser; Cat. Pl. Horto Cremen. 151 (1816)
Name: Hügel-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Norway; Sweden; Finland; Belgium; Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Sachsen [I], Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; France; ?Corsica; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, W-Siberia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Primorye, Sakhalin); Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; China (Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan, Zhejiang); Mongolia; North Korea; South Korea
10 FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 CRO ITA ROM SLV 14 BLR EST LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ TZK UZB 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola atrichocarpa Borbás; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 40: 118, 167 (1890)
= Viola centronum H.Perrier ex W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: II. 28 (1909)
= Viola collina subsp. propera (Jord.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878)
= Viola gymnocarpa Janka; Linnaea 30: 559 (1859 publ. 1860)
= Viola hirta subsp. collina (Besser) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 23 (1896)
= Viola hirta var. alpina Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 2: 295 (1824)
= Viola hirta var. collina (Besser) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34: 481 (1861)
= Viola martii var. collina (Besser) Jess.; 219 (1879)
= Viola microceras Schur; Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 80 (1866), nom. illeg.
= Viola obscura Schur; Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 10 (1853)
= Viola odorata subsp. collina (Besser) Bonnier; Fl. Ill. France 2: 14 (1913), isonym
= Viola odorata subsp. collina (Besser) Celak.; 82 (1870)
= Viola opizii Knaf ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola propera Jord.; Observ. Pl. Nouv. 7: 6 (1849)
= Viola rudolfii Vl.V.Nikitin; Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 92(3): 385 (2007), non V. rudolphii Sparre
= Viola teshioensis f. albiflora Tatew.; Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 178 (1936)
= Viola teshioensis Miyabe & Tatew.; Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 187 (1936)
= Viola tomentosifolia Makino ex Ohga; Icon. Viol. 1: t. 2 (1931), nom. subnud.
variant :
var. glabricarpa K.Sun; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 14(3): 236 (1994)
Distribution: China (Jiangsu, Henan, Shandong)
36 CHI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola microdonta Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s. 1(3): 263-265. (1949)
variant :
var. intramongolica C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 257 (1991)
Distribution: China (Nei Mongol)
36 CHI
species :
Viola columnaris Skottsb.; Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., n.f., 56(5): 139, 261 (1916)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Rio Negro); Chile (Aisén)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola comberi W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 136 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola commersonii DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Aisén, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
species :
Viola communis Pollard; Bot. Gaz. 26: 336 (1898)
Distribution: E-USA (widespread)
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A species separate from V. sororia according to new molecular results
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola communis f. priceana (Pollard) H.E.Ballard; J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 150(1): 76 (2023)
= Viola domestica var. communis (Pollard) Farw.; Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 2: 30 (1923)
= Viola familiaris Greene; Cybele Columb. 1: 14 (1914)
= Viola priceana Pollard; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16: 127 (1903)
= Viola sororia f. priceana (Pollard) Cooperr.; Michigan Botanist 23: 167 (1984)
species :
Viola comollia Massara; Prodr. Fl. Valtell. 203 (1834)
Name: Comollis Veilchen
Distribution: N-Italy (Alpi Orobie)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola confertifolia Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s. 1(3): 238 (1949)
Distribution: China (Yunnan); Taiwan
36 CHI 38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. platyphylla Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 412-413 (1886)
= Viola pitouchaoensis S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 2: 54 (2022)
species :
Viola congesta Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.; Bot. Misc. 3: 144 (1833)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, Maule, Nuble)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chillanensis Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 347 (1892)
= Viola volcanica var. chillanensis (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 905 (1895)
species :
Viola cornuta L.; Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1325 (1763)
Name: Horn-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: England [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Austria [I]; NE-Spain; Andorra; SW-France; Italy [I]; Slovenia [I]; Romania [I]
10 grb 11 aut ger swi 12 ADO FRA SPA 13 ita rom slv
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion cornutum (L.) Spach; Hist. Veg. Phan. 5: 512 (1836)
= Viola acaulis Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 389 (1819), pro syn.
= Viola blanda Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 130 (1796), nom. rej.
= Viola calcarata var. pyrenaica L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 935 (1753)
= Viola cornuta proles rolandi Sennen; Bol. Soc. Ibér. Ci. Nat. 25: 138 (1926)
= Viola cornuta alba Jacob-Makoy; Nursery Cat. (L. Jacob-Makoy & Co.) 114: 81 (1870)
= Viola cornuta var. acaulis Ramond ex DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 5: 810 (1805)
= Viola cornuta var. cantabrica Sennen & Leroy; Exsicc. (Pl. Esp.) 1928: no. 6935 (1929), nom. nud.
= Viola cornuta var. micrantha Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 700 (1878)
= Viola cornuta var. parvistipula Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 700 (1878)
species :
Viola coronifera W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 137 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola coronifera var. minoriflora W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 137 (1928)
species :
Viola corsica Nyman; Syll. 228 (1854)
subspecies :
subsp. corsica
Name: Korsisches Veilchen
Distribution: Corsica; Sardinia
12 COR SAR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bertolonii Salis; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. II. 5: 116 non Pio (1836)
= Viola insularis Gren. & Godr.; Fl. France (Grenier) 1: 178 (1847)
subspecies :
subsp. ilvensis (W.Becker) Merxm.; Feddes Repert. 79: 57 (1968)
Distribution: Italy (Elba Isl.)
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla subsp. ilvensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2. 26(2): 324 (1909)
= Viola ilvensis (W.Becker) Arrigoni; Fl. Analítica Toscana 5: 84 (2019)
subspecies :
subsp. limbarae Merxm. & W.Lippert; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 13: 506 (1977)
Distribution: Sardinia
12 SAR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola limbarae (Merxm. & W.Lippert) Arrigoni; Parlatorea 07:19 (2005)
species :
Viola cotyledon Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 300 (1824)
Name: Hierba del corazón [Chile]
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola crassa (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 19: 87 (1905)
subspecies :
subsp. crassa
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. akaishiensis Takah. & Ohba; Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci. 1(4): 24 (1971)
= Viola biflora var. burejensis Bezd.; Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 108 (2001)
= Viola biflora var. crassifolia Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 139 (1902)
= Viola crassa f. subpubescens Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 28: 94 (1953)
subspecies :
subsp. alpicola Hid.Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus., Nat. Sci. 1(7): 18 (1974)
Distribution: Japan
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. alpicola (Hid.Takah.) T.Shimizu; New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour 1: 312 (1982)
subspecies :
subsp. avatschensis (W.Becker & Hultén) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 39 (2020)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka); etc.
31 RFE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola avatschensis W.Becker & Hultén; Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 1 (1928)
= Viola biflora subsp. avatschensis (W.Becker & Hultén) Tzvelev; Arktich. Fl. SSSR 8: 39 (1980)
= Viola crassa var. shikkensis Miyabe & Tatew.; Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 15: 133 (1938)
subspecies :
subsp. borealis Hid.Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Preject. Mus., Nat. Sci. 1(7): 19 (1974)
Distribution: Japan; etc.
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. borealis (Hid.TTakah.) T.Shimizu; New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour 1: 312 (1982)
subspecies :
subsp. yatsugatakeana Hid.Takah.; Bull. Kanagawa Preject. Mus., Nat. Sci. 1(7): 19 (1974)
Distribution: Japan; Canada (British Columbia: Queen Charlotte Isl., Vancouver Isl.)
38 JAP 71 CDN
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. yatsugatakeana (Hid.TTakah.) T.Shimizu; New Alp. Fl. Japan in Colour 1: 312 (1982)
= Viola biflora var. carlottae (Calder & Roy L.Taylor) B.Boivin; Naturaliste Canad. 93: 437 (1966)
= Viola biflora subsp. carlottae Calder & Taylor; Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1395 (1965)
species :
Viola crassifolia Fenzl; Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr. 12 (1842)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola crassiuscula Bory; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. (Bruxelles) 3: 16 (1820)
Name: Nevada-Veilchen
Distribution: S-Spain (Sa. Nevada)
12 SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion lagascae Webb; Iter Hispan.: 68 (1838)
= Viola nevadensis Boiss.; Elench. Pl. Nov. 26. (1838)
= Viola nevadensis var. crassiuscula (Bory) Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 772 (1841), nom. superfl.
species :
Viola cryana Gillot; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 25: 255 (1878)
Name: Tonnerre-Veilchen
Distribution: +NC-France (+SE of Tonnerre)
12 FRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracilis subsp. cryana P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 451 (1936)
= Viola hispida subsp. cryana (Royer ex Gillot) P.Fourn.; Fl. Compl. Plaine Franç.: 56 (1928)
= Viola kitaibeliana f. cryana (Royer ex Gillot) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 52 (1896)
= Viola tricolor proles cryana (Royer ex Gillot) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 52 (1896)
species :
Viola cucullata Aiton; Hort. Kew. ed. I. 3: 283 (1789)
Name: Marsh blue violet (EN), Amerikanisches Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Italy [I]; Canada (Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); St. Pierre et Miquelon; USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Mexico [I]
11 ger swi 13 ita 72 CDN SPM 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA 79 mex
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola asarifolia Pursh; Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 2: 732 (1813)
= Viola barbata Muhl. ex Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 356 (1819)
= Viola ciliata Willd. ex Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 360 (1819)
= Viola consors Greene; Pittonia 5: 100 (1902)
= Viola cordata Walter; Fl. Carol. (Walter) 219 (1788)
= Viola cucullata f. albiflora Britton; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 17: 124 (1890)
= Viola cucullata f. prionosepala Brainerd; Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola cucullata f. thurstonii (A.Twining) House; Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. 254: 504 (1924)
= Viola cucullata var. cordata (Walter) A.Gray; Manual, ed. 5: 78 (1867)
= Viola cucullata var. cordiformis Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 292 (1824)
= Viola cucullata var. glaberrima Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 292 (1824)
= Viola cucullata var. hispidula Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 292 (1824)
= Viola cucullata var. leptosepala (Greene) W.Stone; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 674 (1903)
= Viola cucullata var. macrotis (Greene) W.Stone; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 673 (1903)
= Viola cucullata var. microtitis Brainerd; Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola cucullata var. minor Hook.; Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 75 (1830)
= Viola cucullata var. obliqua (Aiton) Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 292 (1824)
= Viola cucullata var. reniformis O.R.Willis; Pract. Fl.: 59 (1894), nom. illeg.
= Viola cucullata var. reniformis Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. 1: 137 (1838)
= Viola cucullata var. striata O.R.Willis; Pract. Fl.: 58 (1894)
= Viola cucullata var. thurstonii A.Twining; Fl. N.E. Pennsylvania: 52 (1917)
= Viola dicksonii Greene; Pittonia 3: 65 (1896)
= Viola fontana Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 218 (1906)
= Viola induta Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 216 (1906)
= Viola leptosepala Greene; Pittonia 5: 98 (1902)
= Viola macrotis Greene; Pittonia 5: 97 (1902)
= Viola mesochora Greene ex Rosend.; Minnesota Bot. Stud. 3: 266 (1903)
= Viola obliqua Aiton; Hort. Kew. 3: 288 (1789)
= Viola oconensis House; Torreya 7: 135 (1907)
= Viola pachyrhizoma F.O.Wolf; 258 (1898)
= Viola palmata var. cucullata (Aiton) A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11: 254 (1886)
= Viola primulifolia var. cordata (Walter) Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola prionosepala Greene; Pittonia 5: 99 (1902)
= Viola resupinata Moench; Methodus (Moench) 230 (1794), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola cuicochensis Hieron.; Bot. Jahrb. 21: 323 (1895)
Distribution: Ecuador
83 ECU
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola culminis F.Fen. & Moraldo; Nat. Bresciana 33: 22 (2003)
Distribution: N-Italy (S-Alps)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola cuneata S.Watson; Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 290 (1879)
Name: Wedgeleaved violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola cunninghamii Hook.f.; Fl. New Zealand. 1: 16 (1852)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania); New Zealand (widespread); Chatham Isl.
50 AUS 51 CTM NZL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cunninghamii var. radicata Hook.f.; Fl. Nov. Zel. 1: 16 (1852)
= Viola perexigua Colenso; Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 16: 326 (1883 publ. 1884)
species :
Viola curtisiae (L.G.Adams) K.R.Thiele; Muelleria 36: 109 (2018)
Distribution: Australia (Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea subsp. curtisiae L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia 8: 386, 99 (1982)
species :
Viola cuspidifolia W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929(6): 201 (1929)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola dacica Borbás; Magyar Növ. Lapok 13: 79 (1890), et ex Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 75 (1891)
Distribution: Poland; Slovakia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; Ukraine
11 POL SLO 13 BIH BUL KOS NMA ROM SRB 14 UKR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola balcanica Delip.; Fl. Nar. Republ. Bulgariya 7: 495 (1979)
= Viola banatica Simonk.; Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 112 (1887), nom. illeg.
= Viola declinata var. prolixa Pancic ex Adamovic; Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 5: 114 (1899)
= Viola polyodonta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 332 (1910)
= Viola prolixa (Pancic ex Adamovic) Pancic ex W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 383 (1905)
species :
Viola dactyloides Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 361 (1819)
Distribution: Siberia (Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye); China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol); Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dactyloides var. calcicola Vorosch.; Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada (Moscow) 83: 36 (1972)
= Viola dactyloides var. multipartita W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 245 (1916)
= Viola digitata Willd. ex Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 352 (1819), nom. illeg.
= Viola palmata Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 293 (1824), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola dandoisiorum J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 104: 27 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola danielae Pînzaru; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 44: 228 (2013), nom. nov.
Distribution: Italy (Alpi Graie: Valle Verdassa)
13 ITA
Remarks: status uncertain; probably a synonym of V. dubiana or a hybrid
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mariae Pînzaru; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 43: 96 (2012)
species :
Viola dasyphylla W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 135 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen); Chile (Araucania)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola davidii Franch.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, 8: 230 (1886)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan); SE-Tibet; Myanmar
36 CHI TIB 41 MYA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola davidii var. paucicrenata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 420 (1917)
= Viola schneideri W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 315 (1921)
= Viola smithiana W.Becker; Acta Horti Gothob. 2(6): 287 (1926)
species :
Viola decipiens Reiche; Bot. Jahrb. 16: 445 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, Ñuble)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola declinata Waldst. & Kit.; Pl. Rar. Hung. 3: 248 (1807)
Distribution: Romania; ?Bulgaria; Ukraine
13 ROM 14 UKR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola latisepala Wettst.; Biblioth. Bot. 5(26): 27 (1892)
= Viola tricolor var. declinata (Waldst. & Kit.) Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 303 (1824)
species :
Viola decumbens L.f.; Suppl. 397 (1782)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 18 Melvio
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola procumbens J.F.Gmel.; Syst. Nat., ed. 13(bis). 2(1): 413 (1791)
variant :
var. scrotiformis (DC.) Jessop; Fl. Pl. South Africa 38: t. 1500 (1967)
Distribution: South Africa (W-Cape Prov.)
27 SAF
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola scrotiformis DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 299 (1824)
species :
Viola delavayi Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 413 (1886)
Distribution: China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieui H.Lév. & Maire; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12(325-330): 282 (1913)
= Viola delavayi var. villosa W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 44 (1918)
= Viola impatiens H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13(368-369): 343 (1914)
species :
Viola delphinantha Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 1(1): 7 (1843)
Distribution: SW-Bulgaria; N-Greece
13 BUL GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 14 Delphiniopsis
species :
Viola demetria Prolongo ex Boiss.; Voy. Bot. Midi Esp. 2: 73 (1839)
Distribution: WC-Portugal; SW-Spain; ?Morocco
12 POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 2 Dispares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensis subsp. demetria (Prolongo ex Boiss.) W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 19: 40, 47 (1904)
= Viola demetria var. microphylla Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 410 (1919)
= Viola tricolor var. demetria (Prolongo ex Boiss.) Nyman; Syll. Fl. Eur.: 228 (1855)
species :
Viola denizliensis O.D.Düsen, Göktürk, U.Sarpkaya & B.Gürcan; Phytotaxa 369: 38 (2018)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola diamantiaca Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33(395): 205-206 (1919)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Primorye); China (E-Jilin, E-Liaoning, ?Shaanxi); South Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diamantiaca f. glabrior (Kitag.) Kitag.; Neo-Lineam. Fl. Manshur. 453 (1979)
= Viola diamantiaca var. glabrior Kitag.; Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo Sect. IV 6: 123 (1942)
species :
Viola dichroa Boiss. & A.Huet; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 2, 5: 48 (1856)
Distribution: Turkey (E-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola diffusa Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 298 (1824)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, SE-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Tibet; Japan (Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Taiwan; Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam; Philippines; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
36 CHI TIB 38 JAP NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA THA VIE 42 NWG PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola diffusa subsp. tenuis (Benth.) W.Becker; Philipp. J. Sci. 19: 714 (1921)
= Viola diffusa var. brevibarbata C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13: 264 (1991)
= Viola diffusa var. brevisepala W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 251 (1928)
= Viola diffusa var. glabella H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1077 (1901)
= Viola diffusa var. glaberrima W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40(2): 115 (1923)
= Viola diffusa var. tomentosa W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20(2): 127 (1906)
= Viola diffusoides C.J.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 19 (1988)
= Viola kiusiana Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16(184): 138-139 (1902)
= Viola parkeri Champ. ex Benth.; Hooker´s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: 261 (1851)
= Viola tenuis Benth.; London J. Bot. 1: 482 (1842)
species :
Viola dimorphophylla Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 149(1): 116 (2005)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola dirimliensis Blaxland; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 145(4): 505 (2004)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola dirphya A.Tiniakou; Candollea 46(1): 119 (1991)
Distribution: Greece (Evvoia)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola disjuncta W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20(2): 126 (1906)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Siberia (Altai, W-Siberia, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva); Mongolia
30 SIB 32 KAZ 37 MON
Remarks: provisionally accepted name, status unconfirmed
species :
Viola diversifolia (DC.) W.Becker; Engl., Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 21: 372 (1925)
Distribution: NE-Spain (Pyrenees); Andorra; SW-France
12 ADO FRA SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cenisia subsp. lapeyrouseana Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 57 (1896)
= Viola cenisia subsp. lapeyrousiana Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 57 (1896)
= Viola cenisia var. diversifolia DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 301 (1824)
= Viola cenisia var. polydactyla J.Gay; Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 26: 243 (1832), nom. illeg.
