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Ver. 19.2
April 1st, 2024

512.0000 Family Asteraceae Dumort.; Comment. Bot. 55 (1822)
1620 genera, ca. 29.000 spp. (35.000 spp. incl. microspecies). Systematics taken mostly from Funk et al. (2009, 2020) and other recent publications
Species listed in database: 35237; hybrids: 679
= Acarnaceae Link; (1829)
= Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820), nom. cons.
= Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Aposeridaceae Raf.; New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106 (1838)
= Arctotaceae Bessey; Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107 (1914)
= Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Artemisiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48 (1820)
= Athanasiaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56 (1820)
= Calendulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Carduaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Carlinaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Centaureaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Cichoriaceae Juss.; Gen. Pl.: 168 (1789), nom. cons.
= Cnicaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297 (1818)
= Compositae Giseke; Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538 (1792), nom. cons.
= Coreopsidaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 768 (1829)
= Cynaraceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 926, 931, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Echinopaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 255 (1820)
= Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 253 (1820)
= Gnaphaliaceae Link ex F.Rudolphi; Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46 (1830)
= Grindeliaceae Rchb. ex A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 330 (1907)
= Heleniaceae Raf.; Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 2: 28 (1824)
= Helianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Helichrysaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 712 (1829)
= Inulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Ivaceae Raf.; Fl. Tellur. 1: 31 (1837)
= Lactucaceae Drude; J. A. Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 369 (1886)
= Lapsanaceae Martinov; (1820)
= Madiaceae A.Heller; Muhlenbergia 2: 332 (1907)
= Matricariaceae Voigt; Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 400 (1845)
= Mutisiaceae Burnett; Outlines Bot.: 934, 935, 1094, 1111 (1835)
= Nassauviaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 290 (1836)
= Partheniaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 816 (1829)
= Perdiciaceae Link; Handbuch 1: 728 (1829)
= Picridaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 482 (1820)
= Santolinaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 560 (1820)
= Senecionaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Serratulaceae Martinov; Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577 (1820)
= Tanacetaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Tussilagaceae Bercht. & J.Presl; Prir. Rostlin: 254 (1820)
= Vernoniaceae Burmeist.; Handb. Naturgesch.: 296 (1836)
= Xanthiaceae Vest; Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298 (1818)
= Xeranthemaceae Döll; Rhein. Fl.: 498 (1843)
512.9419 Genus Xanthium L.; Sp. Pl. 2: 987 (1753)
Distribution: New World (4), Old World (1), nowadays almost all nearly cosmopolitan. Species delimitation highly disputed. Here the genus is arranged according to the latest molecular analysis by Tomasello (2018).
Species listed in database: 5
= Acanthoxanthium Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, sér. 2, 17: 110 (1869)
= Strumarium Raf.; Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 6: 89 (1820), nom. nud.
= Xeranthium Lepech.; Tagebuch Reise Russ. 1: 240 (1774)
species :
Xanthium ambrosioides Hook. & Arn.; J. Bot. (Hooker) 3: 310 (1841)
Name: Ambrosia-Spitzklette (DE)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Australia [I] (+New South Wales [I]); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cordoba, La Pampa, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, San Luis)
11 ger 50 aus 85 ARG
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium spinosum var. ambrosioides (Hook. & Arn.) Löve & Dans.
= Acanthoxanthium ambrosioides (Hook. & Arn.) D.Löve; Lagascalia 5(1): 66 (1975)
species :
Xanthium occidentale Bertol.; Lucubr. Re Herb. 38 (1822)
Name: Stechende Spitzklette (DE); Stinging Cocklebur (EN)
Distribution: Germany [I]; Austria [I]; France [I]; Greece [I]; S-European Russia [I]; Moldova [I]; Ukraine [I]; Crimea [I]; Egypt [I]; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; Azerbaijan [I] (incl. Nachichevan [I]); East Aegaean Isl. [I] (incl. Rhodos [I]); India [I]; SE-USA; Caribbean region
11 aut ger 12 fra 13 grc 14 kry mld rus ukr 20 egy 33 aze geo 34 eai 40 ind 78 USA
Remarks: native in SE-USA and Caribbean. Often treated under the name X. chinense Mill., which is invalid (no type)
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium arcuatum Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 4: 4 (1918)
= Xanthium chasei Fernald; Rhodora 48: 66 (1946)
= Xanthium chinense Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. VIII. n. 4 (1768), nom. inval. (without type)
= Xanthium cylindricum Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 4: 4, pl. 3, 5 (1918)
= Xanthium decalvatum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 72 (1923)
= Xanthium echinellum Greene ex Rydb.; Man. S. E. Fl. [Small] 1302 (-1303) (1933)
= Xanthium globosum C.Shull; Bot. Gaz. 59: 482 (1915), nom. provis.