= Viola lapeyrouseana (Rouy & Foucaud) A.W.Hill; Index Kew., Suppl. 6: 218 (1926)
species :
Viola doerfleri Degen; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 64: 710 (1897)
Name: Doerflers Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: North Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola dombeyana DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
Distribution: Colombia (Cauca, Huila, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Valle); Ecuador; Peru
82 CLM 83 ECU PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola capillaris Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 304 (1824), non Pers.
= Viola humboldtii Triana & Planch.; Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 17: 121 (1862)
= Viola humboldtii var. cuneata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22(2): 91 (1907)
= Viola ramosissima Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 27(II): 336 (1854 publ. 1855)
species :
Viola domeikoana Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 229 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola domingensis Urb.; Symb. Antill. 7: 287 (1912)
Name: Violeta (Dominican Republic), Violette, Violette des jardins (Haiti)
Distribution: Dominican Republic; Haiti
81 HIS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola douglasii Steud.; Nom. ed. II. 2: 771 (1841)
Name: Douglas´ golden violet (EN), Goldgelbes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; USA (California, Oregon); Mexico (Baja California Norte)
11 ger 73 USA 76 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chrysantha Hook.; Ic. Pl, t. 49 (1836) non Schrad. ex Rchb. 1830
= Viola chrysantha var. nevadensis Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 2: 229 (1863)
species :
Viola dubyana Burnat ex Gremli; Excursionsfl. Schweiz, ed. 3: 438 (1878)
Name: Dubys Veilchen
Distribution: N-Italy (S-Alps)
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola duclouxii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 249 (1928)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola dukadjinica W.Becker & Kosanin; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 145 (1926)
Distribution: Albania; NW-Greece (Smolikas)
13 ALB GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola dyris Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord 12: 181 (1921)
Distribution: Morocco
20 MOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 2 Dispares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dyris var. calcarea Litard. & Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 26: 7 (1931)
= Viola dyris var. orientalis Emb. ex Maire; Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 23: 168 (1932)
species :
Viola edulis Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 5: 508 (1836)
Name: Salad violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia)
77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola esculenta Elliott ex Greene; Pittonia 3(19): 314 (1898)
= Viola heterophylla (Elliott) Muhl. ex Leconte; Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 139 (1826), nom. illeg.
= Viola palmata var. esculenta (Elliott ex Greene) D.B.Ward; Phytologia 88(3): 244 (2006), nom. illeg. nom. superfl.
= Viola palmata var. heterophylla Elliott; Sketch Bot. S. Carolina [Elliott] 1: 300 (1817)
species :
Viola egglestonii Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 526 (1910)
Name: Glade violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola septemloba subsp. egglestonii (Brainerd) L.E.McKinney; Sida, Bot. Misc. 7: 33 (1992)
species :
Viola elatior Fr.; Nov. Fl. Suec. ed. 2, 277 (1828)
Name: Hohes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Sweden; Belgium [I]; Germany (+Brandenburg, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Niedersachsen, Rheinland-Pfalz, +Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; France; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Serbia; Kosovo; Romania; Bulgaria; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Siberia (Altai, W-Siberia); Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; China (Xinjiang)
10 SWE 11 AUT bgm CZE GER HUN POL SLO SWI 12 FRA 13 BUL CRO ITA KOS ROM SLV SRB 14 EST KRY LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KGZ TZK UZB 33 NCS 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina subsp. elatior (Fr.) Wigand; Fl. Kurhessen: 81 (1859), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina subsp. montana (L.) Hartm.; Bot. Not. 1841: 82 (1841), nom. rej.
= Viola canina subsp. persicifolia (Roth) Celak.; 83 (1870), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina subsp. persicifolia (Roth) Kirschl.; 13 (1840)
= Viola canina subsp. stricta (Fr.) Hartm.; 37 (1846)
= Viola canina var. elatior (Clus. ex Fr.) Kirschl.; 13 (1840)
= Viola canina var. montana (L.) Fr.; Novit. Fl. Suec. Alt.: 273 (1828)
= Viola canina var. montana (L.) Hornem.; 62 (1827), nom. rej.
= Viola canina var. persicifolia (Schkuhr) Jess.; 218 (1879)
= Viola danubialis Borbás; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 75, 183 (1891)
= Viola elatior f. cordifolia Sagorski; 50 (1893)
= Viola elatior f. glabrescens Erdner; 569 (1911)
= Viola elatior var. barbyensis W.Becker; 332 (1924)
= Viola erecta Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 124 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Viola flavicornis var. montana (L.) Rupr.; Fl. Ingrica: 136 (1860)
= Viola hornemanniana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 370 (1819), nom. rej.
= Viola montana DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 4: 807 (1805), nom. illeg.
= Viola montana L.; Sp. Pl. 935 (1753) (nom. rej.)
= Viola montana var. elatior (Fr.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 497 (1862)
= Viola persicifolia Schreb.; Spic. Fl. Lips.: 163 (1771), nom. utique rej.
= Viola procera Pall. ex Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1(2): 251 (1842)
= Viola pseudomontana Blocki; Spraw. Kom. Fizyj. Krakow. 22: 2: 213 (1888)
= Viola stipulacea Hartm.; Handb. Skand. Fl.: 110 (1820), nom. rej.
= Viola stipularis Fr.; Fr. & Broberg, 47 (1819), nom. illeg., non Sw.
= Viola stricta Hornem.; Hort. Bot. Hafn. 2: 958 (1815), nom. illeg.
= Viola subpubescens Borbás; Natur. und Offenb. 37: 500 (1891), et in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 41: 347 (1891)
= Viola vadimii Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 34: 125 (2002)
species :
Viola elegantula Schott; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 167 (1857)
Distribution: Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; North Macedonia; Albania
13 ALB BIH CRO MNT NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola skanderbegii Dörfl. & Hayek; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 94: 155 (1917 publ. 1918)
= Viola speciosa Pant.; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 23: 79 (1873)
species :
Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte; Ann. Lyc. N. York 2: 142 (1828)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A valid species fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola emarginata var. acutiloba Brainerd in Britton & A.Br.; Ill. Fl. N. U. S. (Britton & Brown), ed. 2. ed. 2, 2: 553 (1913)
= Viola sagittata var. emarginata Nutt.; Gen. N. Amer. Pl. [Nuttall] 1: 147 (1818)
species :
Viola eminens K.R.Thiele & Prober; Muelleria 18: 19 (2003)
Distribution: Australia (Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
species :
Viola eminii (Engl.) Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 6 (1925)
Distribution: E-D.R.Congo [Zaire]; Rwanda; Burundi; South Sudan; Uganda; Kenya; Tanzania
23 BUR RWA ZAI 24 SSU 25 KEN TAN UGA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 17 Abyssinium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola abyssinica var. eminii Engl.; Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 276 (1895)
= Viola abyssinica var. ulugurensis Engl.; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 437 (1900)
= Viola duriprati R.E.Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 8 (1925)
= Viola eminii var. duriprati (R.E.Fr.) Stork
= Viola mearnsii Standl.; Smithson. Misc. Coll. 68: No. 5. 9 (1917), non Merr.
species :
Viola enmae P.Gonzáles; Phytotaxa 283(1): 87 (2016)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 4 Inconspicuiflos
species :
Viola epipsila Ledeb.; Ind. Sem. Horti Dorpat. 5 (1820)
subspecies :
subsp. epipsila
Name: Torf-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Iceland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Germany (Brandenburg, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, +Schleswig-Holstein, +Sachsen); Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Romania; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; Siberia (Altai, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol); Mongolia; Japan (Hokkaido)
10 DEN FIN ICE NOR SWE 11 CZE GER POL SLO 13 ROM 14 BLR EST LAT LIT RUS 30 SIB 32 KAZ 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae. V. suecica is sometimes kept separate (including ssp. repens)
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fennica F.Nyl.; Spic. Pl. Fenn. 1: 28 (1843)
= Viola palustris subsp. epipsila (Ledeb.) C.Hartm.; 39 (1866)
= Viola palustris var. epipsila (Ledeb.) Celak.; 314 (1887)
= Viola palustris var. epipsila (Ledeb.) Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 3, 23: 323 (1877)
= Viola palustris var. sciaphila Laest.; Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1824: 164 (1824)
= Viola scanica (Fr.) Fr.; Summa Veg. Scand.: 35, 153 (1845)
= Viola suecica Fr.; Summa Veg. Scand. 556 (1846-1849)
subspecies :
subsp. repens (Turcz.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 406 (1917)
Name: Dwarf marsh violet
Distribution: European Russia; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin); Mongolia; North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu); Alaska; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northern Territories, Ontario, Yukon); USA (California, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, Wyoming)
14 RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 37 MON 38 JAP NKO 70 ASK CDN 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola achyrophora Greene; Pittonia 5: 33 (1902)
= Viola blanda var. violascens Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (58) (1922)
= Viola blandiformis Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 192 (1925)
= Viola brachyceras Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 15: 301 (1842)
= Viola brachyceras var. blandiformis (Nakai) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 32 (2020)
= Viola epipsila subsp. palustroides W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 72 (1921)
= Viola epipsila subsp. repens W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 406 (1917)
= Viola epipsila var. palustroides (W.Becker) Tatew. & Kobayashi; J. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Imp. Univ. 36: 62 (1934)
= Viola epipsila var. repens (W.Becker) R.J.Little; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 225 (2010)
= Viola epipsiloides Á.Löve & D.Löve; Bot. Notiser, 128(4): 516 (1975 publ. 1976), nom. nov.
= Viola palustroides (W.Becker) Tzvelev; Arktich. Fl. SSSR 8(1): 33 (1980)
= Viola repens Turcz.; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 11: 88 (1838), et ex Trautv. & C. A. Mey., Fl. Ochot. (Middend. Reise N. & O. Sibir. i 11.) 18 (1856) (non Schwein. (1822))
= Viola repens var. albiflora Popov; Konspekt Fl. Pober. Baikal: 213 (1966)
= Viola suecica subsp. repens (Turcz.) W.Becker
= Viola ×albimaritima Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 35: 143 (2003)
= Viola ×hyperborea (Rupr) Vl.V.Nikitin; Fl. Vostochnoi Evropy 9: 201 (1996)
species :
Viola epirota (Halácsy) Raus; Willdenowia 13(1): 99 (1983)
Distribution: North Macedonia; Albania; W-Greece
13 ALB GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola declinata var. epirota Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 142 (1900)
= Viola euboea var. epirota (Halácsy) Halácsy; Suppl. Consp. Fl. Graec.: 15 (1908)
= Viola heterophylla subsp. epirota (Halácsy) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 327 (1910)
species :
Viola eriocarpa (Nutt.) Schwein.; Am. J. Sci. Ser. I. 5: 75 (1822)
Name: Downy yellow violet (EN)
Distribution: Canada (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
71 CDN 72 CDN 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Crocion achlydophyllum (Greene) Kaczm.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 74 (1915)
= Crocion eriocarpum (Nutt.) Nieuwl.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 214 (1914)
= Crocion scabriuscum Kaczm.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 75 (1915)
= Viola achlydophylla Greene; Pittonia 5: 87 (1902)
= Viola dasyneura Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 96 (1910)
= Viola eriocarpa f. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Deam; Fl. Indiana 691 (1940)
= Viola eriocarpa var. leiocarpa Fernald & Wiegand; Rhodora 23: 275 (1921 publ. 1922)
= Viola eriocarpa var. sessilis Clute; Amer. Bot. (Binghamton) 20: 32 (1914)
= Viola pensylvanica var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald; Rhodora 43: 617 (1941)
= Viola pubescens f. achlydophylla (Greene) Farw.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 127 (1930)
= Viola pubescens f. eriocarpa (Schwein.) Farw.; Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 2: 33 (1923)
= Viola pubescens f. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Farw.; Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 2: 33 (1923)
= Viola pubescens var. eriocarpa (Schwein.) N.H.Russell; Sida 2: 78 (1965)
= Viola pubescens var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) B.Boivin; Phytologia 15: 435 (1967)
= Viola pubescens var. scabriuscula Schwein. ex Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 142 (1838)
= Viola scabriuscula (Torr. & A.Gray) Shafer; Ann. Carnegie Mus. 1: 27 (1901)
species :
Viola ermenekensis Yild. & Dinç; Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi 9(1): 2 (2002)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola erythraea (Fiori) Chiov.; Nuov. Giorn. Bot. It., n. s. 26: 149 (1919)
Distribution: N-Ethiopia; Eritrea
24 ERI ETH
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cinerea var. erythraea Fiori; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n. s. 20: 355 (1913)
= Viola cinerea var. soyrae (Chiov.) Cufod.; Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 39(Suppl.): XXVIII (1969)
= Viola erythraea var. soyrae Chiov.; Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 26: 149 (1919)
species :
Viola escarapela J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Gayana, Bot. 60(2): 134 (2003), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Maule)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche & Johow; Reiche, Fl. Chile 1: 153 (1895), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola escondidaensis W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 138 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina; Chile
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 6 Rhizomandinium
species :
Viola etbaica Schweinf.; Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien. 8: 665 (1868)
Distribution: Somalia
24 SOM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium. Often included in V. stocksii
species :
Viola etrusca Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 22: 499 (1986)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amiatina Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 189 (2018)
species :
Viola euboea (Halácsy) Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec., Suppl. 1: 15 (1908)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracilis var. euboea Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 141 (1900)
= Viola heterophylla subsp. euboea (Halácsy) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26: 326 (1910)
= Viola heterophylla var. euboea (Halácsy) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2):: 359 (1905)
species :
Viola eugeniae Parl.; Nuovo Gior. Bot. Ital. 7: 68 (1875)
subspecies :
subsp. eugeniae
Name: Apenninen-Veilchen
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola murronensis Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 217, fig. 19 (2018)
subspecies :
subsp. levieri (Parl.) Arcang.; Comp. Fl. Ital. ed. 2: 299 (1894)
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarata f. subasica Fiori; Fl. Italia [Fiori, Béguinot & Paoletti] 4(1): 85 (1907)
= Viola eugeniae subsp. levieri (Parl.) A.Schmidt; Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 77: 96 (1965), isonym
= Viola levieri Parl. ex Caruel; Fl. Italiana 9: 181 (1890)
= Viola longipetiolata Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 206, fig. 14 (2018)
= Viola molisana Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 216, fig. 18 (2018)
= Viola subasica (Fiori) Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 222, fig. 23 (2018)
= Viola vectoris Ricceri & Moraldo; Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 51(no. 381): FP 223, fig. 24 (2018)
species :
Viola evae Hieron. ex W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 182 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja, Salta)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-evae Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Republ. Argent. 4: 5 (1881), nom. nud.
variant :
var. flossdorfii (Hicken) Nicola; Phytotaxa 338(2): 235 (2018)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja)
85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola flos-evae var. flossdorfii Hicken; Darwiniana 1: 31 (1922), nom. inval.
species :
Viola exilis Phil.; Linnaea 28: 672 (1856)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola volcanica var. exilis (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 905 (1895)
species :
Viola eximia Formánek; Verh. Naturf. Ver. Brünn 38: 221 (1900)
subspecies :
subsp. eximia
Name: Mazedonisches Veilchen
Distribution: W-North Macedonia; Albania; Greece
13 ALB GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pascua W.Becker; Bull. Inst. Jard. Bot. Univ. Beograd 1: 34 (1928)
= Viola beckiana subsp. pascua (W.Becker) Trinajstic
subspecies :
subsp. tringiana Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 21(2): 462 (1985)
Distribution: Greece
13 GRC
species :
Viola exsul J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Fl. San Juan 2: 145 (2003)
Distribution: Argentina (San Juan)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola fargesii Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 2: 833 (1902)
Distribution: China; Taiwan
36 CHI 38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Formosanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola adenothrix var. tsugitakaensis (Masam.) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang; Taiwania 35: 19 (1990)
= Viola arisanensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 314 (1921)
= Viola brachycentra Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 25-26, f. 10 (1913)
= Viola canescens subsp. lanuginosa W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 256 (1916)
= Viola principis var. acutifolia C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13(3): 264 (1991)
= Viola pulla W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 250 (1928)
= Viola trichopoda Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 29-30, f. 15 (1913)
= Viola tsugitakaensis Masam.; J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 2: 240 (1930)
species :
Viola farkasiana J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 101: 43 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola faurieana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 239-240 (1916)
Distribution: ?China; Japan (Honshu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola faurieana f. albifaurieana E.Hama; Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola ugoana Makino ex Muramatsu; Fl. Akitaense 183, t. 3, f. 2 (1932)
species :
Viola ferrarinii Moraldo & Ricceri; Webbia 66(1): 46 (2011)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola ferreyrae P.Gonzáles; Phytotaxa 283(1): 84 (2016)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola filicaulis Hook.f.; Fl. New Zealand. 1: 16 (1852)
Distribution: New Zealand (incl. Stewart Isl.)
51 NZL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1a Nematocaulon
species :
Viola filiformis Charit.; Form. Rastitel´n. Pokrova Basseyna Irtysha 41 (2022)
Distribution: Siberia (W-Siberia)
30 SIB
Remarks: provisionally accepted name, will highly likely turn out to be a synonym of a more widespread species
species :
Viola fimbriatula Sm.; Rees, Cycl. 37: no. 16 (1818)
Name: Arrowleaf violet
Distribution: Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); USA (Alabama, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
72 CDN 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola amorphophylla Pollard; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 13: 129 (1900)
= Viola fimbriatula f. albescens Farw.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 66 (1928)
= Viola fimbriatula f. glabrata Pennell; Bartonia 12: 19 (1931)
= Viola fimbriatula f. umbelliflora Fernald; Rhodora 51: 56 (1949)
= Viola fimbriatula var. aberrans W.Stone; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1903: 683 (1903)
= Viola ovata Nutt.; Gen. N. Amer. Pl. (Nuttall). 1: 148 (1818)
= Viola ovata var. belvisiana Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola ovata var. hicksii (Pollard) Pollard; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 10: 92 (1896)
= Viola sagittata f. umbelliflora (Fernald) Scoggan; Fl. Canada 1: 52 (1978)
= Viola sagittata var. hicksii Pollard; Bot. Gaz. 20: 326 (1895)
= Viola sagittata var. ovata (Nutt.) Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 1: 138 (1838)
= Viola ×abundans House; Bull. New York State Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 254: 506 (1924)
species :
Viola fischeri W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 264 (1916)
Distribution: Siberia (Altai)
30 SIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola flagelliformis Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. Mexic. 2: 20 (1879)
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola latistipula Hemsl.; Diagn. Pl. Nov. Mexic. 2: 21 (1879)
= Viola flagelliformis var. glabrescens W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 9 (1924)
species :
Viola flavicans Wedd.; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 292 (1864)
Distribution: Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Tarija); Argentina (Jujuy, Tucuman)
83 BOL 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. Xanthidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola castillonii (W.Becker) Xifreda & Sanso; Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 1246 (1999)
= Viola exigua var. castillonii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 222 (1926)
= Viola exigua W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 590 (1906), non Vell. 1831
species :
Viola flettii Piper; Erythea 6: 69 (1898)
Name: Olympic violet
Distribution: USA (Washington State: Olympic Mts.)
73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola floridana Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 524 (1910)
Distribution: USA (Florida, etc.)
78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. A valid species and not a synonym of V. sororia fide Marcussen et al. 2022
species :
Viola flos-idae Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Cordova 4: 5 (1881)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 10 Triflabellium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acanthophylla var. tontalensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 183 (1922)
= Viola flos-idae var. pseudovolcanica Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Republ. Argent. 4: 7 (1881)
species :
Viola fluehmannii Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 346 (1892)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Biobío, Araucania, Los Rios)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 2 Ericoidium
species :
Viola formosana Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 28 (1906)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Formosanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola formosana f. albiflora S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 783 (1992)
= Viola formosana var. kawakamii (Hayata) Wang; A Taxon. Study of Viola of Taiwan 167 (1988)
= Viola formosana var. kawakamii (Hayata) Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Fl. China (2007), isonym
= Viola formosana var. stenopetala (Hayata) J.C.Wang, T.C.Huang & T.Hashim.; Taiwania 35: 37-41, f. 10 (1990)
= Viola formosana var. tozanensis (Hayata) C.F.Hsieh; Fl. Taiwan 3: 776, t. 813 (1977)
= Viola hypoleuca Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 26-27, f. 11 (1913)
= Viola kawakamii Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 52-53 (1908)
= Viola kawakamii var. stenopetala Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 27-28, f. 13 (1913)
= Viola matsudae Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 10: 1-2 (1921)
= Viola taiwanensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(492-503): 315-316 (1921)
= Viola takasagoensis Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7(2): 112 (1939)
= Viola tozanensis Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 25(19): 53 (1908)
species :
Viola forrestiana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19(544-545): 234 (1923)
Distribution: ?China (?Shanxi); SE-Tibet
36 TIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola fragrans Sieber; Reise Kreta 2: 320 (1823)
Distribution: Crete
13 KRI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola frank-smithii N.H.Holmgren; Brittonia 44(3): 303 (1992)
Name: Frank Smith´s violet
Distribution: USA (Utah: Cache Co.: Logan Canyon)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola friderici W.Beckcr; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 359 (1925)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola frigida Phil.; Fl. Atacam. 9 (1860)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja, Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaiso)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola borchersii Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 494 (1892)
= Viola frigida Phil. ex W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 112 (1927), descr. emend.
= Viola frigida var. borchersii (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 903 (1895)
= Viola molfinoana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 351 (1926)
species :
Viola frondosa (Velen.) Hayek; Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1: 511 (1925)
Distribution: S-North Macedonia (SE of Prilep); Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola zoysii var. frondosa Velen.; Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 1910(8): 3 (1911)
species :
Viola fuscifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 94 (1907)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola colubrina Wedd. ex W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2 22(2): 94 (1907)
species :
Viola fuscoviolacea (L.G.Adams) T.A.James; Muelleria 9: 35 (1996)
Distribution: Australia (S-New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hederacea subsp. fuscoviolacea L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia 8: 386, 98 (1982)
species :
Viola galeanaensis M.S.Baker; Madrono 9: 131 (1947)
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola ganiatsasii Erben; Bios (Thessalonika) Vol. A (App.) 67 (1989)
Distribution: Bulgaria; NE-Greece
13 BUL GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola gelida J.M.Watson, M.P.Cárdenas & A.R.Flores; Gayana, Bot. 70(2): 390 (2013)
Distribution: Chile
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola germainii Sparre; Lilloa 17: 384 (1949)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola nivalis Phil.; Linnaea 28: 611 (1857), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola glabella Nutt.; Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Pioneer violet
Distribution: Alaska; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia); USA (California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington State)
70 ASK 71 CDN 73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola biflora var. sitchensis (Bong. ex Ledeb.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39: 528 (1866)
= Viola canadensis var. sitchensis Bong. ex Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. (Ledeb.) 1: 255 (1842)
= Viola glabella var. remotifolia Suksd.; Werdenda 1: 26 (1927)
species :
Viola glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) House; Torreya 6: 172 (1906)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium. Not a synonym of V. tripartita fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hastata var. glaberrima Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 300) ex Chapm., Fl. South. U. S., ed. 3. 34 (1897)
= Viola tripartita f. glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) Fernald; Rhodora 51: 52 (1949)
= Viola tripartita f. glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) H.Lév. & Dans.; Naturaliste Canad. 93: 501 (1966), isonym
= Viola tripartita var. glaberrima (Ging. ex Chapm.) R.M.Harper; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 27: 337 (1900)
species :
Viola glaucescens Oudem.; Ann. Mus. B. Lugd.-Bat. 3: 74 (1867)
Distribution: Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal)
40 BHU IND NEP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola distans var. fimbriata Hook.f. & Thomson; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 184 (1872)
species :
Viola glechomoides Leyb.; Flora 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola gmeliniana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15[bis]. 5: 354 (1819)
Distribution: Siberia (Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye); China (Heilongjiang, Nei Mongol); Mongolia
30 SIB 31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fischeri Sweet; Hort. Brit. (ed. 2) 44 (1830), non W. Becker
= Viola fusiformis Sm.; Rees, Cycl. 37: no. 9 (1818)
= Viola gmeliniana var. albiflora W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 401 (1917)
= Viola gmeliniana var. glabra Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 246 (1842)
= Viola gmeliniana var. hispida Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 246 (1842)
= Viola gmeliniana var. scorpiurifolia DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 294 (1824)
= Viola lanceolata Pall.; Reise Russ. Reich. 3: 223 (1776), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola godoyae Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 493 (1892)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola gracilis Sm.; Fl. Graec. Prodr. 1: 146 (1806)
Distribution: Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, WN-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae. Records for the Balcans and Greece refer to other species like V. euboea
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calycina Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 53 (1849)
= Viola elongata A.Huet ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 80 (1878), nom. inval.
= Viola gracilis f. heterophylla Bolzon; Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1904: 28 (1904)
= Viola gracilis var. insularis A.Terracc.; Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1893: 413 (1893)
= Viola olympica Boiss.; Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 2, 1: 55 (1854)
species :
Viola gracillima A.St.-Hil.; Pl. Rem. Bres. 275 (1825)
Distribution: SE-Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro); S-Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina)
84 BRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gracillima var. incisa W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 5: 45 (1908)
species :
Viola graeca (W.Becker) Halácsy; Suppl. Consp. Fl. Graec. 14 (1908)
Distribution: SE-Italy (Monte Gargano); North Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC ITA NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola heterophylla subsp. graeca (W.Becker) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centr. 26(2): 326 (1910)
= Viola heterophylla var. graeca W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 358 (1905)
species :
Viola grahamii Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 35 (1839)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz); Guatemala
79 MEX 80 GUA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ciliata Schltdl.; Linnaea 12: 202 (1838), non Willd. ex Schult.
= Viola grahamii f. pubescens W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 1 (1924)
= Viola lutea Sessé & Moc.; non L.
= Viola pringlei Rose & House; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 29: 444 (1905)
= Viola reptans B.L.Rob.; Proc. Amer. Acad. 27: 165 (1893)
= Viola schaffneriana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 2 (1924)
= Viola seleriana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 6 (1924)
species :
Viola grandisepala W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 250 (1928)
Distribution: China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola binchuanensis S.H.Huang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 25(4): 433 (2003)
= Viola brunneostipulosa Hand.-Mazz.; Symb. Sin. 7(2): 380 (1931)
species :
Viola granulosa Wedd.; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 292 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (La Paz); Chile (Arica y Parinacota)
83 BOL PER 85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola grayi Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 288 (1878)
Distribution: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grayi f. glabra (W.Becker) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 200 (1954)
= Viola grayi f. pubescens (Nakai) E.Hama; J. Jap. Bot. 51: 343 (1976), nom. inval.
= Viola grayi f. pubescens M.Nagas.; Yaso 4: 59 (1938)
= Viola grayi var. erecta M.Nagas.; Yaso 4: 58 (1938)
= Viola grayi var. glabra W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 241 (1916)
= Viola grayi var. pubescens Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 15: 404 (1939), nom. inval.
= Viola grypoceras var. grayi (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 182 (1925)
= Viola obtusa var. glabra (W.Becker) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (57), (89) (1922)
= Viola senamiensis Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 15: 405 (1939)
species :
Viola grisea (Fernald) H.E.Ballard; J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 150(1): 109 (2023)
Distribution: Canada (Manitoba, Ontario); USA (Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota)
71 CDN 72 CDN 74 USA 75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Separate from V. novae-anglicae fide Ballard 2023
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola novae-angliae subsp. grisea (Fernald) Gil-ad; Boissiera 53: 68 (1997)
= Viola septentrionalis var. grisea Fernald; Rhodora 37: 301, tab. 375 (1935)
= Viola sororia var. grisea (Fernald) L.E.McKinney; J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(1): 226 (2010)
species :
Viola grisebachiana Vis.; Mem. Ist. Veneto 10: 436 (1861)
Distribution: Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Bulgaria; Greece
13 ALB BIH BUL GRC KOS MNT NMA SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola korabensis Trinajstic; Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 3: 6 (1975)
= Viola koritnicensis Trinajstic; Glasn. Prir. Mus. Beogradu, Ser. B, Biol. Nauke 40: 28 (1985)
species :
Viola grypoceras A.Gray; L. M. Perry, Narr. Exped. China Japan 2: 308 (1857)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); China (Anhui, Fujian, SE-Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, E-Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Taiwan
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NNS TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina var. japonica DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 298 (1824)
= Viola coreana H.Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 58: 213 (1911)
= Viola grypoceras f. albiflora Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 152 (1912)
= Viola grypoceras f. albiflora Tatew.; Veg. Apoi: 98, 130 (1928)
= Viola grypoceras f. brevicalcarata (Nakai) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 201 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras f. discolor Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (55), (89) (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. grandistipulata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (55), (89) (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. hemileuca Honda; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 55: 202 (1941)
= Viola grypoceras f. hirtella Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 157 (1951)
= Viola grypoceras f. hosoii (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 163 (1968)
= Viola grypoceras f. leucantha H.Hara; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 50: 301 (1936)
= Viola grypoceras f. leveillei (H.Boissieu) Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 183 (1925)
= Viola grypoceras f. macrantha Asai; J. Jap. Bot. 41: 320 (1966)
= Viola grypoceras f. obscuredentata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (55), (89) (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. pubescens (Nakai) M.Mizush.; Y. Ogura et al. (eds. ), Sci. Res. Ozegahara Moor: 450 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras f. purpurellocalcarata (Makino) Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 202 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras f. rosipetala Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 157 (1951)
= Viola grypoceras f. sordida Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 36: 373 (1961)
= Viola grypoceras f. takeii Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 33: 59 (1958)
= Viola grypoceras f. trifolia Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (55), (89) (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. variegata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (55), (89) (1922)
= Viola grypoceras f. viridans Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 157 (1951)
= Viola grypoceras f. viridiflora Makino ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 202 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras var. barbata W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 440 (1922)
= Viola grypoceras var. brevicalcarata Araki; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 262 (1951), nom. illeg.
= Viola grypoceras var. brevicalcarata Nakai; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 27: 32 (1949)
= Viola grypoceras var. imberbis (A.Gray) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola grypoceras var. purpurellocalcarata Makino; Jap. J. Bot. 1: 27 (1917)
= Viola hideoi Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola hideoi var. robustior Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola hosoii Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 15: 407 (1939)
= Viola leveillei H.Boissieu; Bull. Acad. Inter. Geog. Bot. 11: 91 (1902)
= Viola longepedunculata Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 286 (1878)
= Viola silvatica f. macrantha A.Gray; Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n.s., 6: 382 (1859)
= Viola silvatica f. micrantha A.Gray; Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n.s., 6: 382 (1859)
= Viola silvatica var. imberbis A.Gray; Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n.s., 6: 382 (1859)
= Viola sylvestris f. acaulis Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris f. albiflora Matsum.; Index Pl. Jap. 2(2): 380 (1912)
= Viola sylvestris f. imberbis (A.Gray) Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris var. acaulis Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
= Viola sylvestris var. candida (H.Boissieu) H.Lév.
= Viola sylvestris var. grypoceras (A.Gray) Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 3, 23: 330 (1877)
= Viola sylvestris var. imberbis A.Gray; Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts ser. 2, 6(2): 382 (1859)
= Viola sylvestris var. japonica (Ging.) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 146 (1902)
= Viola takesimana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 34 (1922)
= Viola wichurae Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 42: 562 (1928)
variant :
var. exilis (Miq.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 55 (1922)
Distribution: South Korea; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Taiwan
38 JAP KOR TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grypoceras f. albiflora Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (55), (89) (1922), nom. illeg.
= Viola grypoceras f. chionantha F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 202 (1954)
= Viola grypoceras var. yakusimensis Masam.; Fl. Yakushima: 307 (1934)
= Viola pruniflora Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 563 (1928)
= Viola sylvestris f. exilis Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
variant :
var. hichitoana (Nakai) F.Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 203 (1954)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP NNS
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grypoceras f. kikuzatoi K.Nakaj.; J. Geobot. 18: 12 (1970)
= Viola grypoceras f. lucida (Nakai) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 202 (1954)
= Viola hichitoana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 34 (1922)
= Viola krugiana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(588-600): 261 (1925)
= Viola kusanoana var. hichitoana (Nakai) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola lucida Nakai; J. Jap. Bot. 15: 406 (1939)
= Viola lutchuensis Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 36: 35 (1922)
variant :
var. rhizomata (Nakai) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu)
38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola faurieana var. rhizomata (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 163 (1968)
= Viola rhizomata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 49: 498 (1935)
= Viola yamadoriana Makino; (1966), nom. nud.
variant :
var. ripensis N.Yamada & Okamoto; Bull. Osaka Mus. Nat. Hist. 50: 2 (1996)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku)
38 JAP
species :
Viola guadalupensis A.M.Powell & Wauer; Sida 14(1): 1 (1990)
Name: Guadalupe violet
Distribution: USA (New Mexico, Texas)
77 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola guangzhouensis A.Q.Dong, J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Novon 19(4): 457 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola guatemalensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 6 (1924)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de Mexico, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz); Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama
79 MEX 80 COS GUA HON PAN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola guatemalensis f. pubescentior W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 7 (1924)
species :
Viola guaxarensis M.Marrero, Docoito Díaz & Martín Esquivel; Willdenowia 50(1): 16 (2020)
Distribution: Canary Isl.