= Xanthium inflexum Mack. & Bush; Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard., 106 (1905)
= Xanthium macrocarpum var. glabratum DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 5: 523 (1836)
= Xanthium pungens Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 231 (1842)
= Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum (DC.) Cronquist; Rhodora 47: 403 (1945)
species :
Xanthium orientale L.; Sp. Pl. ed. II. 1400 (1763)
Name: Großfrüchtige Spitzklette, Orient-Spitzklette (DE)
Distribution: England [I]; Northern Ireland [I]; Ireland [I]; Netherlands [I]; Belgium [I]; Luxembourg [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Austria [I]; Poland [I]; Czech Republic [I]; Slovakia [I]; Hungary [I]; Portugal [I]; Spain [I]; Gibraltar [I]; Baleares [I] (Menorca [I]); France [I]; Monaco [I]; Corsica [I]; Sardinia [I]; Italy [I]; Sicily [I]; Malta [I]; Slovenia [I]; Croatia [I]; Bosnia & Hercegovina [I]; Montenegro [I]; Serbia; Kosovo [I]; North Macedonia [I]; Albania [I]; Romania [I]; Bulgaria [I]; European Turkey [I]; Greece [I]; Crete [I]; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; Belarus [I]; European Russia [I]; W-European Russia [I] (Kaliningrad region [I]); Moldova [I]; Ukraine [I]; Crimea [I]; Morocco [I]; Algeria [I]; Tunisia [I]; Libya [I]; Egypt [I] (Desert Oases [I], Nile Delta [I], Nile Valley [I], NW-coastal Egypt [I]); Azores [I] (Faial [I], Flores Isl. [I], Graciosa [I], Sao Miguel [I], Sta. Maria [I], Terceira [I]); Madeira [I] (Madeira Isl. [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Fuerteventura [I], Gran Canaria [I], Tenerife [I]); Benin [I]; Chad [I]; Sudan [I]; Ethiopia [I]; Eritrea [I]; Zambia [I]; Zimbabwe [I]; Mozambique [I]; Namibia [I]; Botswana [I]; South Africa [I] (widespread); Lesotho [I]; Eswatini [Swaziland] [I]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Rodrigues [I]; Siberia [I] (Altai [I], Chita [I], Krasnoyarsk [I], W-Siberia [I]); Russian Far East [I] (Amur [I], Khabarovsk [I], Kuril Isl. [I], Primorye [I], Sakhalin [I]); Kazakhstan [I]; Turkmenistan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan [I]; Northern Caucasus [I]; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; Armenia [I]; Azerbaijan [I] (incl. Nachichevan [I]); East Aegaean Isl. [I]; Turkey [I] (E-Anatolia [I], Inner Anatolia [I], N-Anatolia [I], NW-Anatolia: Bithynia [I], S-Anatolia [I], SE-Anatolia [I], SSW-Anatolia [I], W-Anatolia [I]); Iraq [I] (NW-Iraq [I], SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia [I], S-Iraq [I]); Iran [I] (NE-Iran: Mts. [I], N-Iran [I], Iranian Aserbaijan [I], W-Iran [I]); Cyprus [I] (C-Mountains [I], N-Cyprus [I], S-Cyprus [I]); Lebanon [I] (Antilebanon [I], C-Lebanon [I], coastal W-Lebanon [I]); Syria [I] (C-Syrian Desert [I]); Israel [I] (C-Israel [I], coastal W-Israel [I], Rift Valley [I], N-Israel [I]); Sinai peninsula [I] (N-Sinai [I], S-Sinai [I]); Saudi Arabia [I] (S-Saudi Arabia: Rub to Khali [I], Asir [I]); Yemen [I] (Aden Desert [I]); Mongolia [I]; Pakistan [I] (Sind [I], Karachi [I], Baluchistan [I], N. W. Frontier Prov. [I], Pakistani Punjab [I], Chitral [I], Swat [I], Hazara [I], Astor [I], Gilgit [I], Baltistan [I]); Nepal [I]; Bhutan [I]; India [I] (throughout [I]); Sri Lanka [I]; Bangladesh [I]; Andaman Isl. [I] (North Andamans [I], Middle Andamans [I], South Andamans [I], Little Andaman Isl. [I]); Thailand [I]; Laos [I]; Vietnam [I]; peninsular Malaysia [I]; Singapore [I]; Philippines [I]; Java [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Northern Territory [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I]); Fiji [I]; Society Isl. [I] (Tahiti [I], Raiatea [I]); Hawaii [I] (Midway Isl. [I], Kauai [I], Oahu [I], Molokai [I], Lanai [I], Maui [I], Kahoolawe Isl. [I], Hawaii Isl. [I]); Alaska; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Québec, Saskatchewan); USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming); Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Ciudad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas); Bahamas [I]; Cuba [I]; Hispaniola [I]; Puerto Rico [I]; Virgin Isl. [I] (St. Croix [I], St. Thomas [I], Tortola [I]); Anguilla [I]; Nevis [I]; Antigua [I]; Dominica [I]; Martinique [I]; Colombia (Antioquia, Cesar, Norte de Santander, Santander); Venezuela (Aragua, Venezuela Distrito Federal, Miranda, Tachira); Peru; Bolivia; N-Brazil (Amazonas); SE-Brazil (São Paulo); S-Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul); Paraguay; Paraguay; Uruguay; Argentina ( Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Cordoba, La Pampa, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, San Luis); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, La Pampa, Mendoza, Misiones, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan)
10 grb ire 11 aut bgm cze ger hun lux net pol slo swi 12 bal cor fra gib mco por sar spa 13 alb bih bul cro grc ita kos kri mlt mnt nma rom sic slv SRB tue 14 blr est kry lat lit mld rus ukr 20 alg egy lby mor tun 21 azo cny mdr 22 ben 24 cha eri eth sud 26 moz zam zim 27 bot les nam saf swz 29 mau reu rod 30 sib 31 rfe 32 kaz KGZ tkm tzk uzb 33 arm aze geo ncs 34 cyp eai irn irq isr leb sin syr tur 35 sau yem 37 mon 40 ban bhu ind nep pak srl 41 and lao tha vie 42 jaw mly phi sng 50 aus 60 fij 61 sci 63 haw 70 ASK 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX 81 aba agu bah cub dom his mar pue stk vir 82 CLM VEN 83 BOL PER 84 BRA 85 ARG PAR URU
Remarks: native in the New World. The typical variety is quite rare in the Old World, therefore many distribution data and synonyms belong to the varieties. Those are not always recognized, but sometimes elevated to full species rank.
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium acerosum Greene; Pittonia 4: 63 (1899)
= Xanthium acutilobum Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 6 (1918)
= Xanthium acutum Greene; Pittonia 4: 62 (1899)
= Xanthium affine Greene; Pittonia 4: 60 (1899)
= Xanthium americanum Walter; Fl. Carol. 231 (1788)
= Xanthium aridum H.St.John; NorthW. Sci. 2(3): 93 (1928)
= Xanthium australe Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 37 (1918)
= Xanthium barcinonense Sennen; Bull. Géogr. Bot. 24: 224 (1914), et Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 15: 98 (1916)
= Xanthium brevirostre Hochst. ex A.Rich.; Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 405 (1848), nom. illeg.