21 CNY
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola hallii A.Gray; Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 377 (1872)
Name: Oregon violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola hamiltoniana D.Don; Prodr. Fl. Nep. 206 (1825)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Primorye, Sakhalin); China (Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, ?Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Mongolia; North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima Isl.); Taiwan; Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal); Sri Lanka; Bangladesh Myanmar (Chin); Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia; Sumatra; Philippines; Java; Moluccas (Buru); New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea)
31 RFE 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP KOR NKO NNS TAI 40 BHU IND NEP SRL 41 LAO THA VIE 42 JAW MLY MOL NWG PHI SUM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alata Burgersd.; Miq., Pl. Jungh. 1: 121 (1853)
= Viola alata subsp. verecunda (A.Gray) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 227 (1916)
= Viola alata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20(2): 125 (1906), nom. illeg.
= Viola amurica subsp. verecunda (A.Gray) Y.S.Chen; Fl. China
= Viola arcuata Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 58 (1825)
= Viola arcuata f. radicans (Makino) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
= Viola arcuata subsp. verecunda (A.Gray) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 227 (1916)
= Viola arcuata var. verecunda (A.Gray) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(424): 88 (1922)
= Viola barkalovii Bezd.; Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 102 (2001)
= Viola carlesii Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 42: 557 (1928)
= Viola distans Wall.; (Cat. 142, n. 4022 (1831), nom nud.) in Tr. Med. Phys. S. Calc. 7: 227 (1835)
= Viola excisa Hance; J. Bot. 6(70): 296-297 (1868)
= Viola excisa var. subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola fibrillosa W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 229 (1916)
= Viola herbivaga Ridl.; J. Bot. 73: 17 (1935)
= Viola hupeiana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 232 (1916)
= Viola japonica Korth.; non Langsd. ex Ging.
= Viola japonica var. decumbens Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2(2): 287 (1878)
= Viola japonica var. pusilla Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2(2): 287 (1878)
= Viola japonica var. subaefuiloba Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2(2): 287 (1878)
= Viola lunata Ridl.; Trans. Linn Soc., Bot 9: 17 (1916)
= Viola metziana Hohen. ex Hook.f.; Fl. Brit. India 1: 184 (1872), nom. inval.
= Viola notoniana Wall.; Numer. List: no. 1449 (1829), nom. inval.
= Viola repens Wall.; Cat. 39, n. 1441 (1829), nomen
= Viola semilunaris (Maxim.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2 34: 231 (1916)
= Viola semilunaris var. divaricata Honda; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 46(551): 677 (1932)
= Viola serpens var. hamiltoniana (D.Don) Hook.f. & Thomson ex Boissieu; Bull. S. B. Fr. 57: 259 (1910)
= Viola subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 88 (1922)
= Viola toppingii Elmer; Leaflets Philipp. Bot. 2: 504 (1908)
= Viola verecunda A.Gray; Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n. s. 6: 382 (1858)
= Viola verecunda f. candidissima M.Mizush. ex E.Hama; J. Jap. Bot. 51: 340 (1976)
= Viola verecunda f. divaricata (Honda) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 221 (1954)
= Viola verecunda f. hensoaensis Kudô & Sasaki; Ann. Bot. Taihoku Bot. Gard. 1: 37 (1931)
= Viola verecunda f. radicans Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 153 (1913)
= Viola verecunda f. variegata Honda; Nom. Pl. Jap., ed. emend.: 389 (1957)
= Viola verecunda f. violascens Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 221 (1954)
= Viola verecunda var. excisa (Hance) Maxim.; Mélanges Biol. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 9: 750 (1886)
= Viola verecunda var. fibrillosa (W.Becker) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola verecunda var. semilunaris Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 335 (1877)
= Viola verecunda var. subaequiloba (Franch. & Sav.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 221 (1954)
= Viola verecunda var. yakusimana (Nakai) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola vorobievii Bezd.; Komarovskie Chteniya (Vladivostok) 48: 105 (2001)
= Viola wightiana var. glabra Thwaites; Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 20 (1858)
= Viola yakusimana Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 35 (1922)
species :
Viola hancockii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 249 (1928)
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Shaanxi, Shanxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hancockii var. fangshanensis J.W.Wang; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27(3): 202 (1989)
species :
Viola hastata Michx.; Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 149 (1803)
Name: Halberdleaved yellow violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta Schwein.; Amer. J. Sci. Arts 5: 50 (1822), nom. illeg.
= Viola trifida Spreng.; Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 1: 22 (1813)
species :
Viola hederacea Labill.; Nov. Holl. Pl. 1: 66, t. 91 (1804)
subspecies :
subsp. hederacea
Distribution: China [I]; Myanmar [I]; Thailand [I]; peninsular Malaysia [I] (Cameron Highlands [I], Pahang [I]); Australia (SE-South Australia, SE-Queensland, E-New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania); Lord Howe Isl.
36 chi 41 mya tha 42 mly 50 AUS LHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Synonyms: hidden
= Erpetion cymbalariae DC. ex Sweet; Brit. Flow. Gard. 2: t. 170 (1826)
= Erpetion hederaceum (Labill.) G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831), isonym
= Erpetion hederaceum (Labill.) Sweet; Hort. Brit., ed. 2: 45 (1830)
= Erpetion petiolare G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Erpetion spathulatum G.Don; Gen. Syst. 1: 335 (1831)
= Viola gracilis R.Br. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
= Viola hederacea f. lobulata Domin; Biblioth. Bot. 22(89): 982 (1928)
= Viola hederacea var. alba Guilf.; Austral. Pl. Gard.: 362 (1911), nom. subnud.
= Viola hederacea var. petiolaris DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 305 (1824)
= Viola hederacea var. sieberi (Hook.) Hook.f.; Fl. Tasman. 1: 26 (1855)
= Viola hederacea var. sieberi (Hook.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34, ii: 266 (1917), isonym
= Viola sieberi Hook.; Compan. Bot. Mag. 1: 274 (1836)
subspecies :
subsp. seppeltiana L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia 8: 387, 99 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (SE-South Australia including Kangaroo Is., S-Victoria to the Dandenongs)
50 AUS
species :
Viola hediniana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 262-263 (1916)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, Sichuan); India (Arunachal Pradesh)
36 CHI 40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola henryi var. cordifolia Chang; nom. nud.
species :
Viola heldreichiana Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 53 (1849)
Name: Heldreichs Veilchen (DE); Heldreich´s Violet (EN)
Distribution: East Aegaean Isl. (Karpathos, Rhodos); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon)
34 CYP EAI LEB TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lesbiaca Candargy; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 44: 154 (1897)
= Viola alajensis W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 19: 37 (1904)
= Viola parvula subsp. heldreichiana (Boiss.) Rothm.
species :
Viola helena C.N.Forbes & Lydgate; Occas. Pap. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 4: 218 (1909)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola hemsleyana Calderón; Phytologia 52(2): 101 (1982)
Distribution: Mexico (Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola henryi H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1075-1076 (1901)
Distribution: China (W-Hubei, NW-Hunan, E-Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola herzogii (W.Becker) Bornm.; Magyar Bot. Lap. 32: 141 (1933)
Distribution: North Macedonia; N-Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola allchariensis f. pinifolia (Herzog) Trinajstic; Suppl. Fl. Anal. Jugosl. 3: 7 (1975)
= Viola allchariensis var. herzogii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 75 (1921)
= Viola allchariensis var. prilepensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 75 (1921)
= Viola gracilis var. pinifolia Herzog; Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr. 24-25: 19 (1920)
= Viola mrkvickiana Velen.; Reliq. Mrkv. 6 (1922)
species :
Viola heyuanensis Yan S.Huang, Q.L.Ye & Q.Fan; Nordic J. Bot. 2023(6)-e03941: 7 (2023)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola hieronymi W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 185 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (Jujuy, La Rioja)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola hillii W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 134 (1928)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola hirsutula Brainerd; Rhodora 9: 98 (1907)
Name: Southern woodland violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)
75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirsutula f. albicans L.K.Henry; Castanea 18: 46 (1953)
species :
Viola hirta L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Behaartes Veilchen, Rauhaariges Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland [I]; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, +Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Spain; Andorra; France; ?Corsica; Italy; Sicily; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; Greece; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Siberia (Altai, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Turkey (NE-Anatolia); China (Xinjiang)
10 DEN fin GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ADO FRA POR SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB 14 BLR EST LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ 33 GEO NCS 34 TUR 36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calcarea (Bab.) Greg.; J. Bot. 42: 68 (1904)
= Viola calcarea (Bab.) J.W.White; Dörfl., 228 (1904), isonym
= Viola drymeia Schur; Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola foudrasii Jord.; Observ. Pl. Nouv. 7: 4 (1849)
= Viola hebecarpa Schur; Enum. Pl. Transs. 79 (1866)
= Viola hirsuta Crantz; Inst. Rei Herb. 2: 430 (1766)
= Viola hirsuta var. minor Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 4: 641 (1829)
= Viola hirta subf. fallax (T.Marsson) Zablocki; 23 (1947)
= Viola hirta f. fraterna (Rchb.) Neuman; 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta f. pinetorum (Wiesb.) Neuman; 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta subsp. baurieri (Sennen & Gonzalo) Sennen; Butl. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 32: 112 (1932)
= Viola hirta subsp. brevifimbriata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 34 (1909)
= Viola hirta subsp. calcarea (Bab.) E.F.Warb.; Clapham et al., Fl. Brit. Isles: 243 (1952)
= Viola hirta subsp. foudrasii (Jord.) Berher; Louis, Fl. Vosges, éd. 2: 46 (1887)
= Viola hirta subsp. fraterna (Rchb.) Schübl. & G.Martens; 158 (1834)
= Viola hirta subvar. pseudoarenaria Erdner; 569 (1911)
= Viola hirta var. albiflora Semler; 30 (1899), nom. inval.
= Viola hirta var. apetala Bastard; Essai Fl. Maine et Loire, Suppl.: 28 (1812)
= Viola hirta var. aprica Roth; Enum. Pl. Phaen. Germ. 1(1): 750 (1827)
= Viola hirta var. calcarea Bab.; Man. Brit. Bot., ed. 2: 35 (1847)
= Viola hirta var. exigua Bogenh.; 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. fallax T.Marsson; 57 (1869)
= Viola hirta var. fertiliflora Neuman; 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta var. foudrasii (Jord.) Boreau; Fl. Centre France, éd. 3, 2: 73 (1857)
= Viola hirta var. fraterna Klett & Richt.; Fl. Leipzig: 231 (1830)
= Viola hirta var. fraterna Rchb.; Fl. Germ. Excurs. 2: 705 (1832)
= Viola hirta var. frustranea Neuman; 269 (1901)
= Viola hirta var. grandiflora Wirtg.; 22 (1841)
= Viola hirta var. gymnocarpa Beck; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 450 (1921)
= Viola hirta var. hirsuta Bogenh.; 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. hirsuta Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 696 (1878)
= Viola hirta var. laetevirens Clavaud; Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 35: 348 (1881)
= Viola hirta var. lancifolia Bogenh.; 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. lilacina Erdner; 569 (1911)
= Viola hirta var. minor Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 197 (1828)
= Viola hirta var. montana Bogenh.; 160 (1850), nom. illeg.
= Viola hirta var. montana Dierb.; 222 (1825)
= Viola hirta var. oenochroa Gillot & Ozanon; Bull. Soc. Dauphin. Échange Pl. 11: 461 (1885)
= Viola hirta var. oligopetala Bogenh.; 160 (1850)
= Viola hirta var. pinetorum Wiesb.; Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 3: 45 (1885)
= Viola hirta var. pratensis Dierb.; 222 (1825)
= Viola hirta var. pseudoambigua Wiesb.; Formánek, 77 (1886)
= Viola hirta var. scabra Roth; Enum. Pl. Phaen. Germ. 1(1): 750 (1827)
= Viola hirta var. variegata Bogenh.; 160 (1850)
= Viola hirtoalba Gren. & Godr.; Fl. France Corse 1: 176 (1847)
= Viola maillardii Souché; Compt. Rend. Assoc. Franç. Avancem. Sci. 13: 288 (1884 publ. 1885)
= Viola martii subsp. hirta (L.) Kirschl.; 6 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii subsp. hirta (L.) Schimp. & Spenn.; Fl. Friburg. 3: 1036 (1829), nom. illeg.
= Viola martii subsp. intermedia Kirschl.; 6 (1840)
= Viola martii var. hirta (L.) Jess.; 219 (1879)
= Viola odorata subsp. hirta (L.) Celak.; 82 (1870)
= Viola pallida Salisb.; Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 130 (1796), nom. superfl.
= Viola rubra Aubl. ex Steud.; Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 773 (1841)
= Viola tenerrima Wiesb. ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 78 (1878), nom. inval.
species :
Viola hirtipes S.Moore; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 17(102): 379, t. 16, f. 6 (1879)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Primorye); China (E-Jilin, E-Liaoning); North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirtipedoides W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 73 (1921)
= Viola hirtipes f. glabra E.Hama; J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 341 (1976)
= Viola hirtipes f. grisea (Nakai) Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 28: 94 (1953)
= Viola hirtipes f. nudipes Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 28: 94 (1953)
= Viola hirtipes f. rhodovenia (Nakai) Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 204 (1954)
= Viola hirtipes var. grisea Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 129 (1913)
= Viola hirtipes var. lanata Nakai; Chosen Shokubutsu 125 (1914)
= Viola hirtipes var. miyabei (Makino) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 85 (1922)
= Viola hirtipes var. rhodovenia Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 558, 592 (1928)
= Viola kamibayashii Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 287 (1916)
= Viola miyabei Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16(183): 124 (1902)
= Viola ramiflora K.O.Yoo; Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 49(2): 140 (2019)
species :
Viola hispida Lam.; Fl. Fr. 2: 679 (1778)
Name: Rouen-Veilchen
Distribution: NW-France (near Rouen)
12 FRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion hirsutum Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 5: 514 (1836)
= Viola hispida subsp. rothomagensis (Thuill.) P.Fourn.; Fl. Compl. Plaine Franç.: 56 (1928)
= Viola kitaibeliana subsp. rothomagensis (Thuill.) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 52 (1896)
= Viola pesneaui J.Lloyd; Fl. Ouest France, ed. 3: 43 (1876)
= Viola pilosa Pers.; Syn. Pl. 1: 255 (1805), nom. inval.
= Viola rothomagensis Thuill.; Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2: 454 (1799)
= Viola tricolor subsp. rothomagensis Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 52 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. hispida (Lam.) Lej. & Courtois; Comp. Fl. Belg. 1: 202 (1828)
species :
Viola hondoensis W.Becker & Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier Ser. II. 8: 739 (1908)
Distribution: Siberia (E-Siberia); Russian Far East (Sakhalin, Kuril Isl.); ?China; North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
30 SIB 31 RFE 38 JAP KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta var. japonica Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 23: 327 (1877)
= Viola hirta var. nipponica Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 2: 648 (1879)
= Viola nipponica Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, ser. 3, 23: 327 (1877), nom. provis.
species :
Viola hookeriana Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 369 (1823)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
species :
Viola hossei W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 257-258 (1916)
Distribution: NE-India (Meghalaya); Myanmar; Vietnam
40 IND 41 MYA VIE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dalatensis Gagnep.; Humbert, Suppl. Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 1: 178, gallice, et in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 85: 600 (1939), latine (1938)
= Viola unwinii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26: 25 (1929), et Notes Bot. Gard. Edinb. 16: 147 (1931)
species :
Viola howellii A.Gray; Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 308 (1887)
Name: Howell´s violet
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia); USA (Oregon, Washington State)
71 CDN 73 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 6 Langsdorffianae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola subcordata Greene; Pittonia 3: 316 (1898)
species :
Viola huesoensis Martic.; Gayana, Bot. 57(2): 191 (2000 publ. 2001), nom. nov.
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola litoralis Phil.; Fl. Atacam. 9 (1860), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola huidobrii Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 214 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro); Chile (Biobío, Araucania, Los Lagos, Valparaíso)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola brachypetala Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 212 (1846)
= Viola lechleri Griseb.; Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 6: 116 (1854)
species :
Viola huizhouensis Y.S.Huang & Q.Fan; PhytoKeys 176: 70, figs. 2-3 (2021)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola hultenii W.Becker; Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 4 (1928)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Kuril Isl.); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blandiformis var. pilosa H.Hara; J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 6: 85 (1952)
= Viola pallens subsp. hultenii (W.Becker) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 31 (2020)
species :
Viola humilis Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 369 (1823)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Ciudad de Mexico, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz); Colombia (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Putumayo, Santander)
79 MEX 82 CLM
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ecuadorensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 180 (1922)
= Viola kalbreyeri W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 180 (1922)
= Viola prunellifolia Kunth; Nov. Gen. et Sp. 5: 370 (1823)
= Viola reticulata Schltdl.; Linnaea 12:201 (1838)
species :
Viola hybanthoides W.B.Liao & Q.Fan; Phytotaxa 197(1): 20 (2015)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 11 Danxiaviola
species :
Viola hymettia Boiss. & Heldr.; Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. 3(1): 57 (1853)
Name: Hymettos-Veilchen
Distribution: France; Italy; Sicily; North Macedonia; SW-Romania; European Turkey; Greece; Ukraine; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl.; Iran (N-Iran)
12 FRA 13 GRC ITA NMA ROM SIC TUE 14 UKR 33 AZE GEO NCS 34 EAI IRN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensioides Strobl; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 27: 224 (1877)
= Viola arvensis subsp. olyssiponensis (Rouy) W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 19: 40, 43 (1904)
= Viola cretacea Klokov; Schischkin & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 15: 686 (1949)
= Viola kitaibeliana f. hymettia (Boiss. & Heldr.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 339 (1910)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. longiborgneana W.Becker; Viol. Exc.: 180 (1906)
= Viola lavrenkoana Klokov; Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Charkov. 8 (1927)
= Viola olyssiponensis Rouy; Magnier, Scrin. Fl. Select. 6: 114 (1887), nom. inval.