= Xanthium brevirostre Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 235 (1842)
= Xanthium bubalocarpon Bush; Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 123 (1906)
= Xanthium californicum Greene; Pittonia 4: 62 (1899)
= Xanthium californicum var. oligacanthum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 113 (1923)
= Xanthium calvum Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 35 (1919)
= Xanthium campestre Greene; Pittonia 4: 61 (1899)
= Xanthium canadense Mill.; Gard. Dict. ed. 8.: no. 2 (1768)
= Xanthium canadense var. echinatum (Murray) A.Gray; Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2): 252 (1884)
= Xanthium canadense var. globuliforme Crevecoeur ex C.Shull; Amer. J. Bot. 4: 42 (1917)
= Xanthium canadense var. palustre (Greene) Jeps.; Man. Fl. Pl. Calif.: 1110 (1925)
= Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw; Ind. Sem. Hort. Haun. (1849) 14. Cf. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. III. 12: 357 (1849)
= Xanthium cavanillesii var. cordobense Widder ex Parodi; Physis (Buenos Aires) 8: 475 (1927)
= Xanthium cenchroides Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 30 (1919)
= Xanthium chinense var. globuliforme C.Shull; Bot. Gaz. 83: 385 (1927)
= Xanthium commune Britton; Man. Fl. N. States: 912 (1901)
= Xanthium commune var. wootonii Cockerell; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16: 9 (1903)
= Xanthium cordifolium Stokes; Bot. Mat. Med. 4: 380 (1812)
= Xanthium crassifolium Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 5 (1918)
= Xanthium cuneatum Moench; Suppl. Meth.: 300 (1802)
= Xanthium curvescens Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, Bot. Ser. 4: 25 (1919)
= Xanthium discolor Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 232 (1842)
= Xanthium echinatum Murray; Commentat. Soc. Regiae Sci. Gött. 6: 32 (1784)
= Xanthium echinatum var. cavanillesii (Schouw) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 17: 90 (1988)
= Xanthium fuscescens Jord. & Fourr.; Brev. Pl. Nov. 1: 36 (1866)
= Xanthium glabratum Britton; Man. Fl. N. States: 912 (1901)
= Xanthium glanduliferum Greene; Pittonia 4: 61 (1899)
= Xanthium hispanicum Sennen; Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 15: 99 (1916)
= Xanthium homothalamum Spreng.; Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 1: 259 (1820)
= Xanthium leptocarpum Millsp. & Sherff; Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 3 (1918)
= Xanthium longirostre Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 237 (1842)
= Xanthium macounii Britton; Man. Fl. N. States: 913 (1901)
= Xanthium maculatum Raf.; Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2: 344 (1818)
= Xanthium monoicum Gilib.; Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 170 (1782), opus utique oppr.
= Xanthium nigri Ces., Pass. & Gibelli; Comp. Fl. Italiana 2: 437 (1877)
= Xanthium oligacanthum Piper; Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 11: 551 (1906)
= Xanthium orientale subsp. californicum (Greene) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 245-250 (2003)
= Xanthium orientale var. macrocarpum Reiche; Anales Univ. Chile 112: 132 (1903)
= Xanthium oviforme Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 240 (1842)
= Xanthium palustre Greene; Pittonia 4: 63 (1899)
= Xanthium pensylvanicum var. laciniatum Sherff & C.Shull; Bot. Gaz. 92: 208 (1931)
= Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 236 (1842)
= Xanthium pungens var. denudatum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 69 (1923)
= Xanthium roxburghii Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 233 (1842)
= Xanthium silphiifolium Greene; Pittonia 4: 60 (1899)
= Xanthium speciosum Kearney; Bull. Torrey Bot Club, 574 (1897)
= Xanthium sphaerocephalum Salzm. ex Ball; J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 503 (1878)
= Xanthium strumarium f. purpurascens Priszter; Magyar Fl. Veg. 7: 58 (1985)
= Xanthium strumarium subsp. cavanillesii (Schouw ex Didr.) D.Löve & Dans.; Canad. J. Bot. 37: 205 (1959)
= Xanthium strumarium var. albertii Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 12: 53 (1910)
= Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A.Gray; Fl. N. Amer. (Torr. & A. Gray) 2(2): 294 (1842)
= Xanthium strumarium var. echinatum (Murray) A.Gray; Manual, ed. 2: 213 (1856)
= Xanthium strumarium var. fuscescens (Jord. & Fourr.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 12: 52 (1910)
= Xanthium strumarium var. revelierei (Jord. & Fourr.) Rouy; Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 12: 53 (1910)
= Xanthium strumarium var. wootonii (Cockerell) W.C.Martin & C.R.Hutchins; Fl. New Mexico 2: 2041 (1981), without basionym ref.