= Viola tricolor proles olyssiponensis (Rouy) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 47 (1896)
= Viola tricolor subsp. olyssiponensis Rouy; Magnier, Scrin. Fl. Select. 6: 114 (1887)
= Viola tricolor subvar. hymettia (Boiss. & Heldr.) Gams; Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 5: 601 (1926)
= Viola tricolor var. arvensioides (Strobl) Ces., Pass. & Gibelli; Comp. Fl. Ital. 2: 807 (1886)
= Viola tricolor var. hymettia (Boiss. & Heldr.) Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 1: 466 (1867)
= Viola tricolor var. hymettia (Boiss. & Heldr.) P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 452 (1936)
= Viola tricolor var. olyssiponensis (Rouy) Henriq.; Bol. Soc. Brot. 6: 13 (1888)
species :
Viola impostor R.N.Burwell & H.E.Ballard; ined.
Distribution: USA (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina)
78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola improcera L.G.Adams; Fl. Australia 8: 387, 100 (1982)
Distribution: Australia (Victoria)
50 AUS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 5 Erpetion
Conservation Status: known from only 1 collection besides the type
species :
Viola incognita Brainerd; Rhodora, 248 (1905)
Distribution: E-Canada; NE-USA
72 CDN 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae. A separate species from V. blanda fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola incognita var. forbesii Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 38: 8 (1911)
species :
Viola inconspicua Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 58 (1825)
Distribution: Mauritius; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Ryukyu Isl.; Taiwan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar; Vietnam; peninsular Malaysia (once from Penang Hill); Sumatra; Philippines; Java; New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea); Australia (NE-Queensland); Norfolk Isl.
29 MAU 33 geo 36 CHI 38 JAP NNS TAI 40 IND 41 MYA VIE 42 JAW MLY NWG PHI SUM 50 AUS NFK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola angustistipulata C.C.Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n.s., 1: 250 (1949)
= Viola apetala Roxb.; Hort. Beng. 18 (1814), nomen, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall. 2: 449 (1824), Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 1: 650 (1832)
= Viola betonicifolia subsp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) Y.S.Chen
= Viola betonicifolia subsp. novaguineensis D.M.Moore; Rep. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. 68 (1963)
= Viola betonicifolia var. oblongosagittata (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; & T. Hashim. J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola confusa f. albescens (Taken.) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola confusa f. albiflora S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 783 (1992)
= Viola confusa f. ciliata (Taken.) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola confusa f. leucantha E.Hama; Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
= Viola confusa f. pilosa (F.Maek.) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola confusa f. serratodentata (Taken.) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 162 (1968)
= Viola confusa subsp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) F.Maek. & Hashim.; Hashim. J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola confusa var. lanyuensis S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 18 (1992)
= Viola hunanensis Hand.-Mazz.; Symb. Sin. 7(2): 376, f. 10: 2, 3 (1931)
= Viola inconspicua f. albescens (Taken.) Yonek.; J. Jap. Bot. 80(6): 326 (2005)
= Viola inconspicua f. pilosa (F.Maek.) Yonek.; J. Jap. Bot. 80(6): 326 (2005)
= Viola inconspicua subsp. nagasakiensis (W.Becker) J.C.Wang & T.C.Huang; Taiwania 35: 41-44, f. 12 (1990)
= Viola inconspicua var. minor (Makino) S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 26 (1992)
= Viola japonica Matsum. & Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 29 (1906)
= Viola maculicola Koidz.; Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto 7: 112 (1938)
= Viola mandshurica subsp. nagasakiensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40: 161 (1923)
= Viola minor (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola minor f. albescens (Taken.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 209 (1954)
= Viola minor f. ciliata Taken.; J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Fukuoka 2: 190, 195 (1938)
= Viola minor f. pilosa F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 209 (1954)
= Viola minor f. serratodentata (Taken.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 209 (1954)
= Viola minor var. albescens Taken.; J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Fukuoka 2(5): 195 (1938)
= Viola minor var. ciliata Taken.; J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Fukuoka 2(5): 189, 195 (1938)
= Viola minor var. serratodentata Taken.; J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Fukuoka 2: 189 (1938)
= Viola oblongosagittata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 37 (1922)
= Viola patrinii var. minor Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 6: 50 (1892)
= Viola philippica Sasaki; List Pl. Formosa 298 (1928)
= Viola primulifolia Lour.; Fl. Cochinch. 2: 513 (1790), non L.
= Viola pseudomonbeigii Chang; Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n. s. 1(3): 251 (1949)
= Viola serpens var. confusa (Benth.) J.D.Hooker & Thomson
= Viola trinervis Korth.; Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 1: 357 (1848)
species :
Viola indica W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 20: II. 126 (1906)
Distribution: Pakistan (Chitral, Hazara); India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Punjab, Uttarakhand)
40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola indica f. barbata (W.Becker) S.P.Banerjee & Pramanik; Fasc. Fl. India 12: 26 (1983)
= Viola indica var. barbata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2 40: 135 (1923)
species :
Viola ingolensis Elisafenko; Rastitel´n. Mir Aziatsk. Rossii 2(34): 12, figs. 3-7 (2019)
Distribution: Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)
30 SIB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola isaurica Contandr. & Quézel; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 123: 419 (1976)
Distribution: Turkey (SSW-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola ivonis Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 21(2): 608 (1985)
Distribution: North Macedonia
13 NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola iwagawae Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 26: 158 (1912)
Distribution: Japan (Yakushima Isl.); Ryukyu Isl.
38 JAP NNS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boissieuana var. iwagawae (Makino) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola tashiroi subsp. iwagawae (Makino) K.Nakaj.; J. Geobot. 18: 13 (1970)
species :
Viola jalapaensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 125 (1922)
Distribution: Mexico (Tamaulipas, Veracruz)
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola jangiensis W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 201 (1929)
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Punjab)
40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola japonica Langsd. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 295 (1824)
Distribution: South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); ?Taiwan; USA [I] (Massachusetts [I])
38 JAP KOR 75 usa
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassicalcarata C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14(4): 379-340, f. 1, 1-8 (1992)
= Viola japonica f. albida F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954), nom. inval.
= Viola japonica f. barbara (Hiyama) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola japonica f. pallescens Sugim.; J. Geobot. 16: 50 (1968)
= Viola japonica f. variegata (Hatus.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola japonica var. variegata Hatus.; Exp. Forest. Kyushu Imp. Univ. 5: 132 (1934)
= Viola kapsanensis Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 35 (1922)
= Viola kapsanensis var. albiflora (Nakai) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 36 (1922)
= Viola metajaponica f. barbara Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 157 (1951)
= Viola metajaponica Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 192 (1925)
= Viola odorata Thunb.; Fl. Jap. 326 (1784) (non L.)
species :
Viola jaubertiana Marès & Vigin.; Cat. Pl. Baléar. 37 (1880)
Name: Balearen-Veilchen
Distribution: Baleares (Mallorca)
12 BAL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola odorata var. jaubertiana (Marès & Vigin.) Knoche; Fl. Baléar. 2: 209 (1922)
species :
Viola javanica W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl 34: II. 260 (1916), et H. Lév., Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan: 278 (1917)
Distribution: E-Java
42 JAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola jinggangshanensis Z.L.Ning & J.P.Liao; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 49(5-6): 383 (2012)
Distribution: China (Jiangxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola joergensenii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 353 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 10 Triflabellium
species :
Viola johnstonii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 110 (1927)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola jooi Janka; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 198 (1857)
Name: Karpaten-Veilchen
Distribution: NE-Serbia; C-Romania; Ukraine
13 ROM SRB 14 UKR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sciaphila Joó ex Janka; Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 198 (1857), nom. inval.
= Viola transsilvanica Schur; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 10: 184 (1860)
species :
Viola jordanii Hanry; Prodr. Hist. Nat. Vor 169 (1853)
Name: Jordan-Veilchen
Distribution: Hungary; SE-France; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Romania; Bulgaria; Greece; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Turkey (SSW-Anatolia, S-Anatolia); Pakistan (Waziristan); India (Jammu & Kashmir)
11 HUN 12 FRA 13 BUL GRC KOS NMA ROM SRB 14 KRY MLD UKR 34 TUR 40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina subsp. jordanii (Hanry) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 11 (1896)
= Viola canina var. provincialis Kirschl.; Mém. Viol.: 14 (1840)
= Viola cilicica Contandr. & Quézel; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 123: 419 (1976)
= Viola elatior subsp. jordanii (Hanry) Soó; Magyar Növenyvilag Kezikönyve 1: 631 (1951)
= Viola elatior var. provincialis Burnat; Fl. Alpes Marit. 1: 173 (1892)
= Viola falconeri Hook.f. & Thomson; Hook.f. Fl. Brit. India 1: 185 (1872)
= Viola jordanii var. falconeri (Hook.f. & Thomson) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt 2,34: 380 (1917)
= Viola oblonga Blatt.; J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 9: 200 (1930)
= Viola provincialis (Kirschl.) Burnat; Fl. Alpes Marit. 4: 266, 303 (1906)
= Viola vandasii Velen.; Fl. Bulg.: 641 (1891)
species :
Viola kauaensis A.Gray; Proc. Amer. Acad. 2: 325 (1852)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai, Oahu)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola kauaensis f. maxima Hochr.
variant :
var. hosakae (H.St.John) Havran & Ching Harbin; PhytoKeys 39: 28 (2014)
Distribution: Hawaii
63 HAW
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hosakae H.St.John; Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 173 (1989)
= Viola vanroyenii H.St.John; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 111: 198 (1989)
variant :
var. wahiawaensis C.N.Forbes; Occas. Pap. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 7(3): 34, t. 4 (1920)
Distribution: Hawaii (Kauai)
63 HAW
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola keiskei Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 153 (1865)
Distribution: North Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hirta f. keiskei (Miq.) Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 86 (1903)
= Viola keiskei f. barbata Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola keiskei f. glaberrima W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2 40: 155 (1923)
= Viola keiskei f. okuboi (Makino) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 205 (1954)
= Viola keiskei var. glabra W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2 34: 252 (1916)
= Viola keiskei var. okuboi Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 133 (1902)
= Viola okuboi (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17: 85 (1903)
= Viola okuboi var. glabra Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 17: 86 (1903)
species :
Viola kermesina W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. Sp. 7: 124 (1909)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola kitaibeliana Schult.; Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: 383 (1819)
Name: Kleines Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I] (Baden-Württemberg [I], Rheinland-Pfalz [I], Thüringen [I]); Switzerland; Austria; ?Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal; Corsica; Italy; Sicily; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece (incl. Kiklades); E-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Canary Isl. (Tenerife); Turkmenistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; East Aegaean Isl.; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, NW-Anatolia: Bithynia, S-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, SW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia, WN-Anatolia); Iraq (SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Syria (Jbel Druze); Israel (coastal W-Israel, N-Israel); China [I]
11 AUT CZE ger HUN SLO SWI 12 COR POR 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SRB TUE 14 KRY MLD RUS UKR 20 MOR 21 CNY 32 TKM 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP EAI IRN IRQ ISR SYR TUR 36 chi
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae. V. henriquesii (Iberian peninsula) is sometimes kept separate. The delimitation from V. arvensis is often critical.
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensis f. latifolia Pau; Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 6: 26 (1895)
= Viola arvensis subsp. henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins 19: 40, 46 (1904)
= Viola arvensis subsp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Mateo & Figuerola; Fl. Analit. Prov. Valencia (IAM Investig. 14): 369 (1987), isonym
= Viola arvensis subsp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) W.Becker; 42 (1904)
= Viola arvensis subsp. minima (Gaudin) Mateo, M.B.Crespo & E.Laguna; Fl. Valentina 5: 233 (2024)
= Viola arvensis subsp. trimestris (DC.) W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 19: 40, 47 (1904)
= Viola arvensis var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Halácsy; Consp. Fl. Graec. 1: 145 (1901)
= Viola brachyantha Stapf; Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 51: 39 (1886)
= Viola brockmanniana W.Becker; 70 (1910)
= Viola henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) W.Becker; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 190 (1906)
= Viola karakalensis Klokov; Fl. URSS 15: 687, t. 22, f. 9 (1949)
= Viola kitaibeliana subsp. machadiana (Cout.) Capelo & C.Aguiar; Silva Lusitana 3: 126 (1995)
= Viola kitaibeliana subsp. trimestris (DC. ex Ging.) Espeut; Monde Pl. 464: 20 (1999)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. beirensis (Cout.) Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 269 (1919)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. brevicalcarata Font Quer & Svent.; Addit. Fl. Canar. 1: 37 (1960), et Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295 (1993)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Gams
= Viola kitaibeliana var. henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 339 (1910)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. machadiana (Cout.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 340 (1910)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. tokajensis Soó; 183 (1940)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. trimestris (DC.) Espeut; Biocosme Mésogéen 27(4): 132 (2010)
= Viola parviflora Kit.; Roem. & Schult., 383 (1819), nom. inval.
= Viola parvula var. glabra Lange; Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1866: 93 (1866)
= Viola parvula var. glabrata Lange; Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1865: 93 (1866)
= Viola parvula var. villosa Lange; Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1865: 93 (1866)
= Viola tricolor proles albuquerqueana Samp.; Ann. Sci. Acad. Polytecn. Porto 4: 120 (1909)
= Viola tricolor proles kitaibeliana (Schult.) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 47 (1896)
= Viola tricolor subsp. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Furrer & Longa; 67 (1915)
= Viola tricolor subsp. henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) Cout.; Fl. Portugal 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor subsp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) C.Vicioso; Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 6: 60 (1946), isonym
= Viola tricolor subsp. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Schinz & R.Keller; Fl. Schweiz, ed. 3, 1: 366 (1909)
= Viola tricolor subsp. machadeana (Cout.) Cout.; Bol. Soc. Brot. 28: 112 (1920)
= Viola tricolor subsp. machadiana (Cout.) Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor subsp. minima (Gaudin) O.Bolòs; A. Bolòs, Veg. Barcelona: 415 (1950)
= Viola tricolor subsp. minima Gaudin; Fl. HeIv. 2: 210 (1828)
= Viola tricolor subsp. nana (DC.) Corb.; Nouv. Fl. Normandie: 81 (1894)
= Viola tricolor subsp. parviflora (Kit.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor subsp. trimestris (DC. ex Ging.) Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor subvar. pygmaea Rouy & Foucaud; 48 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. albuquerqueana (Samp.) Samp.; Fl. Portugal, ed. 2: 317 (1947)
= Viola tricolor var. beirensis Cout.; Fl. Portugal: 419 (1913)
= Viola tricolor var. brockmanniana (W.Becker) Gams; 601 (1925)
= Viola tricolor var. gracilis Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 402, 404 (1919)
= Viola tricolor var. henriquesii (Willk. ex Cout.) P.Fourn.; Quatre Fl. France: 452 (1936)
= Viola tricolor var. henriquesii Willk. ex Cout.; Bol. Soc. Brot. 10: 36 (1892)
= Viola tricolor var. hirta Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Hampe; 19 (1836)
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 257 (1842), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. kitaibeliana (Schult.) Rupr.; Fl. Ingrica: 141 (1860), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. machadiana Cout.; Bol. Soc. Brot. 10: 36 (1892)
= Viola tricolor var. mediterranea Gren.; Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 1: 183 (1847)
= Viola tricolor var. minima (Gaudin) Moritzi; 167 (1832)
= Viola tricolor var. nana DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 301 (1824)
= Viola tricolor var. nemausensis (Jord.) Nyman; 80 (1878)
= Viola tricolor var. procerior Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 211 (1828), nom. superfl.
= Viola tricolor var. tenella (Poir.) Griseb.; Spic. Fl. Rumel. 1: 237 (1843)
= Viola tricolor var. trimestris DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 304 (1824)
= Viola trimestris (DC. ex Ging.) W.Becker; Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 190 (1906)
species :
Viola kitamiana Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 42: 564 (1928)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kuril Isl.); Japan (Hokkaido)
31 RFE 38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola crassa var. kitamiana (Nakai) F.Maek. & Toyok.; Hokuriko J. Bot. 6: 105 (1957)
species :
Viola kizildaghensis Dinç & Yild.; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 138(4): 483 (2002)
Distribution: Turkey
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola kjellbergii Melch.; Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12: 206 (1934)
Distribution: Sulawesi; New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)
42 NWG SUL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lagaipensis D.M.Moore; Nova Guinea, Bot., No. 11, 182 (1963)
= Viola arcuata Ooststr. & H.J.Lam; non Blume
species :
Viola kopaonikensis Pancic ex Tomovic & Niketic; Phytotaxa 253(4): 242 (2016)
Distribution: Serbia
13 SRB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola kosanensis Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 28 (1913)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, NE-Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, Sichuan, NW-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola fukienensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 337 (1926)
= Viola kiangsiensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21(601-605): 321 (1925)
species :
Viola kosaninii (Degen) Hayek; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 94: 155 (1918)
Distribution: N-North Macedonia; Greece
13 GRC NMA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 14 Delphiniopsis
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola delphinantha subsp. kosaninii Degen; Mag. Bot. Lapok 10: 108 (1911)
species :
Viola kouliana Bhellum & Magotra; Nordic J. Bot. 2022(8)-e03648: 2 (2022)
Distribution: NW-India (Jammu & Kashmir)
40 IND
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 13 Sclerosium
species :
Viola kunawarensis Royle; Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 75 (1834)
Distribution: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; China (Gansu, Qinghai, NW-Sichuan, Xinjiang); Tibet; Pakistan (Hazara, Baltistan); Nepal; India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Leh, etc.)