= Xanthium varians Greene; Pittonia 4: 59 (1901)
= Xanthium wootonii Cockerell ex de Vries; Species and Varieties, 140 (1905)
variant :
var. albinum (Widder) Adema & M.T.Jansen; Gorteria 9(9): 302 (1979)
Name: Elbe-Spitzklette (DE)
Distribution: Europe (fairly widespread); Germany [I]
11 ger
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium albinum (Widder) H.Scholz & Sukopp; Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 98-c: 47 (1960)
= Xanthium riparium var. albinum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 105 (1923)
variant :
var. italicum (Moretti) M.Hassl.; Fl. German. [M. Hassler & T. Muer] 1675 (2022)
Name: Italienische Spitzklette (DE)
Distribution: within the distribution range of the nominate variety; Germany [I]; Italy; San Marino [I]; S-Europe (fairly widespread)
11 ger 13 ITA sma
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium echinatum subsp. italicum (Moretti) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Collect. Bot., 17(1): 90 (1987 publ. (1988)
= Xanthium echinatum var. italicum (Moretti) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Collect. Bot., 17(1): 90 (1987 publ. (1988)
= Xanthium italicum Moretti; Brugnat. Giorn. Fis. Dec. II. 5: 326 (1822)
= Xanthium macrocarpum subsp. italicum (Moretti) Bonnier & Layens; Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France: 195 (1894)
= Xanthium macrocarpum var. italicum (Moretti) Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur.: 475 (1879)
= Xanthium orientale subsp. italicum (Moretti) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 245-250 (2003)
= Xanthium saccharatum subsp. italicum (Moretti) Hayek; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2): 613 (1931)
= Xanthium strumarium subsp. italicum (Moretti) D.Löve; Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 271 (1976)
variant :
var. riparium (Celak.) Adema & M.T.Jansen; Gorteria 9(9): 303 (1979)
Name: Ufer-Spitzklette (DE)
Distribution: within the distribution range of the nominate variety; Europe (fairly widespread); Germany [I]
11 ger
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium albinum subsp. riparium (Celak.) Widder & Wagenitz; Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur., ed. 2, 6(3): 275 (1968)
= Xanthium albinum subsp. ripicola (Holub) Dostál; Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 12 (1984)
= Xanthium italicum subsp. riparium Celak.; Prodr. Fl. Böhmen: 186 (1871)
= Xanthium italicum var. riparium (Celak.) Fiek; 216 (1881)
= Xanthium orientale subsp. riparium (Celak.) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 245-250 (2003)
= Xanthium riparium Itzigs. & Hertzsch; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 12: 34 (1854)
= Xanthium riparium Lasch; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 14: 412 (1856) (non Itzigs. & Hertsch 1854)
= Xanthium riparium var. macrocarpum Lasch; 413 (1856)
= Xanthium riparium var. major Lasch; 412 (1856)
= Xanthium riparium var. microcarpum Lasch; 412 (1856)
= Xanthium riparium var. minor Lasch; 412 (1856)
= Xanthium ripicola Holub; Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 11: 83 (1976)
= Xanthium strumarium subsp. riparium (Celak.) Widder & Wagenitz
variant :
var. saccharatum (Wallr.) M.Hassl.; Fl. German. [M. Hassler & T. Muer] 1675 (2022)
Name: Zucker-Spitzklette (DE)
Distribution: within the distribution range of the nominate variety; Europe (fairly widespread); Germany [I]
11 ger
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium orientale subsp. saccharatum (Wallr.) B.Bock; Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest 42: 274 (2011 publ. 2012)
= Xanthium saccharatum subsp. aciculare Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 286 (1925)
= Xanthium saccharatum subsp. commune Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 286 (1925)
= Xanthium saccharatum var. silphiifolium Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 93 (1923)
= Xanthium saccharatum var. speciosum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 93 (1923)
= Xanthium saccharatum var. wootonii Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 93 (1923)
= Xanthium saccharatum Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 238 (1842)
species :
Xanthium spinosum L.; Sp. Pl. 987 (1753)
subspecies :
subsp. spinosum
Name: Dornige Spitzklette (DE); Spiny cocklebur, clotbur (EN); lampourde épineuse (FR); Cachurrera menor (ES)
Distribution: England [I]; Denmark [I]; Netherlands [I]; Belgium [I]; Luxembourg [I]; Germany [I]; Switzerland [I]; Austria [I]; Poland [I]; Slovakia [I]; Hungary [I]; Portugal [I]; Spain [I]; Andorra [I]; Gibraltar [I]; Baleares [I] (Mallorca [I], Menorca [I]); France [I]; Channel Isl. [I]; Corsica [I]; Sardinia [I]; Italy [I]; Sicily [I]; Malta [I]; Slovenia [I]; Croatia [I]; Bosnia & Hercegovina [I]; Montenegro [I]; Serbia; Kosovo [I]; North Macedonia [I]; Albania [I]; Romania [I]; Bulgaria [I]; European Turkey [I]; Greece [I]; Crete [I]; Estonia [I]; Latvia [I]; Lithuania [I]; European Russia [I]; Moldova [I]; Ukraine [I]; Crimea [I]; Morocco [I]; Western Sahara [I]; Algeria [I]; Tunisia [I]; Libya [I]; Egypt [I] (Nile Delta [I], NW-coastal Egypt [I]); Azores [I] (Sao Miguel Isl. [I], Faial [I]); Canary Isl. [I] (Lanzarote [I], Fuerteventura [I], Gran Canaria [I], Tenerife [I]); Ethiopia [I]; Eritrea [I]; Zimbabwe [I]; Namibia [I]; Botswana [I]; South Africa [I] (widespread); Lesotho [I]; Mauritius [I]; La Réunion [I]; Rodrigues [I]; Russian Far East [I] (Primorye [I]); Kazakhstan [I]; Turkmenistan [I]; Uzbekistan [I]; Kyrgyzstan [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Northern Caucasus [I]; Northern Caucasus [I]; Georgia [Caucasus] [I]; Armenia [I]; Azerbaijan [I]; East Aegaean Isl. [I] (incl. Rhodos [I]); Turkey [I] (Central Anatolia [I], E-Anatolia [I], Inner Anatolia [I], N-Anatolia [I], NE-Anatolia [I], NW-Anatolia: Bithynia [I], W-Anatolia [I], WN-Anatolia [I]); Iran [I] (EC-Iran [I], NE-Iran: Mts. [I], N-Iran [I], Iranian Aserbaijan [I]); Afghanistan [I]; Cyprus [I] (E-Cyprus [I], S-Cyprus [I]); Lebanon [I] (C-Lebanon [I], coastal W-Lebanon [I]); Syria [I] (C-Syrian Desert [I], W-Syrian Mountains [I]); Israel [I] (coastal W-Israel [I], Rift Valley [I], N-Israel [I], N-Negev Desert [I]); Sinai peninsula [I] (N-Sinai [I]); Saudi Arabia [I] (N-Saudi Arabia [I], Asir [I]); Qatar [I]; United Arab Emirates [I]; Yemen [I] (Aden Desert [I], N-Inner Yemen [I], W-Yemen [I]); China [I] (Beijing [I], Henan [I]); South Korea [I]; Japan [I]; India [I]; Australia [I] (Western Australia [I], Northern Territory [I], South Australia [I], Queensland [I], New South Wales [I], Victoria [I], Tasmania [I]); New Zealand [I]; New Caledonia [I]; Fiji [I]; Canada (New Brunswick, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan); USA (Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia); Mexico (Baja California Norte, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora); Colombia (Antioquia, Nariño, Valle); Ecuador; Peru; Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tarija); Brazil; S-Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina); Paraguay (Alto Paraguay, Central, Paraguari); Uruguay (Canelones, Florida Prov., Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, San Jose, Soriano); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Cruz, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, San Juan, San Luis, Tucuman)