32 KAZ KGZ TZK 36 CHI TIB 40 IND NEP PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 12 Himalayum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola gmeliniana var. glabra Regel & Herder; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 39: 527 (1866)
= Viola kunawarensis f. longifolia C.J.Wang
= Viola kunawarensis var. angustifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 397 (1917)
= Viola thianschanica Maxim.; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, sér. 3, 26: 427 (1880)
species :
Viola kusanoana Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 26: 173 (1912)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Primorye, Sakhalin); South Korea (Ullung Do Isl.); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
31 RFE 38 JAP KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dageletiana Nakai; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 195 (1925)
= Viola insularis Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32: 108 (1918), nom. illeg.
= Viola kusanoana f. alba Masam.; J. Geobot. 8: 22 (1959)
= Viola kusanoana f. bevicalcarata (H.Hara) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 206 (1954)
= Viola kusanoana f. pubescens (Nakai) M.Mizush.; Sci. Res. Ozegahara Moor: 450 (1954)
= Viola kusanoana f. radicans M.Nagas.; Yaso 4: 60 (1938)
= Viola kusanoana f. subrosea H.Igarashi; J. Jap. Bot. 75(3): 187 (2000)
= Viola kusanoana var. bevicalcarata H.Hara; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 50: 302 (1936)
= Viola kusanoana var. glabra Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 57 (1922), nom. inval.
= Viola kusanoana var. pubescens Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (57), (90) (1922)
= Viola miyakei Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 1928 43: 563 (1928)
= Viola mutsuensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 241 (1916)
= Viola sacchalinensis var. miyakei (Nakai) Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola silvestriformis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 242 (1916)
species :
Viola kusnezowiana W.Becker; B. Fedtsch. Fl. Asiat. Ross. No. 9, 88 (1915), et Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: II. 254 (1916)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye)
31 RFE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola kwangtungensis Melch.; Sunyatsenia 1(2-3): 124-126, t. 31 (1933)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, etc.)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sikkimensis var. debilis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 260 (1916)
species :
Viola labradorica Schrank; Denkschr. Bot. Ges. Regensb. 1: II. 12 (1818)
Name: Alpine violet
Distribution: Greenland; Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); St. Pierre et Miquelon; USA (Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, West Virginia)
70 CDN GNL 71 CDN 72 CDN SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola adunca var. minor (Hook.) Fernald; Rhodora 51: 57 (1949)
= Viola canina var. muhlenbergii (Torr.) A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11(11): 292 (1886)
= Viola conspersa Rchb.; Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 1: 44 (1823)
= Viola leucopetala Greene; Ottawa Naturalist 15(9): 191 (1901)
= Viola muhlenbergiana Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola muhlenbergiana var. albiflora Hook.; Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 78 (1830)
= Viola muhlenbergiana var. minor Hook.; Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Hooker) 1: 78 (1830)
= Viola muhlenbergii Torr.; Fl. N. Middle United States 1: 256 (1824)
= Viola muhlenbergii var. albiflora (Hook.) Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. 1: 140 (1838)
= Viola muhlenbergii var. pubescens A.Gray; Amer. J. Sci. Arts 83: 404 (1862)
species :
Viola lactea Sm.; Sowerby, Engl. Bot. 7: t. 445 (1798)
Name: Milchweißes Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Portugal; Spain; France; Channel Isl.
10 GRB IRE 12 CIS FRA POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola canina proles lusitanica (Brot.) Samp.; Ann. Sci. Acad. Polytecn. Porto 4: 121 (1909)
= Viola canina subsp. lactea Corb.; Nouv. Fl. Normandie: 78 (1894), nom. illeg.
= Viola canina subsp. lancifolia (Thore) Wigand; Fl. Kurhessen: 81 (1859)
= Viola canina subsp. lusitanica (Brot.) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 7 (1896)
= Viola canina var. lactea (Sm.) Gray; Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 669 (1821)
= Viola canina var. lancifolia (Thore) Woerl.; 170 (1889)
= Viola canina var. major Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 8 (1896)
= Viola canina var. pumiliformis Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 8 (1896)
= Viola lactea var. minor Lázaro Ibiza; Revista Real Acad. Ci. Madrid 17: 394 (1919)
= Viola lactea var. pumila (Fr.) Nyman; 78 (1878)
= Viola lactea var. pumiliformis (Rouy & Foucaud) Samp.; Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 10: 232 (1935)
= Viola lamiifolia Pritz.; Ic. Ind. 1163 (1855)
= Viola lancifolia Thore; Essai Chloris 357 (-358) (1803)
= Viola lusitana Brot.; Phytogr. Lusitan. Select.: 11 (1800 publ. 1801)
= Viola montana var. lactea (Sm.) Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 299 (1824)
= Viola pumila var. lancifolia (Thore) DC.; 299 (1824)
= Viola recta var. lactea (Sm.) Garcke; 55 (1848)
= Viola ruppii proles lactea (Sm.) Samp.; Lista Esp. Herb. Port.: 72 (1913)
= Viola ruppii var. lusitanica (Brot.) Samp.; Man. Fl. Port.: 261 (1911)
= Viola ruppii var. pumiliformis (Rouy & Foucaud) Samp.; Man. Fl. Port.: 261 (1911)
species :
Viola lactiflora Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28(336): 329 (1914)
Distribution: China (Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S-Liaoning, Sichuan, SW-Yunnan, Zhejiang); North Korea; South Korea; Japan [I]
36 CHI 38 jap KOR NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola limprichtiana W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 185-186 (1917)
species :
Viola lanaiensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34: 11. 214 (1916)
Distribution: Hawaii (Lanai)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola helenae var. lanaiensis Rock
= Viola robusta var. oblongifolia Drake; nom. nud.
species :
Viola lanceolata L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
Name: Bog white violet
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec); St. Pierre et Miquelon; USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia); Colombia [I]; Venezuela [I]
71 CDN 72 CDN SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA 82 clm ven
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola attenuata Sweet; Hort. Brit. (Sweet), ed. 3. 54 (1839)
= Viola denticulosa Pollard; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 475 (1901)
species :
Viola langeana Valentine; Feddes Repert. 79: 57 (1968)
Distribution: C-Portugal; WC-Spain
12 POR SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensis subsp. caespitosa (Nyman) W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 19: 40, 48 (1904)
= Viola caespitosa Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hispan. 3: 701 (1878), nom. illeg.
= Viola caespitosa var. condensata Henriq.; Exped. Serra da Estrella: 117 (1883)
= Viola caespitosa var. laxa Henriq.; Exped. Serra da Estrella: 117 (1883)
= Viola lutea subsp. caespitosa Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2: 47 (1889)
species :
Viola langloisii Greene; Pittonia 3: 87 (1896)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Not a synonym of V. missouriensis fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola affinis var. langloisii (Greene) Griscom; Rhodora 38: 49 (1936)
= Viola langloisii var. pedatiloba Brainerd; Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 38: 2 (1911)
species :
Viola langsdorfii (Regel) Fisch. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 296 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. langsdorfii
Name: Aleutian violet
Distribution: Alaska; Canada (British Columbia, Yukon); USA (California, Oregon, Washington State)
70 ASK CDN 71 CDN 73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 6 Langsdorffianae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mirabilis var. langsdorffii (Fisch. ex Ging.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 485 (1862)
= Viola peduncularis Langsd. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824), nom. inval.
= Viola simulata M.S.Baker; Madroño 3: 237 (1936)
= Viola superba M.S.Baker; Madroño 5: 220, tab. 20, 22, fig. 10 (1940)
subspecies :
subsp. sachalinensis W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. Abt. 2 34: 253 (1916)
Distribution: Siberia (Yakutia); Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Sakhalin); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)
30 SIB 31 RFE 38 JAP
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola franchetii H.Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 47: 321 (1900)
= Viola kamtschadalorum var. parviflora (Regel) Tatew.; Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 4: 283 (1934)
= Viola kamtschadalorum var. pubescens Miyabe & Tatew.; Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 15: 206 (1938)
= Viola kamtschadalorum W.Becker & Hultén; Arkiv Bot., Stockh. 22: A. No. 3, 6 (1928)
= Viola kurilensis Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 33 (1922)
= Viola kurilensis var. pubescens (Miyabe & Tatew.) Tatew. & Ohwi; J. Jap. Bot. 26: 233 (1951)
= Viola langsdorffii f. parviflora (Regel) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola langsdorffii f. pubescens (Miyabe & Tatew.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola langsdorffii var. caulescens Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 250 (1842)
= Viola langsdorffii var. parviflora (Regel) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (56), (89) (1922)
= Viola langsdorffii var. subacaulis Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 250 (1842)
= Viola langsdorffii var. ursina (Kom.) W.Becker & Hultén; Ark. Bot. 22A(3): 7 (1928)
= Viola langsdorfii subsp. kamtschadalorum (W.Becker & Hultén) Tzvelev
= Viola langsdorfii var. caulescens Ging.; (1824)
= Viola mirabilis lusus caulescens (Ledeb.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 487 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis lusus livonica Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 488 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis lusus parviflora Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 487 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis lusus subacaulis (Ledeb.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 486 (1862)
= Viola sapporensis Franch. ex Boissieu; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 47: 321 (1925)
= Viola ursina Kom.; Fedde Rebert. 13: 235 (1914)
species :
Viola lanifera W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 183 (1922)
Distribution: Chile (Coquimbo)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola laricicola Marcussen; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 142(1): 119 (2003)
Distribution: SE-France (Col du Lautaret, Col du Vars); NW-Italy (Col du Montgenevre)
12 FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola latiuscula Greene; Pittonia 5: 93 (1902)
Distribution: E-USA
75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Not a synonym of V. sororia fide Marcussen et al. 2022
species :
Viola lehmannii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 91 (1907), et ex H. E. Ballard & P. Jørg., Cat. Vasc. PI. Ecuador (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 75): 956 (1999)
Distribution: Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (La Paz)
83 BOL ECU PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lehmannii subsp. ovalifolia W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22, pt. 2: 91 (1907)
species :
Viola leyboldiana Phil.; Linnaea 33: 16 (1864 publ. 1865)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza); Chile (Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola libanotica Boiss.; Diagn. ser. 1, 8: 52 (1849)
Distribution: Lebanon (C-Lebanon)
34 LEB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
species :
Viola lilliputana Iltis & H.E.Ballard; Brittonia 64(4): 355 (2012)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 4 Inconspicuiflos
species :
Viola lilloana W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 225 (1926)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola lithion N.H.Holmgren & P.K.Holmgren; Brittonia 44(3): 300 (1992)
Name: Rock violet
Distribution: USA (Nevada: White Pine Range, Utah: Pilot Range)
76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola llullaillacoensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 109 (1927)
Distribution: Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola lobata Benth.; Pl. Hartw. 298 (1843)
Name: Pine violet, Yellow wood violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon); Mexico (Baja California Norte)
73 USA 76 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dactylifera Greene; Pittonia 3: 317 (1898)
= Viola montana Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ed. 2, 1: 55 (1873), nom. illeg.
variant :
var. integrifolia S.Watson; W. H. Brewer et al., Bot. California 1: 57 (1876)
Distribution: USA (California, SW-Oregon)
73 USA 76 USA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola deltoidea Greene; Pittonia 3: 317 (1898), nom. illeg.
= Viola lobata subsp. integrifolia (S.Watson) R.J.Little; Phytologia 72(2): 78 (1992)
= Viola lobata subsp. psychodes (Greene) Munz; Aliso 4: 94 (1958)
= Viola lobata var. psychodes (Greene) J.T.Howell; Mentzelia 1: 8 (1975)
= Viola psychodes Greene; Pittonia 3: 318 (1898)
= Viola sequoiensis Kellogg; Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 185 (1863)
species :
Viola lologensis (W.Becker) J.M.Watson; Gayana, Bot. 68(2): 302 (2011)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquen)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cotyledon subsp. lologensis W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 135 (1928)
species :
Viola longibracteolata P.Gonzáles, Ed.Navarro & J.M.Watson; Phytotaxa 571(1): 59 (2022)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
species :
Viola longissima Yan S.Huang & Q.Fan; Nordic J. Bot. 2023(6)-e03941: 6 (2023)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
species :
Viola lovelliana Brainerd; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 37: 526 (1910)
Name: Lovell´s violet
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae. Often treated as hybrid
species :
Viola lucens W.Becker; Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928(6): 250 (1928)
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola lutea Huds.; Fl. Angl. 331 (1762)
subspecies :
subsp. lutea
Name: Gelbes Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: Switzerland; ?N-Spain; France
11 SWI 12 FRA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion elegans Spach; Hist. Nat. Vég. 5: 513 (1836), nom. illeg.
= Mnemion grandiflorum (L.) Spach; 514 (1836)
= Viola amoena T.F.Forst.; J. Symons, Syn. Pl. Ins. Brit.: 198 (1798)
= Viola elegans Kirschl.; 18 (1840), nom. illeg.
= Viola grandiflora subsp. lutea (Huds.) Gaudin; Fl. Helv. 2: 212 (1828)
= Viola grandiflora Vest; 158 (1821), nom. illeg., non L.
= Viola lutea var. elegans (Kirschl.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2(1): 47 (1889)
= Viola lutea var. grandiflora W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 87 (1835)
= Viola tricolor subsp. lutea (Huds.) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 53 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. grandiflora W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2: 95 (1844), nom. illeg.
= Viola tricolor var. sudetica (Willd. ex Schltdl.) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 53 (1896)
= Viola tricolor var. unguiculata Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 53 (1896)
subspecies :
subsp. calaminaria (DC. ex Ging.) Rothm.; Feddes Repert. 67(1-3): 7 (1963)
Name: Gelbes Galmei-Stiefmütterchen (DE)
Distribution: Netherlands; Belgium; W-Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
11 BGM GER NET
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calaminaria (DC. ex Ging.) Lej.; Rev. Fl. Spa: 49 (1825)
= Viola lutea subsp. calaminaria (DC. ex Ging.) Nauenb.; Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 92 (1986), isonym
= Viola lutea subvar. multicaulis (W.D.J.Koch) Gams; 607 (1925)
= Viola lutea var. multicaulis W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 87 (1835)
= Viola lutea var. tricolor Kaltenb.; 65 (1843)
= Viola sudetica var. calaminaria DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 303 (1824)
subspecies :
subsp. sudetica (Willd.) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 81 (1878)
Name: Sudeten-Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: Austria; Czech Republic; Slovakia
11 AUT CZE SLO
Synonyms: hidden
= Mnemion sudeticum (Willd.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 16: 341 (1868)
= Viola lutea subsp. sudetica (Willd.) W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centr. 18(2): 388 (1905), isonym
= Viola lutea var. sudetica (Willd.) W.D.J.Koch; Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 87 (1835)
= Viola sudetica Willd.; Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol., Suppl.: 12 (1814)
subspecies :
subsp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) U.Hildebr.et al.; 216 (2006)
Name: Violettes Galmei-Stiefmütterchen
Distribution: C-Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
11 GER
Remarks: known only from one small population
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola calaminaria subsp. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) J.Heimans; Levende Natuur 69: 268 (1966)
= Viola calaminaria var. westfalica (A.A.H.Schulz) W.Ernst; Abh. Landesmus. Naturk. Münster Westfalen 27: 32 (1965)
= Viola guestphalica Nauenb.; Untersuch. Variab. Ökol. & Syst. Viola tricolor-Gruppe Mitteleuropa: 98 (1986), nom. nov. inval., et Haussknechtia 12: 54 (2010)
= Viola lutea var. westfalica A.A.H.Schulz; Jahres-Ber. Westfal. Prov.-Vereins Wiss. 40: 218 (1912)
species :
Viola lyallii Hook.f.; Handb. N. Zeal. Fl. 16 (1864)
Distribution: New Zealand (widespread); Chatham Isl.
51 CTM NZL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cunninghamii var. gracilis Hook.f.; (1852)
= Erpetion spathulatum A.Cunn.; (1840) (non G. Don
species :
Viola macloskeyi F.E.Lloyd; Erythea 3: 74 (1895)
Name: Smooth white violet
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); St. Pierre et Miquelon; USA (Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming)
70 CDN 71 CDN 72 CDN SPM 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola blanda subsp. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) A.E.Murray; Kalmia 12: 26 (1982)
= Viola blanda var. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) Jeps.; Man. Fl. Pl. Calif. [Jeps.] 648 (1925)
= Viola clandestina Pursh; Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 173 (1813)
= Viola obliqua Pursh; Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 172 (1813), nom. illeg.
= Viola pallens subsp. macloskeyi (F.E.Lloyd) M.S.Baker; Madroño 12: 18 (1953)
species :
Viola macroceras Bunge; Fl. Altaic. 1: 256-257 (1829)
Distribution: Siberia (Altai); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; China (Xinjiang); Mongolia; Pakistan (Chitral, Skardu, Baltistan); India (Uttarakhand)
30 SIB 32 KAZ KGZ TZK 33 NCS 36 CHI 37 MON 40 IND PAK
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola czemalensis Zuev; Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol. 98(4): 103 (1993)
species :
Viola maculata Cav.; Ic. 6: 20, t. 539 (1800)
Name: Pilludén, violeta del monte [Chile]
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aisén, Magallanes); Falkland Isl.