10 den grb 11 aut bgm ger hun lux net pol slo swi 12 ado bal cis cor fra gib por sar spa 13 alb bih bul cro grc ita kos kri mlt mnt nma rom sic slv SRB tue 14 est kry lat lit mld rus ukr 20 alg egy lby mor tun wsa 21 azo cny 24 eri eth 26 zim 27 bot les nam saf 29 mau reu rod 31 rfe 32 kaz kgz tkm tzk uzb 33 arm aze geo ncs 34 afg cyp eai irn isr leb sin syr tur 35 qat sau uae yem 36 chi 38 jap kor 40 ind 50 aus 51 nzl 60 fij nwc 71 CDN 72 CDN 73 USA 74 USA 75 USA 76 USA 77 USA 78 USA 79 MEX 82 CLM 83 BOL ECU PER 84 BRA 85 ARG PAR URU
Synonyms: hidden
= Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr.; Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon. N. S. 17: 110 (1869)
= Xanthium armatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 242 (1842)
= Xanthium brachyacanthum Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 244 (1842)
= Xanthium canadense Sabbati ex Nyman; Consp. Fl. Eur. 475 (1879)
= Xanthium canescens Costa ex Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 121 (1923)
= Xanthium chrysacanthum Costa ex Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 121 (1923), pro syn.
= Xanthium cloessplateaum D.Z.Ma; Acta Bot. Boreal.-Occid. Sin. 11(4): 346, f. 1 (1991)
= Xanthium medium Nossotovsky; Bull. Jard. Bot. Petersb. 14: 454 (1914)
= Xanthium multifidum Larrañaga; Escritos D. A. Larrañaga 1: 28 (1922)
= Xanthium spinosum f. inerme (Bel) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Collect. Bot., 17(1): 90 (1987 publ. (1988)
= Xanthium spinosum f. laciniatum Scheuerm. & Thell. ex Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 135 (1923)
= Xanthium spinosum f. precosius Bitter ex Widder; Phyton 11: 75-76 (1964)
= Xanthium spinosum var. brachyacanthum DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 5: 523 (1836)
= Xanthium spinosum var. inerme Bel; Rev. Bot. Bull. Mens. 11: 481 (1893)
= Xanthium spinosum var. laciniatum Scheuerm. & Thell. ex Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 135 (1923)
= Xanthium spinosum var. pseudinerme Widder ex Parodi; Physis (Buenos Aires) 8: 480 (1927)
= Xanthium spinosum var. synacanthum Widder; Phyton 11: 77 (1964)
= Xanthium xanthocarpum Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 241 (1842)
subspecies :
subsp. catharticum (Kunth) D.Löve; Lagascalia 5(1): 64 (1975)
Distribution: Argentina (Catamarca, Chubut, Jujuy, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz, San Juan); Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Maule, Ñuble, Biobío, Araucanía, Los Rios, Los Lagos); Juan Fdz. Isl.
85 ARG CLE JNF
Synonyms: hidden
= Acanthoxanthium spinosum subsp. catharticum (Kunth) D.Löve; Lagascalia 5: 64 (1975)
= Xanthium argenteum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 118 (1923)
= Xanthium catharticum Kunth; Nov. Gen. Sp. [H. B. K.], ed. fol. 4: 274 (1818)
species :
Xanthium strumarium L.; Sp. Pl. 987 (1753)
Name: Gewöhnliche Spitzklette (DE), Rough Cocklebur (EN).