85 ARG CLE 91 FAL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola buchtienii Gand.; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fance 59: 705 (1912 publ. 1913)
= Viola glandulosa Dombey ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola grandidentata Kalela; Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 54: No. 5, 17 (1940)
= Viola lutea Comm. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824), nom. illeg.
= Viola macloviana Gand.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 59: 705 (1912 publ. 1913)
= Viola maculata f. calliantha Speg. ex W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 360 (1925)
= Viola maculata f. chilensis Weibel; Candollea 10: 79 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. chillanensis Sparre; Lilloa 17: 395, tab. 5 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. constitucionensis Sparre; Lilloa 17: 397, fig. 4, tab. 7 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. grandidentata (Kalela) Weibel; Candollea 10: 81 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. munozii Sparre; Lilloa 17: 398, fig. 5, tab. 8 (1949)
= Viola maculata f. valdiviana (Kalela) Weibel; Candollea 10: 81 (1943)
= Viola maculata var. buchtienii (Gand.) Weibel; Candollea 10: 80 (1943)
= Viola maculata var. megaphylla DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 297 (1824)
= Viola maculata var. minor Hook. & Arn.; Bot. Misc. 3: 144 (1833)
= Viola maculata var. popetae Sparre; Lilloa 17: 399 (1949)
= Viola maculata var. pubescens Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 894 (1895)
= Viola maculata var. tenuifolia Speg.; Revista Fac. Agron. Univ. Nac. La Plata 3: 595 (1897)
= Viola pyrolifolia Poir.; Encyc. 8: 636 (1808)
= Viola tetrapetala Molina; Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili, ed. 2: 133 (1810)
= Viola valdiviana Kalela; Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A 54(5): 14 (1940)
variant :
var. microphyllos (Poir.) DC. ex Ging.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 1: 297 (1824)
Distribution: Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Aisen, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola buchtieniana W.Becker; Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 12: 2 (1906)
= Viola fimbriata Steud.; Flora 39: 423 (1856)
= Viola maculata f. buchtieniana (W.Becker) Skottsb.; Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., n.f., 50(5): 263 (1916)
= Viola maculata f. fimbriata (Steud.) Weibel; Candollea 10: 84 (1943)
= Viola maculata f. septentrionalis (Kalela) Weibel; Candollea 10: 84 (1943)
= Viola maculata subsp. microphyllos (Poir.) Weibel; Candollea 10: 83 (1943)
= Viola microphyllos f. septentrionalis Kalela; Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A 54(5): 32 (1940)
= Viola microphyllos Poir.; Encyc. 8: 628 (1808)
species :
Viola magellanica G.Forst.; Comm. Götting. 9: 41, t. 8 (1789)
Distribution: Argentina (Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego); Chile (Los Lagos, Magallanes)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 4 Chilenium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola magniflora Molina; Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili, ed. 2. 283 (1810)
species :
Viola magellensis Porta & Rigo ex Strobl; Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 27: 229 (1877)
Distribution: C-Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola magnifica C.J.Wang & X.D.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13: 263 (1991)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S-Shaanxi, E-Sichuan, Zhejiang)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola majchurensis Pissjauk.; Not. Syst. Herb. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS 15: 177 (1953)
Distribution: Uzbekistan; Tajikistan
32 TZK UZB
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola mandonii W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 22: II. 95 (1907)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, Santa Cruz)
83 BOL PER
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 1 Leptidium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola humboldtii var. renifolia Britton; Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 16: 18 (1889)
species :
Viola mandshurica W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(5, Beibl. 120): 179-180 (1917)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Kuril Isl., Primorye); Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; China (Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, ?Shaanxi, Shandong, ?Shanxi); North Korea; South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Taiwan
31 RFE 33 geo 36 CHI 38 JAP KOR NKO TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola albida subsp. marginata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40: 141 (1924)
= Viola chinensis var. ciliata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 284 (1916)
= Viola chinensis var. media Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 284 (1916)
= Viola chinensis var. transitica Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 30: 283 (1916)
= Viola hsinganensis Taken.; Sci. Contr. Northeast Norm. Univ. 1: 81, t. 2, f. 8 (1955)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiflora P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng; Fl. Pl. Herb. Chin. Bor.-Orient. 6: 293 (1977)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiflora S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 783 (1992), nom. illeg.
= Viola mandshurica f. aureoreticulata M.Nagas.; Yaso 4: 63 (1938)
= Viola mandshurica f. ciliata (Nakai) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. crassa (Tatew.) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 208 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. dispar Honda; Nom. Pl. Jap., ed. emend.: 389 (1957)
= Viola mandshurica f. glabra (Nakai) Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 207 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. hasegawae Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 31: 255 (1956)
= Viola mandshurica f. macrantha (Maxim.) Nakai ex Kitag.; Lin. Fl. Manshur.: 321 (1939)
= Viola mandshurica f. plena F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 208 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica f. villosa Sugim.; Keys Herb. Pl. Jap. 1(Dicot.): 735 (1965)
= Viola mandshurica var. ciliata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (61) (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. crassa Tatew.; Veg. Rebun: 12 (1934)
= Viola mandshurica var. glabra Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: (61) (1922)
= Viola mandshurica var. glabripetala Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 28: 93 (1953)
= Viola mandshurica var. media (Nakai) Hiyama; J. Jap. Bot. 28: 93 (1953)
= Viola oblongosagittata f. ishizakii Yamam.; J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 5: 352 (1933)
= Viola oldhamiana Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 42: 559 (1928)
= Viola patrinii var. gmeliniana Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 152 (1865)
= Viola patrinii var. macrantha Maxim.; Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 48 (1859)
= Viola philippica f. intermedia (Kitag.) Kitag.; Lin. Fl. Manshur. 322 (1939)
= Viola rhodosepala Kitag.; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 48: 611 (1934)
= Viola yedoensis f. intermedia Kitag.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 103 (1934)
variant :
var. ikedaeana (W.Becker ex Taken.) Maek.; Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 208 (1954)
Distribution: South Korea; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); Taiwan
38 JAP KOR TAI
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ikedaeana W.Becker ex Taken.; Fukuoka Hakubuts. Zasshi (Ed. Ann. Soc. Hist.-Nat. Fukuok.) 2: 193 (1938)
= Viola mandshurica f. albiikedaeana E.Hama; Violets of Japan: 181 (1987)
variant :
var. triangularis (Franch. & Sav.) Mizush.; Misc. Rep. Res. Inst. Nat. Resources 38: 122 (1955)
Distribution: Bonin Isl. (Chichijima, Hahajima)
38 OGA
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola boninensis Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 36: 37 (1922)
= Viola mandshurica f. niijimensis (Nakai) F.Maek. & T.Hashim.; J. Jap. Bot. 43: 161 (1968)
= Viola mandshurica f. pubigera Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 208 (1954)
= Viola mandshurica var. boninensis (Nakai) M.Mizush.; J. Jap. Bot. 27: 143 (1952)
= Viola niijimensis Nakai; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 36: 39 (1922)
= Viola patrinii var. triangularis Franch. & Sav.; Enum. Pl. Jap. 1: 41 (1873)
species :
Viola maoershanensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 159(2): 351 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangxi)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola marcelaferreyrae Nicola, J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Darwiniana n. s. 10(2): 517 (2022)
Distribution: Argentina (Neuquén)
85 ARG
species :
Viola marcelorosasii J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 104: 11 (2018)
Distribution: Chile (Atacama)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 5 Relictium
species :
Viola mariae W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 322 (1916)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Sakhalin)
31 RFE
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
species :
Viola matronae Stepanov; Red Book Krasnoyarsk. Territ. [ed. 3] 449 (2022)
Distribution: Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)
30 SIB
Remarks: provisionally accepted name
species :
Viola mauritii Tepl.; Zap. Ural´sk. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestv. 7(3): 37 (1882)
Distribution: C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Magadan); Mongolia
14 RUS 30 SIB 31 RFE 37 MON
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola teplouchovii Juz.; Spisok Rast. Herb. Fl. URSS 13: 83 (1955)
= Viola willkommii Tepl.; Zap. Ural´sk. Obshch. Lyubit. Estestv. 7(2): 24 (1882), nom. illeg.
species :
Viola maviensis H.Mann; Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 150 (1867)
Distribution: Hawaii (Molokai, Maui, Hawaii Isl.)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola hawaiiensis H.St.John; Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 169 (1989)
= Viola kohalana (Rock) H.St.John; Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 179 (1989)
= Viola maviensis var. kohalana Rock
= Viola rockii H.St.John; Bot. Jahrb., 111(2): 190 (1989)
species :
Viola maximowicziana Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 16: 128 (1902)
Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola maximowicziana f. rubescens Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola selkirkii f. major Maxim. ex Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 2: 253 (1888)
species :
Viola maymanica Grey-Wilson; Kew Bull. 29(1): 41 (1974)
Distribution: Afghanistan (Faryab)
34 AFG
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 16 Spathulidium
species :
Viola mearnsii Merr.; Philipp. J. Sci. 5: 201 (1910)
Distribution: Sulawesi; Philippines
42 PHI SUL
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola membranacea W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Nov. Sp. 7: 123 (1909)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 4 Inconspicuiflos
species :
Viola mercurii Orph. ex Halácsy; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl. (Wien) 61: 497 (1894)
Distribution: S-Greece (Killini)
13 GRC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
species :
Viola merrilliana W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralb. 34: II. 234 (1916)
Distribution: Philippines (Luzon)
42 PHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 4 Bilobatae
species :
Viola merxmuelleri Erben; Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 20: 30 (1984)
Distribution: Italy
13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola mesadensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 363 (1928)
Distribution: Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cordoba, La Pampa, Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucuman)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 10 Triflabellium
species :
Viola miaolingensis Y.S.Chen; Phytotaxa 400(4): 251 (2019)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola micranthella Wedd.; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. V. 1: 291 (1864)
Distribution: Peru; Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija); Argentina (Jujuy, Salta)
83 BOL PER 85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola microcentra W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 73 (1921)
Distribution: Japan (Kyushu)
38 JAP
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola microphylla Phil.; Linnaea 28: 611 (1856)
Distribution: Argentina (Mendoza); Chile (Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arbuscula Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 491 (1893)
= Viola microphylla f. fimbriata Speg.; Revista Fac. Agron. Univ. Nac. La Plata 3: 495 (1897)
= Viola microphylla f. macropoda Speg.; Revista Fac. Agron. Univ. Nac. La Plata 3: 495 (1897)
= Viola microphylla f. micropoda Speg.; Revista Fac. Agron. Univ. Nac. La Plata 3: 495 (1897)
= Viola philippii Leyb.; Anales Univ. Chile 1859: 681 (1859), nom. superfl.
= Viola philippii var. arbuscula (Phil.) Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 909 (1895)
species :
Viola minuscula Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 247 (1906)
Distribution: E-Canada; NE-USA (New York, etc.)
72 CDN 75 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae. Not a synonym of V. macloskeyi fide Marcussen et al. 2022
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola pallens f. alba L.R.Perkins; Rhodora 11: 164 (1909)
= Viola pallens var. subreptans J.Rousseau; Naturaliste Canad. 65: 306 (1938)
species :
Viola minuta M.Bieb.; Fl. Taur. Caucasus 1: 173 (1808)
Distribution: Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Azerbaijan
33 AZE GEO NCS
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola meyeriana (Rupr.) Klokov; Fl. URSS 15: 479, t. 22, f. 3 (1949)
= Viola minuta subsp. dagestanica (Rupr.) Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 224 (1998)
= Viola minuta subsp. meyeriana (Rupr.) Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 225 (1998)
= Viola minuta var. dagestanica Rupr.; Mem. Acad. Sci. Petersb. (Sci. Phys. Math.), ser. 7, 15 2: 157 (1869)
= Viola minuta var. meyeriana Rupr.; Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint Pétersbourg, Sér. 7, 15(2): 157 (1869)
species :
Viola minutiflora Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 493 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Biobío, Araucanía)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola mirabilis L.; Sp. Pl. 936 (1753)
Name: Wunder-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Finland; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hessen [I], Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein [I], Saarland, +Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; NE-Spain (Pyrenees); France; Italy; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Belarus; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; N-European Russia; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Siberia (Altai, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, W-Siberia); Russian Far East (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye); Kazakhstan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; China (Gansu, ?Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol); Mongolia; North Korea; Japan (Honshu)
10 DEN FIN NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX POL SLO SWI 12 FRA SPA 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO ITA KOS MNT ROM SLV SRB 14 BLR EST KRY LAT LIT MLD RUS UKR 30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ 33 GEO NCS 36 CHI 37 MON 38 JAP NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola apetala Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 2: 124 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Viola brachysepala Maxim.; Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 9: 50 (1859)
= Viola improvisa Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 35: 135 (2003)
= Viola mirabilis lusus brachysepala (Maxim.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 485 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis lusus glabra Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 488 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis lusus hispidula Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 489 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis lusus subglabra (Ledeb.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 484 (1862)
= Viola mirabilis f. latisepala W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 236 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis f. seiichii E.Hama; J. Jap. Bot., 51(11): 339 (1976)
= Viola mirabilis f. strigosa W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 236 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis subsp. brachysepala (Maxim.) Vorosch.; A. K. Skvortsov (ed.), Florist. issl. v razn. raionakh SSSR: 182 (1985)
= Viola mirabilis subsp. subglabra (Ledeb.) Zuev; Fl. Sibir. (Geraniac.-Cornac.) 10: 87 (1996)
= Viola mirabilis var. apetala (F.W.Schmidt) Pohl; 231 (1809)
= Viola mirabilis var. brachysepala (Maxim.) Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 4: 450 (1861)
= Viola mirabilis var. brevicalcarata Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 33: 9 (1919)
= Viola mirabilis var. glaberrima W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 237 (1916)
= Viola mirabilis var. kusnetzoffii Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 4: 450 (1861)
= Viola mirabilis var. platysepala Kitag.; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48(566): 103 (1934)
= Viola mirabilis var. strigosa (W.Becker) Espeut; Botanica Pacifica 9(1): 17 (2020)
= Viola mirabilis var. subglabra Ledeb.; Fl. Ross. 1: 251 (1842)
= Viola subglabra (Ledeb.) Baikov ex A.V.Grebenjuk & Chepinoga; Konspekt Fl. Irkutsk. Obl. 182 (2008)
species :
Viola missouriensis Greene; Pittonia 4: 141 (1900)
Name: Missouri violet
Distribution: USA (Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin)
74 USA 75 USA 77 USA 78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola candidula Nieuwl.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 85, pl. 2, 3 (1913)
= Viola illinoensis Greene; Pittonia 4: 293 (1901)
= Viola lucidifolia Newbro; Stud. Nat. Hist. Iowa Univ. 17: 56, pl. 4, fig. 3
= Viola sororia var. missouriensis (Greene) L.E.McKinney; Sida, Bot. Misc. 7: 42 (1992)
species :
Viola modesta Fenzl; Pug. Pl. Nov. Syr. 12 no. 39 (1842)
Distribution: Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Armenia; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia: Mesopotamian Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq); Iran (Iranian Aserbaijan); Iran (S-Iran, W-Iran); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon); Syria (coastal W-Syria, NW-Syria, W-Syrian Mountains); Israel (Rift Valley, N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania)
32 TKM UZB 33 ARM 34 IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB SYR TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola ebracteolata Fenzl; Ill. Descr. Pl. Nov. Syr. Tauri: 49 (1843)
= Viola modestula Klokov; Fl. URSS 15: 687, t. 22, ff. 6, 7 (1949)
= Viola septempunctata Siehe ex Bornm.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 89: 90 (1936), pro syn.
species :
Viola monacanora J.L.Hastings & H.E.Ballard; J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 150(1): 137 (2023)
Distribution: USA (North Carolina, Virginia)
78 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola mongolica Franch.; Pl. David. 1: 42 (1884)
Distribution: China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi); South Korea
36 CHI 38 KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dolichoceras C.J.Wang; Acta Bot. Yunnan. 13: 258 (1991)
= Viola hebeiensis J.W.Wang & T.G.Ma; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 130 (1988)
= Viola liaosiensis P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng; Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or. 6: 292 (1977)
= Viola mongolica f. longisepala P.Y.Fu & Y.C.Teng; Fl. Plant. Herb. Chinae bor.-or. 6: 292 (1977)
= Viola yamatsutae Ishid.; J. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. 8: 18 (1929)
= Viola yezoensis var. hebeiensis (J.W.Wang & T.G.Ma) J.W.Wang & J.Yang; Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27(3): 202 (1989) ("hopeiensis")
species :
Viola montagnei Gay; Fl. Chil. 1: 222 (1846)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, San Juan); Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule)
85 ARG CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola bicolor Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 90: 899 (1895), nom. illeg.
= Viola cano-barbata Leyb.; Flora 49: 285 (1866)
= Viola cano-barbata var. albiflora W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 360 (1925)
= Viola flos-mariae Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Republ. Argent. 4: 8 (1881)
= Viola flos-mariae var. nivea Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Republ. Argent. 4: 10 (1881)
= Viola flos-mariae var. virescens Hieron.; Bol. Acad. Nac. Ci. Republ. Argent. 4: 10 (1881)
= Viola karlreicheana Sanso, M.Seo & Xifreda; Darwiniana 45(2): 241 (2007), nom. nov.
= Viola montagnei var. glandulosa Phil.; Linnaea 33: 15 (1864)
species :
Viola montcaunica Pau; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 23 (Act.): 129 (1895)
Distribution: N- & C-Spain
12 SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola cornuta subsp. montcaunica (Pau) Rivas Mart.; An. Inst. Bot. A. J. Cavanilles 36: 307 (1979 publ. 1980)
= Viola cornuta var. montcaunica (Pau) Malag.; Sin. Fl. Ibér. 48: 751 (1976)
species :
Viola moupinensis Franch.; Bull. Soc. Bot. France 33: 412 (1886)
Distribution: China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Tibet; Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal); Myanmar
36 CHI TIB 40 BHU IND NEP 41 MYA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola mairei H.Lév.; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 343 (1914)
= Viola moupinensis var. lijiangensis C.J.Wang; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 8(2): 20-21 (1988)
= Viola palustris var. moupinensis (Franch.) Franch.; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 8: 202 (1885)
= Viola paravaginata H.Hara; J. Jap. B. 43: 47 (1968)
= Viola rosthornii E.Pritz. ex Diels; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(3-4): 477 (1900)
= Viola vaginata subsp. alata W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 34(2): 253 (1916)
= Viola vaginata var. sutchuensis Franch. ex H.Boissieu; Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 1(11): 1078 (1901)
species :
Viola mucronulifera Hand.-Mazz.; Sinensia 2(1): 4-5 (1931)
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. Australasiaticae
species :
Viola muehldorfii Kiss; Bot. Közlem. 19: 92 (1921)
Distribution: Russian Far East (Amur, Primorye); China (Heilongjiang); North Korea
31 RFE 36 CHI 38 NKO
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lasiostipes Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36(423): 32 (1922)
species :
Viola muliensis Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 149(3): 365 (2005)
Distribution: China (Sichuan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola multifida Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; Syst. Veg. 5: 352 (1819)
Distribution: Siberia (Altai, Buryatia, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, W-Siberia, Yakutia); Russian Far East (Amur, Primorye); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; China (Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, ?Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, N-Sichuan, ?Zhejiang); ?Tibet; Mongolia; South Korea
30 SIB 31 RFE 32 KAZ KGZ 36 CHI 37 MON 38 KOR
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola dissecta f. pubescens (Regel) Kitag.; J. Jap. Bot. 34(1): 7 (1959)
= Viola dissecta f. viridis Y.N.Lee; Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 5 (2006)
= Viola dissecta Ledeb.; Fl. Altaic. 1: 255 (1829)
= Viola dissecta var. pubescens (Regel) Kitag.; Rep. Exped. Manchoukuo Sect. IV 2: 296 (1938)
= Viola milanae Vl.V.Nikitin; Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 38: 191 (2006)
= Viola pinnata lusus glabra Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 467 (1862)
= Viola pinnata lusus hirta Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 466 (1862)
= Viola pinnata lusus pubescens Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 467 (1862)
= Viola pinnata subsp. multifida (Regel) W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. angustisecta W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. dissecta (Ledeb.) Turcz.; Fl. Baic. Dahur. 1: 178 (1842)
= Viola pinnata var. latisecta W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 439 (1922)
= Viola pinnata var. multifida Regel; Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 34(II): 466 (1862)
= Viola pinnata var. sibirica Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 293 (1824)
= Viola ×lii Kitag.; J. Jap. Bot. 19: 110 (1943)
species :
Viola munbyana Boiss. & Reut.; Pugill. Pl. Afr. Bor. Hispan.: 15 (1852)
Distribution: NW-Sicily; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia
13 SIC 20 ALG MOR TUN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola battandieri W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 18(2): 366 (1905)
= Viola fontanesii Coss. ex Batt.; Fl. Alger., Suppl. Phanerog. 20 (1910)
= Viola gracilis var. munbyana (Boiss. & Reut.) Batt.; Batt. & Trab., Fl. Algérie, Dicot.: 104 (1888)
= Viola munbyana var. battandieri (W.Becker) Batt.; Fl. Algèrie, Suppl. Phan. [Batt.]: 20 (1910)
= Viola munbyana var. kabylica Batt.; Fl. Algérie, Suppl. Phan.: 20 (1910)
= Viola munbyana var. rifana Emb. & Maire; Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 17: 38 (1927)
= Viola villarii Sennen & Mauricio; Diagn. Nouv. Pl. Espagne & Maroc: 227 "1936" (1951)
species :
Viola nagasawae Makino & Hayata; J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 22: 30 (1906)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola acutilabella Hayata; Icon. Pl. Formosan. 10: 1 (1921)
= Viola diffusa var. nagasawai (Makino & Hayata) S.S.Ying; Coloured Ill. Fl. Taiwan 4: 29 (1992)
= Viola nagasawae var. acutilabella (Hayata) Nakai; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 36: 87 (1922)
= Viola shaoyoukengensis S.S.Ying; New Taxa New Names 2: 65 (2022)
species :
Viola nana (DC. ex Ging.) Le Jol.; Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 7: 267 (1860)
Distribution: England; ?Germany; ?Switzerland; Spain; France; Channel Isl.
10 GRB 12 CIS FRA SPA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arvensis var. nana (DC. ex Ging.) Besnou; Fl. Manche: 45 (1881)
= Viola kitaibeliana var. nana (DC. ex Ging.) P.D.Sell; Fl. Gr. Brit. Ireland 1: 692 (2018)
= Viola nana (DC. ex Ging.) Godr.; Mém. Soc. Natl. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 19: 166 (1875), isonym
= Viola tricolor var. nana DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 304 (1824)
species :
Viola nanlingensis J.S.Zhou & F.W.Xing; Ann. Bot. Fenn. 45(3): 233 (2008)
Distribution: China (Guangdong)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 1 Diffusae
species :
Viola nannae R.E.Fr.; Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 10 (1925)
Distribution: Kenya (mountains)
25 KEN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 17 Abyssinium
species :
Viola nannei Pol.; Linnaea 41: 547 (1877)
Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz); Costa Rica; Panama
79 MEX 80 COS PAN
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 4 Mexicanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola chiapasiensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 5 (1924)
= Viola nannei var. glaberrima W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 20: 5 (1924)
species :
Viola nassauvioides Phil.; Anales Univ. Chile 81: 346 (1893)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 1 Confertae
species :
Viola nebrodensis C.Presl; J. & C. Presl, Del. Prag. 26 (1822)
Name: Madonie-Veilchen
Distribution: N-Sicily (Le Madonie)
13 SIC
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola nephrophylla Greene; Pittonia 3: 144 (1896)
Name: Northern bog violet
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); USA (Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming); Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Sonora)
70 CDN 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola arizonica Greene; Pittonia 5: 33 (1902)
= Viola austinae Greene; Pittonia 5: 30 (1902)
= Viola cognata Greene; Pittonia 3: 145 (1896)
= Viola cucullata f. prionosepala (Greene) Brainerd; Rhodora 15: 112 (1913)
= Viola galacifolia Greene; Pittonia 5: 30 (1902)
= Viola lunellii Greene; Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 2: 95 (1910)
= Viola mccabeiana M.S.Baker; Madrono 5: 226 (1940)
= Viola nepetifolia Greene; Pittonia 5: 92 (1902)
= Viola nephrophylla f. albinea Farw.; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 64 (1928)
= Viola nephrophylla f. bicolor B.Boivin; Naturaliste Canad. 87: 49 (1960)
= Viola nephrophylla var. arizonica (Greene) Kearney & Peebles; J. Washington Acad. Sci. 29: 487 (1939)
= Viola nephrophylla var. cognata (Greene) C.L.Hitchc.; Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N. W. [C. L. Hitchcock & al.] 3: 445 (1961)
= Viola peramoena Greene; Pittonia 5: 94 (1902)
= Viola subjuncta Greene; Pittonia 5: 31 (1902)
= Viola vagula Greene; Pittonia 4: 67 (1899)
species :
Viola niederleinii W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 184 (1922)
Distribution: Argentina (La Rioja)
85 ARG
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 7 Rosulatae
species :
Viola nitida Y.S.Chen & Q.E.Yang; Bot. J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 159(2): 350 (2009)
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola nobilis W.Becker; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37: 590 (1906)
Distribution: Peru
83 PER
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola novae-angliae House; Rhodora 6: 226 (1904)
Name: New England blue violet
Distribution: Canada (New Brunswick); USA (Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont)
72 CDN 75 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola sororia var. novae-angliae (House) L.E.McKinney; Sida, Bot. Misc. 7: 44 (1992)
species :
Viola nubigena Leyb.; Flora 47: 40 (1864)
Distribution: Chile (Metropolitana de Santiago)
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 9 Subandinium
species :
Viola nuda W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26(703-708): 26 (1929)
Distribution: China (W-Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
species :
Viola nuevoleonensis W.Becker; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 125 (1922)
Distribution: Mexico
79 MEX
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 1 Borealiamericanae
species :
Viola nujiangensis Y.S.Chen & X.H.Jin; Phytotaxa 230(2): 193 (2015)
Distribution: China (Yunnan)
36 CHI
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 2 Patellares
species :
Viola nummulariifolia Vill.; Prosp. Pl. Dauph. 26 (1779)
Name: Pfennigblättriges Veilchen
Distribution: SE-France; Corsica; NW-Italy
12 COR FRA 13 ITA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 3 Pseudorupestres
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola argenteria Moraldo & Forneris; Allionia 28: 51, 52 (1987-88 publ. 1988), nom. nov.
= Viola nummularia Vuk.; Rad Jugos. Akad. Zagreb. 66: 16 (1883)
= Viola nummulariifolia All.; Fl. Pedem. 2: 98, t. 9, f. 4. (1785), isonym
species :
Viola nuttallii Pursh; Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 174 (1813)
Name: Nuttall´s violet
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan); USA (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Wyoming)
71 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
Synonyms: hidden
= Crocion nuttallii (Pursh) Nieuwl. & Lunell; Am. Midl. Nat 4: 478 (1916)
species :
Viola oahuensis C.N.Forbes; Occas. Papers Bishop Mus. Honolulu 4: 216 (1909)
Distribution: Hawaii (Oahu)
63 HAW
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 7 Nosphimium, subsect. 5 Nosphimium
Conservation Status: 1999 Conservation Status: Endangered, USA Status: Endangered
species :
Viola obituaria J.M.Watson & A.R.Flores; Int. Rock Gard. 145: 22, 19-21, 35-38, 40, 42, 44-46 (2022)
Distribution: Chile
85 CLE
Remarks: Subgen. 1 Neoandinium, sect. 8 Sempervivum
species :
Viola obtusa (Makino) Makino; Bot. Mag. Tokyo 26: 151 (1912)
Distribution: South Korea; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu)
38 JAP KOR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 2 Rostratae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola grypoceras var. odorifera W.Becker; Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 40(2): 41 (1923)
= Viola obtusa f. alba Sugim.; J. Geobot. 16: 50 (1968)
= Viola obtusa f. chibae (Makino) Hiyama ex F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 210 (1954)
= Viola obtusa f. hemileuca Sugim.; Keys Herb. Pl. Jap. 1(Dicot.): 735 (1965)
= Viola obtusa f. nuda (Ohwi) F.Maek.; H. Hara, Enum. Spermatophytarum Japon. 3: 210 (1954)
= Viola obtusa var. chibae Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 152 (1912)
= Viola obtusa var. nuda Ohwi; Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 33: 80 (1953)
= Viola odorifera Makino; Bot. Mag., Tokyo 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola ovato-oblonga var. obtusa Makino; Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 151 (1912)
= Viola sylvestris f. obtusa Miq.; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 154 (1865)
variant :
var. tsuifengensis Hashim.; Ann. Tsukuba Bot. Gard. 6: 3 (1987)
Distribution: Taiwan
38 TAI
species :
Viola occidentalis (A.Gray) Howell; Fl. N. W. Amer. 1: 69 (1897)
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 9 Plagiostigma, subsect. 5 Stolonosae
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola lanceolata subsp. occidentalis (A.Gray) N.H.Russell; Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 485 (1955)
= Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis (A.Gray) L.E.McKinney & R.J.Little; Phytologia 72(2): 79 (1992)
= Viola primulifolia var. occidentalis A.Gray; Bot. Gaz. 11: 255 (1886)
species :
Viola occulta Lehm.; Ind. Sem. Horti Bot. Hamb. 1829 (1829)
Distribution: European Russia; Crimea; Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan (incl. Nachichevan); Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iran (EC-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran); Afghanistan (Baghlan, Laghman, Parwan); Lebanon (C-Lebanon); Israel (N-Israel)
14 KRY RUS 32 KAZ KGZ TKM TZK UZB 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 AFG IRN ISR LEB TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. 1 Ebracteatae
Synonyms: hidden
= Ion occultum (Lehm.) Nevski; Acta Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. URSS, Ser. 1, Fasc. 4, 217 (1937)
= Viola appendiculata (DC. ex Ging.) W.Becker; Mitth. Thüring. Bot. Vereins, n.f., 19: 40 (1904)
= Viola tricolor var. appendiculata DC. ex Ging.; A. DC., Prodr. 1: 303 (1824)
species :
Viola ocellata Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Am. 1: 142 (1838)
Name: Pinto violet, Western heart´s ease violet, Southern two-eye violet
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon)
73 USA 76 USA
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 6 Chamaemelanium
species :
Viola odontocalycina Boiss.; Fl. Orient. 1: 461 (1867)
Distribution: Turkey (N-Anatolia)
34 TUR
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 10 Melanium, subsect. Bracteolatae
species :
Viola odorata L.; Sp. Pl. 934 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. odorata
Name: Wohlriechendes Veilchen, März-Veilchen (DE)
Distribution: England; Ireland; Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Germany (Brandenburg, Berlin, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Hessen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Schleswig-Holstein, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen); Switzerland; Liechtenstein; Austria; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; Hungary; Portugal [I]; Spain [I]; Andorra [I]; France; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica; Sardinia; Italy; Sicily; Malta; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bosnia & Hercegovina; Montenegro; Serbia; Kosovo; North Macedonia; Albania; Romania; Bulgaria; European Turkey; Greece; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; Belarus [I]; C-European Russia; E-European Russia; W-European Russia; Moldova; Ukraine; Crimea; Morocco; Algeria; Tunisia; Azores (Sao Miguel Isl., Sao Jorge, Faial, Flores Isl.); Madeira (Madeira Isl.); Kazakhstan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Northern Caucasus; Georgia [Caucasus]; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Turkey (Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia, SSW-Anatolia, W-Anatolia); Iraq (NE-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia); Iran (NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran); Cyprus (C-Mountains); Lebanon (Antilebanon, C-Lebanon, coastal W-Lebanon); Israel (N-Israel); Jordania (W-Jordania); China [I]; Japan [I]; Taiwan [I]; Pakistan [I]; India [I]; Myanmar [I]; Vietnam [I]; Java [I]; Australia [I] (South Australia [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); New Zealand [I]; Chatham Isl. [I]; Fiji [I]; Hawaii [I] (Hawaii Isl. [I]); Canada [I] (British Columbia [I], Newfoundland [I], Nova Scotia [I], Ontario [I]); USA [I] (Arizona [I], California [I], Colorado [I], Connecticut [I], Georgia [I], Idaho [I], Illinois [I], Louisiana [I], Massachusetts [I], Maryland [I], Maine [I], Michigan [I], Montana [I], North Carolina [I], New Jersey [I], New York [I], Ohio [I], Oklahoma [I], Oregon [I], Pennsylvania [I], Rhode Island [I], Tennessee [I], Utah [I], Virginia [I], Washington State [I], Wisconsin [I]); Mexico [I]; Honduras [I]; Costa Rica [I]; Panama [I]; Dominican Republic [I]; Haiti [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Trinidad & Tobago [I]; Colombia [I]; Venezuela [I]; Ecuador [I]; Peru [I]; Bolivia [I]; Argentina [I]; Chile [I] (Valparaíso [I], O´Higgins [I], Biobío [I])
10 DEN GRB IRE NOR SWE 11 AUT BGM CZE GER HUN LIE LUX NET POL SLO SWI 12 ado cis COR FRA por SAR spa 13 ALB BIH BUL CRO GRC ITA KOS MLT MNT NMA ROM SIC SLV SMA SRB TUE 14 blr est KRY lat lit MLD RUS UKR 20 ALG MOR TUN 21 AZO MDR 32 kaz tzk uzb 33 ARM AZE GEO NCS 34 CYP IRN IRQ ISR JOR LEB TUR 36 chi 38 jap tai 40 ind pak 41 mya vie 42 jaw 50 aus 51 ctm nzl 60 fij 63 haw 71 cdn 72 cdn 73 usa 74 usa 75 usa 76 usa 78 usa 79 mex 80 cos hon pan 81 his pue trt 82 clm ven 83 bol ecu per 85 arg cle
Remarks: Subgen. 2 Viola, sect. 8 Viola, subsect. 1 Viola
Synonyms: hidden
= Viola alba var. stevenii (Besser) W.D.J.Koch; 62 (1843)
= Viola alba var. vinealis (Boreau) Rouy & Foucaud; Fl. France 3: 29 (1896)
= Viola bruneauniana