Distribution: Europe [I] (widespread); Germany [I] (Brandenburg [I], +Berlin [I], Baden-Württemberg [I], Bayern [I], Hessen [I], Hessen [I], +Mecklenburg-Vorpommern [I], Niedersachsen [I], Nordrhein-Westfalen [I], Rheinland-Pfalz [I], Schleswig-Holstein [I], +Saarland [I], Sachsen [I], Sachsen-Anhalt [I], Thüringen [I]); Channel Isl. [I]; San Marino [I]; S-European Russia [I]; E-European Russia [I]; Ukraine [I]; Crimea [I]; Russian Far East [I] (Primorye [I]); Chad [I]; Tajikistan [I]; Azerbaijan [I]; Transcaucasus [I]; Iran [I]; Afghanistan [I]; China [I] (widespread); Tibet [I]; Mongolia [I]; South Korea [I]; Japan [I] (Hokkaido [I], Honshu [I], Shikoku [I], Kyushu [I]); Taiwan [I]; Pakistan [I]; Bhutan [I]; India [I] (widespread); Sri Lanka [I]; Myanmar [I]; Thailand [I]; Laos [I]; Cambodia [I]; Lesser Sunda Isl. [I]; New Guinea [I]; New Zealand [I]; Cook Isl. [I] (Rarotonga [I]); Marquesas Isl. [I] (Nuku Hiva [I], Hiva Oa [I]); Mexico [I] (Tamaulipas [I]); S-Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina); Uruguay (Canelones, Cerro Largo, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Soriano); Argentina (Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, La Pampa, Mendoza, Misiones, Rio Negro, Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan); Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo, Metropolitana de Santiago, O´Higgins, Ñuble, Biobío)
11 ger 12 cis 13 sma 14 kry rus ukr 24 cha 31 rfe 32 tzk 33 aze 34 afg irn 36 chi tib 37 mon 38 jap kor tai 40 bhu ind pak srl 41 cbd lao mya tha 42 lsi nwg 51 nzl 61 coo mrq 79 mex 84 BRA 85 ARG CLE URU
Remarks: in the Old World often considered as native, but probably of South American origin
Synonyms: hidden
= Xanthium abyssinicum Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 230 (1844)
= Xanthium antiquorum Wallr.; Beitr. Bot. 1: 229 (1842)
= Xanthium arenarium Lasch; Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 14: 411 (1856)
= Xanthium arenarium var. macrocarpum Lasch; 411 (1856)
= Xanthium arenarium var. major Lasch; 411 (1856)
= Xanthium arenarium var. microcarpum Lasch; 411 (1856)
= Xanthium arenarium var. minor Lasch; 411 (1856)
= Xanthium brasilicum Vell.; Fl. Flumin. 10: t. 23 (1831)
= Xanthium inaequilaterum DC.; Prodr. [A. DC.] 5: 522 (1836)
= Xanthium indicum J.Koenig ex Roxb.; Fl. Ind. ed. 1832. 3: 601 (1832)
= Xanthium indicum Klatt; Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. German. Nat. Cur. 380 (1880)
= Xanthium indicum var. inaequilaterum (DC.) Miq.; Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 68 (1856)
= Xanthium japonicum Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 31-32, t. 1, f. 5 (1923)
= Xanthium macrocarpum DC.; Lam. & A. DC., Fl. Franç., éd. 3 6: 356 (1815)
= Xanthium mongolicum Kitag.; Ind. Fl. Jehol. 97 (1936)
= Xanthium natalense Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. xli. 274(1937)
= Xanthium orientale Blume; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 915 (1826), non L.
= Xanthium pungens var. globuliforme C.Shull; Bot. Gaz. 83: 385 (1927)
= Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 32 (1923)
= Xanthium sibiricum var. jingyuanense H.G.Lou & Y.T.Lu; Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 20(3): 249-250 (2000)
= Xanthium sibiricum var. subinerve Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 36 (1923)
= Xanthium strumarium subsp. brasilicum (Vell.) O.Bolòs & Vigo; Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 17(1): 90 (1988)
= Xanthium strumarium subsp. sibiricum (Widder) Greuter; Willdenowia 33: 245-250 (2003)
= Xanthium strumarium var. althaeoides Murr; 47 (1897)
= Xanthium strumarium var. brasilicum (Vell.) Baker; Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 147 (1884)
= Xanthium strumarium var. inaequilaterale (DC.) C.B.Clarke; Compos. Ind. 133 (1876)
= Xanthium strumarium var. subinerme C.Winkl. ex Widder; Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 36 (1923)
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A complete, synonymic checklist of the Higher Plants of the World


Version 19.2 (April 1st, 2024)

Covering 354,662 accepted species,
8,644 hybrids, 47,758 accepted infraspecific taxa and 996,179 synonyms,
in total 1,407,243* names

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